Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1983 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,628 1,254,934 39,029 43,824 3.1 3.5
10 Agricultural production, crops 1,378 682,483 31,195 35,991 4.6 5.3
11 Agricultural production, livestock 903 392,250 4,781 4,781 1.2 1.2
20 Agricultural services, exc. horticultural 347 180,201 3,052 3,052 1.7 1.7
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 687 309,494 22,178 27,882 7.2 9.0
21 Horticultural services 332 191,298 9,634 10,814 5.0 5.7
30 Forestry 286 91,808 8,679 12,371 9.5 13.5
31 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 69 26,388 3,865 4,698 14.6 17.8
MINING 2,141 871,688 179,890 201,017 20.6 23.1
40 Metal mining 274 66,459 25,759 28,051 38.8 42.2
41 Coal mining 397 174,880 107,502 109,826 61.5 62.8
42 Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction 1,228 546,211 21,097 33,837 3.9 6.2
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, exc. fuel 242 84,139 25,532 29,303 30.3 34.8
60 CONSTRUCTION 9,150 4,609,242 1,292,689 1,400,982 28.0 30.4
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 15,093 7,929,458 2,050,729 2,248,404 25.9 28.4
100 Meat products 729 330,203 110,387 123,372 33.4 37.4
101 Dairy products 360 174,865 60,487 62,623 34.6 35.8
102 Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 445 210,653 77,607 85,123 36.8 40.4
110 Grain mill products 269 132,506 40,028 42,435 30.2 32.0
111 Bakery products 392 214,867 93,504 102,359 43.5 47.6
112 Sugar and confectionery products 253 131,496 42,190 43,582 32.1 33.1
120 Beverage industries 377 207,143 75,452 78,448 36.4 37.9
121 Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products 405 196,387 48,318 54,592 24.6 27.8
122 Not specified food industries 9 5,420 616 616 11.4 11.4
130 Tobacco manufacturers 111 65,424 23,908 26,475 36.5 40.5
132 Knitting mills 302 189,427 13,290 13,813 7.0 7.3
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, exc. wool and knit goods 73 39,051 7,333 8,298 18.8 21.2
141 Floor coverings, exc. hard surface 82 49,442 7,248 8,333 14.7 16.9
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 669 375,265 35,510 46,237 9.5 12.3
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 115 71,865 12,306 13,450 17.1 18.7
151 Apparel and accessories, exc. knit 1,756 977,125 265,133 292,897 27.1 30.0
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 256 137,506 25,588 29,358 18.6 21.4
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 631 298,735 176,739 187,169 59.2 62.7
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 351 183,936 62,312 64,720 33.9 35.2
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 331 193,977 87,748 93,149 45.2 48.0
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 1,007 490,362 86,832 104,958 17.7 21.4
172 Printing, publishing, allied industries, exc. newspapers 1,844 997,480 154,576 168,979 15.5 16.9
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 244 133,066 27,629 30,575 20.8 23.1
181 Drugs 361 211,673 23,517 26,536 11.1 12.5
182 Soaps and cosmetics 259 148,482 29,659 34,075 20.0 22.9
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 100 58,316 14,275 15,484 24.5 26.6
191 Agricultural chemicals 111 46,461 9,495 10,376 20.4 22.3
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 1,078 543,981 130,498 146,174 24.0 26.9
200 Petroleum refining 350 176,202 56,216 59,858 31.9 34.0
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 41 23,402 9,057 9,995 38.7 42.7
210 Tires and inner tubes 184 107,172 51,706 54,617 48.2 51.0
211 Other rubber products, plastics footwear and belting 277 139,362 39,259 43,389 28.2 31.1
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 777 433,150 95,490 105,239 22.0 24.3
