Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1984 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,451 1,240,784 24,187 30,695 1.9 2.5
10 Agricultural production, crops 1,287 682,945 18,763 21,324 2.7 3.1
11 Agricultural production, livestock 863 394,921 3,455 6,029 0.9 1.5
20 Agricultural services, exc. horticultural 301 162,918 1,968 3,343 1.2 2.1
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 684 320,711 23,071 30,225 7.2 9.4
21 Horticultural services 372 214,046 14,008 16,642 6.5 7.8
30 Forestry 234 75,164 7,597 11,681 10.1 15.5
31 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 78 31,500 1,465 1,902 4.7 6.0
MINING 2,096 902,794 159,280 178,850 17.6 19.8
40 Metal mining 259 68,768 21,076 24,551 30.6 35.7
41 Coal mining 363 163,563 96,586 98,792 59.1 60.4
42 Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction 1,231 573,668 18,622 29,807 3.2 5.2
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, exc. fuel 243 96,795 22,997 25,700 23.8 26.6
60 CONSTRUCTION 9,624 5,013,734 1,216,822 1,288,538 24.3 25.7
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 15,142 8,159,762 1,939,593 2,109,236 23.8 25.9
100 Meat products 734 351,517 106,950 117,339 30.4 33.4
101 Dairy products 354 178,282 55,042 57,896 30.9 32.5
102 Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 455 224,983 80,483 84,156 35.8 37.4
110 Grain mill products 245 127,087 41,934 44,538 33.0 35.0
111 Bakery products 405 232,488 100,139 106,225 43.1 45.8
112 Sugar and confectionery products 239 129,984 44,060 45,245 33.9 34.8
120 Beverage industries 417 239,733 72,908 78,267 30.4 32.6
121 Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products 363 182,555 44,480 47,644 24.4 26.1
122 Not specified food industries 4 2,473 1,355 1,355 54.8 54.8
130 Tobacco manufacturers 100 60,866 19,745 22,601 32.4 37.1
132 Knitting mills 273 170,843 15,368 15,909 9.0 9.3
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, exc. wool and knit goods 76 40,070 5,998 5,998 15.0 15.0
141 Floor coverings, exc. hard surface 97 57,285 9,168 10,926 16.0 19.1
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 702 409,288 33,812 41,760 8.3 10.2
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 99 60,194 8,529 10,315 14.2 17.1
151 Apparel and accessories, exc. knit 1,882 1,050,069 238,081 264,934 22.7 25.2
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 253 135,788 15,475 18,674 11.4 13.8
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 560 273,139 160,971 165,424 58.9 60.6
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 334 177,552 70,886 76,492 39.9 43.1
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 291 178,157 76,220 77,862 42.8 43.7
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 1,072 520,701 78,617 90,207 15.1 17.3
172 Printing, publishing, allied industries, exc. newspapers 1,949 1,088,482 157,162 174,832 14.4 16.1
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 256 139,655 29,788 31,721 21.3 22.7
181 Drugs 380 218,835 13,488 14,901 6.2 6.8
182 Soaps and cosmetics 261 155,045 28,509 34,751 18.4 22.4
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 113 64,181 13,429 15,229 20.9 23.7
191 Agricultural chemicals 126 55,253 6,384 7,955 11.6 14.4
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 978 516,195 110,062 121,248 21.3 23.5
200 Petroleum refining 334 178,541 57,893 63,279 32.4 35.4
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 41 20,220 8,124 8,817 40.2 43.6
210 Tires and inner tubes 206 126,091 56,723 56,723 45.0 45.0
211 Other rubber products, plastics footwear and belting 258 136,788 40,643 43,467 29.7 31.8
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 828 455,592 95,092 107,278 20.9 23.5
220 Leather tanning and finishing 28 11,967 7,004 7,004 58.5 58.5
221 Footwear, exc. rubber and plastic 321 137,411 26,344 28,375 19.2 20.6
222 Leather products, exc. footwear 108 52,451 8,725 9,888 16.6 18.9
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 22,097 12,201,853 3,358,304 3,682,951 27.5 30.2
230 Logging 233 88,059 10,147 12,944 11.5 14.7
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 825 365,258 74,794 83,376 20.5 22.8
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 116 62,129 7,273 8,555 11.7 13.8
241 Miscellaneous wood products 264 129,514 16,178 17,612 12.5 13.6
242 Furniture and fixtures 900 515,780 87,868 93,485 17.0 18.1
250 Glass and glass products 286 170,063 77,152 82,744 45.4 48.7
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 350 194,011 49,937 51,833 25.7 26.7
252 Structural clay products 64 37,249 9,317 10,684 25.0 28.7
261 Pottery and related products 62 34,785 9,482 9,482 27.3 27.3
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products 250 133,077 33,169 35,520 24.9 26.7
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 627 371,160 211,385 223,178 57.0 60.2
271 Iron and steel foundries 258 152,262 69,865 76,859 45.9 50.5
272 Primary aluminum industries 249 131,639 60,735 63,948 46.1 48.6
280 Other primary metal industries 353 186,925 62,889 68,446 33.6 36.6
281 Cutlery, handtools, and other hardware 208 119,109 37,450 41,498 31.4 34.8
282 Fabricated structural metal products 768 425,247 112,516 119,744 26.5 28.2
290 Screw machine products 132 78,991 14,575 17,798 18.5 22.5
291 Metal forgings and stampings 251 150,530 60,841 62,639 40.4 41.6
292 Ordnance 212 107,060 41,588 47,674 38.8 44.5
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 634 368,450 120,119 128,645 32.6 34.9
301 Not specified metal industries 4 1,746 990 990 56.7 56.7
310 Engines and turbines 178 109,987 52,585 54,260 47.8 49.3
311 Farm machinery and equipment 250 127,612 34,063 37,339 26.7 29.3
312 Construction and material handling machines 406 243,992 71,875 79,529 29.5 32.6
320 Metalworking machinery 472 252,064 43,547 51,732 17.3 20.5
321 Office and accounting machines 209 121,054 7,970 8,644 6.6 7.1
322 Electronic computing equipment 1,325 696,627 29,461 36,037 4.2 5.2
331 Machinery, exc. electrical, n.e.c. 1,775 1,006,632 234,454 251,983 23.3 25.0
332 Not specified machinery 11 5,830 112 112 1.9 1.9
340 Household appliances 273 156,572 55,535 60,918 35.5 38.9
341 Radio, T.V., and communication equipment 1,020 589,487 121,046 138,385 20.5 23.5
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 2,702 1,481,583 284,582 326,770 19.2 22.1
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equipment, and supplie 24 13,779 732 732 5.3 5.3
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 2,062 1,201,666 711,811 740,236 59.2 61.6
352 Aircraft and parts 979 570,422 193,570 233,084 33.9 40.9
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 598 294,150 100,673 128,682 34.2 43.7
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 55 33,464 20,750 20,750 62.0 62.0
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 557 328,483 67,300 81,908 20.5 24.9
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 127 65,341 16,882 19,444 25.8 29.8
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 429 231,044 38,014 41,814 16.5 18.1
372 Optical and health services supplies 483 265,548 19,761 21,375 