220 Leather tanning and finishing 32 17,311 8,366 8,366 48.3 48.3
221 Footwear, exc. rubber and plastic 396 157,977 37,518 39,837 23.7 25.2
222 Leather products, exc. footwear 116 59,770 10,933 12,897 18.3 21.6
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 20,703 11,293,642 3,302,966 3,627,523 29.2 32.1
230 Logging 279 113,170 8,500 10,391 7.5 9.2
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 679 305,563 75,546 80,339 24.7 26.3
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 113 51,227 7,038 7,038 13.7 13.7
241 Miscellaneous wood products 230 107,635 14,642 15,108 13.6 14.0
242 Furniture and fixtures 808 453,140 82,449 89,584 18.2 19.8
250 Glass and glass products 270 161,107 80,777 84,460 50.1 52.4
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 342 172,829 50,948 53,408 29.5 31.1
252 Structural clay products 69 39,094 14,582 15,125 37.3 38.7
261 Pottery and related products 71 37,208 12,254 14,994 32.9 40.3
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products 232 127,205 42,739 48,165 33.6 37.9
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 603 349,193 227,754 235,017 65.2 67.3
271 Iron and steel foundries 228 129,113 57,401 65,046 44.5 50.4
272 Primary aluminum industries 274 140,121 69,507 73,728 49.6 52.6
280 Other primary metal industries 335 166,514 63,351 67,056 38.0 40.3
281 Cutlery, handtools, and other hardware 231 131,328 43,929 48,419 33.5 36.9
282 Fabricated structural metal products 752 416,469 108,625 120,740 26.1 29.0
290 Screw machine products 98 60,399 11,026 11,632 18.3 19.3
291 Metal forgings and stampings 248 146,212 61,168 65,243 41.8 44.6
292 Ordnance 178 88,640 36,502 41,671 41.2 47.0
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 633 347,260 119,788 126,465 34.5 36.4
301 Not specified metal industries 11 6,285 0 0 0.0 0.0
310 Engines and turbines 169 98,763 52,598 55,187 53.3 55.9
311 Farm machinery and equipment 251 125,719 39,455 44,737 31.4 35.6
312 Construction and material handling machines 405 231,617 75,498 81,918 32.6 35.4
320 Metalworking machinery 505 275,985 44,585 50,432 16.2 18.3
321 Office and accounting machines 214 119,864 14,438 15,193 12.0 12.7
322 Electronic computing equipment 1,129 595,116 25,587 32,560 4.3 5.5
331 Machinery, exc. electrical, n.e.c. 1,611 900,921 223,598 248,123 24.8 27.5
332 Not specified machinery 8 3,304 455 455 13.8 13.8
340 Household appliances 257 150,436 66,282 70,048 44.1 46.6
341 Radio, T.V., and communication equipment 1,041 594,785 135,268 149,082 22.7 25.1
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 2,426 1,320,238 281,322 326,555 21.3 24.7
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equipment, and supplie 32 18,782 1,326 1,326 7.1 7.1
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,721 996,452 586,319 614,605 58.8 61.7
352 Aircraft and parts 979 569,278 202,731 244,478 35.6 43.0
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 596 289,294 108,488 131,255 37.5 45.4
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 47 30,228 18,966 18,966 62.7 62.7
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 504 292,331 61,517 77,298 21.0 26.5
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 88 50,178 15,914 17,797 31.7 35.5
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 466 246,939 36,312 38,958 14.7 15.8
372 Optical and health services supplies 482 260,964 25,607 26,962 9.8 10.3
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 198 121,049 8,100 9,928 6.7 8.2
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 32 17,241 6,278 6,278 36.4 36.4
382 Not specified professional equipment 1 438 0 0 0.0 0.0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 234 127,417 30,192 33,135 23.7 26.0
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 584 285,219 52,390 57,403 18.4 20.1
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 39 21,374 1,213 1,213 5.7 5.7
TRANSPORTATION 7,240 3,627,344 1,811,185 1,944,680 49.9 53.6
400 Railroads 933 427,880 354,741 364,779 82.9 85.4
401 Bus service and urban transit 728 387,187 193,359 202,604 49.9 52.3
402 Taxicab service 121 57,855 8,993 9,844 15.5 17.0
410 Trucking service 2,203 1,117,169 421,385 442,013 37.7 39.6
411 Warehousing and storage 156 80,175 20,728 22,509 25.9 28.1
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,431 705,237 523,326 588,708 74.2 83.6
420 Water transportation 339 186,993 70,849 78,490 37.9 42.0
421 Air transportation 933 464,347 198,133 212,089 42.7 45.7
422 Pipe lines, exc. natural gas 43 16,776 2,848 4,797 17.0 28.6
432 Services incidental to transportation 353 183,724 16,822 18,848 9.2 10.3
COMMUNICATIONS 2,856 1,435,269 648,706 741,808 45.2 51.7
440 Radio and television broadcasting 453 213,155 32,721 37,100 15.4 17.4
441 Telephone (wire and radio) 2,073 1,059,776 587,620 668,752 55.4 63.1
442 Telegraph and miscellaneous communications services 330 162,338 28,364 35,956 17.5 22.1
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,890 1,473,462 574,078 644,084 39.0 43.7
460 Electric light and power 1,277 641,738 281,337 306,843 43.8 47.8
461 Gas and steam supply systems 410 203,861 59,533 66,642 29.2 32.7
462 Electric and gas, and other combinations 327 174,347 73,133 83,500 41.9 47.9
470 Water supply and irrigation 426 214,773 73,537 90,399 34.2 42.1
471 Sanitary services 418 223,471 80,713 90,298 36.1 40.5
472 Not specified utilities 32 15,272 5,826 6,402 38.1 41.9
WHOLESALE TRADE 7,042 3,656,939 341,305 396,975 9.3 10.9
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 365 200,526 24,001 26,864 12.0 13.4
501 Furniture and home furnishings 107 56,453 3,705 5,026 6.6 8.9
502 Lumber and construction materials 254 130,217 15,390 18,440 11.8 14.2
510 Sporting goods, toys, and hobby goods 66 30,844 1,743 2,990 5.7 9.7
511 Metals and minerals, exc. petroleum 142 80,891 12,710 15,256 15.7 18.9
512 Electrical goods 462 253,706 14,878 19,129 5.9 7.5
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 328 160,488 15,232 17,227 9.5 10.7
522 Not specified electrical and hardware products 1 717 0 0 0.0 0.0
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 1,781 925,087 38,750 49,257 4.2 5.3
531 Scrap and waste materials 174 96,937 16,477 16,477 17.0 17.0
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 118 66,891 1,648 1,648 2.5 2.5
540 Paper and paper products 186 101,593 8,850 8,850 8.7 8.7
541 Drugs, chemicals, and allied products 347 195,278 13,043 15,045 6.7 7.7
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 142 84,384 7,995 11,074 9.5 13.1
550 Groceries and related products 1,155 586,295 106,740 120,726 18.2 20.6
551 Farm products - raw materials 275 111,275 5,117 5,769 4.6 5.2
552 Petroleum products 305 149,850 16,575 19,795 11.1 13.2
560 Alcoholic beverages 256 129,293 28,145 31,152 21.8 24.1
561 Farm supplies 232 107,463 2,224 3,293 2.1 3.1
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 317 173,778 6,862 7,738 3.9 4.5
571 Not specified wholesale trade 29 14,970 1,219 1,219 8.1 8.1
RETAIL TRADE 28,668 14,509,953 1,249,195 1,411,031 8.6 9.7
580 Lumber and building material retailing 716 350,714 25,829 28,396 7.4 8.1
581 Hardware stores 319 158,059 5,008 6,783 3.2 4.3
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 108 51,970 0 109 0.0 0.2
590 Mobile home dealers 51 22,318 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 3,672 1,965,644 145,744 177,645 7.4 9.0
592 Variety stores 256 117,857 6,245 8,362 5.3 7.1
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 201 83,793 8,872 15,772 10.6 18.8
601 Grocery stores 4,287 2,195,788 682,497 735,030 31.1 33.5
602 Dairy products stores 90 48,449 1,635 2,159 3.4 4.5
610 Retail bakeries 230 119,291 9,438 9,438 7.9 7.9
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 232 123,400 7,804 8,229 6.3 6.7
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,495 749,279 48,491 57,851 6.5 7.7
620 Auto and home supply stores 622 315,882 14,202 17,484 4.5 5.5
621 Gasoline service stations 921 447,018 4,994 9,106 1.1 2.0
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 137 65,739 1,119 1,119 1.7 1.7
630 Apparel and accessory stores, exc. shoe 1,297 657,692 23,588 29,163 3.6 4.4
631 Shoe stores 268 145,679 5,474 6,021 3.8 4.1
632 Furniture and home furnishings stores 599 312,092 9,557 10,691 3.1 3.4
640 Household appliances, TV, and radio stores 495 255,466 2,729 3,661 1.1 1.4
641 Eating and drinking places 8,817 4,404,542 164,131 185,079 3.7 4.2
642 Drug stores 924 470,099 33,665 41,730 7.2 8.9
650 Liquor stores 233 117,410 9,489 11,340 8.1 9.7
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 362 171,907 3,066 4,391 1.8 2.6
652 Book and stationery stores 277 139,377 3,254 3,254 2.3 2.3
660 Jewelry stores 267 138,992 4,664 5,402 3.4 3.9
661 Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores 112 57,153 0 0 0.0 0.0
662 Mail order houses 125 63,476 2,328 2,328 3.7 3.7
670 Vending machine operators 107 56,083 10,426 10,426 18.6 18.6
671 Direct selling establishments 220 108,092 1,466 2,116 1.4 2.0
672 Fuel and ice dealers 183 74,350 5,606 6,330 7.5 8.5
681 Retail florists 227 110,728 1,120 1,732 1.0 1.6
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 797 399,830 6,727 9,857 1.7 2.5
691 Not specified retail trade 21 11,783 26 26 0.2 0.2
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 10,895 5,708,499 193,453 270,194 3.4 4.7
700 Banking 3,543 1,815,657 37,322 59,282 2.1 3.3
701 Savings and loan associations 494 265,421 3,820 5,017 1.4 1.9
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 658 329,171 8,618 16,521 2.6 5.0
710 Security, commodity brokerage, and investment companies 705 396,336 9,433 14,261 2.4 3.6
711 Insurance 3,278 1,751,436 53,186 79,910 3.0 4.6
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance-law offices 2,217 1,150,478 81,074 95,203 7.0 8.3
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 6,716 3,540,852 230,900 296,212 6.5 8.4
721 Advertising 349 193,078 7,035 9,413 3.6 4.9
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 699 341,156 50,084 53,380 14.7 15.6
730 Commercial research, development, and testing labs 411 189,112 9,753 23,890 5.2 12.6
731 Personnel supply services 589 331,538 12,276 21,566 3.7 6.5
732 Business management and consulting services 411 218,382 5,177 9,173 2.4 4.2
740 Computer and data processing services 667 365,907 8,367 18,647 2.3 5.1
741 Detective and protective services 506 276,589 29,081 36,487 10.5 13.2
742 Business services, n.e.c. 1,152 617,443 29,512 37,354 4.8 6.0
750 Automotive services, exc. repair 383 203,164 24,510 27,274 12.1 13.4
751 Automotive repair shops 948 488,620 24,942 26,746 5.1 5.5
752 Electrical repair shops 141 74,917 9,037 9,842 12.1 13.1
760 Miscellaneous repair services 460 240,948 21,125 22,440 8.8 9.3
PERSONAL SERVICES 6,643 3,119,221 180,889 204,553 5.8 6.6
761 Private households 2,515 1,222,766 3,178 4,990 0.3 0.4
762 Hotels and motels 2,050 827,938 110,527 127,572 13.3 15.4
770 Lodging places, exc. hotels and motels 243 129,874 591 591 0.5 0.5
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 686 342,197 51,664 53,882 15.1 15.7
772 Beauty shops 676 355,114 6,279 8,423 1.8 2.4
780 Barber shops 52 26,789 2,856 2,856 10.7 10.7
781 Funeral service and crematories 113 58,135 2,581 2,581 4.4 4.4
782 Shoe repair shops 16 9,187 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 5 2,556 572 572 22.4 22.4
791 Miscellaneous personal services 287 144,665 2,641 3,087 1.8 2.1
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,030 1,009,958 131,723 150,273 13.0 14.9
800 Theaters and motion pictures 445 233,260 58,466 61,694 25.1 26.4
801 Bowling alleys, billiard and pool parlors 144 69,425 3,110 3,110 4.5 4.5
802 Miscellaneous entertainment and recreation services 1,441 707,273 70,146 85,468 9.9 12.1
831 HOSPITALS 8,499 4,358,257 766,560 986,038 17.6 22.6
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 5,995 2,986,082 289,625 351,993 9.7 11.8
812 Offices of physicians 1,195 610,589 4,401 8,320 0.7 1.4
820 Offices of dentists 669 333,725 5,005 5,005 1.5 1.5
821 Offices of chiropractors 61 29,881 343 343 1.1 1.1
822 Offices of optometrists 62 29,751 1,060 1,060 3.6 3.6
830 Offices of health practitioners, n.e.c. 35 18,131 0 0 0.0 0.0
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,656 1,313,858 194,933 226,723 14.8 17.3
840 Health services, n.e.c. 1,317 650,146 83,882 110,542 12.9 17.0
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 16,056 7,837,421 2,715,710 3,420,668 34.7 43.7
842 Elementary and secondary schools 10,840 5,294,190 2,337,334 2,904,052 44.1 54.9
850 Colleges and universities 4,611 2,244,291 329,832 454,394 14.7 20.2
851 Business, trade, and vocational schools 122 60,331 7,206 9,424 11.9 15.6
852 Libraries 318 157,572 35,165 43,486 22.3 27.6
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 165 81,036 6,173 9,313 7.6 11.5
SOCIAL SERVICES 2,630 1,314,839 143,070 184,844 10.9 14.1
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 277 141,623 11,629 13,386 8.2 9.5
862 Child day care services 711 354,429 6,955 9,377 2.0 2.6
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 425 203,135 16,573 22,584 8.2 11.1
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,217 615,652 107,913 139,497 17.5 22.7
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 5,361 2,691,917 127,134 161,220 4.7 6.0
841 Legal services 1,112 561,244 10,381 10,973 1.8 2.0
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 154 66,792 4,812 9,662 7.2 14.5
880 Religious organizations 1,303 651,238 4,833 10,661 0.7 1.6
881 Membership organizations 912 440,610 76,593 84,955 17.4 19.3
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 899 476,646 16,259 25,784 3.4 5.4
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 630 327,307 4,167 4,653 1.3 1.4
891 Noncommercial educational and scientific research 282 130,650 9,041 13,486 6.9 10.3
892 Miscellaneous professional and related services 69 37,429 1,046 1,046 2.8 2.8
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 10,009 4,751,045 1,426,363 1,817,940 30.0 38.3
900 Executive and legislative offices 363 154,250 15,287 22,138 9.9 14.4
901 General government, n.e.c. 984 440,950 117,021 145,681 26.5 33.0
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,108 1,598,367 691,019 799,252 43.2 50.0
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 694 328,162 85,874 110,591 26.2 33.7
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,335 635,728 180,947 242,551 28.5 38.2
930 Administration of environmental quality & housing programs 773 328,386 68,641 94,690 20.9 28.8
931 Administration of economic programs 1,090 478,330 126,657 166,700 26.5 34.9
932 National security and international affairs 1,662 786,871 140,916 236,337 17.9 30.1
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1983. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1980 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.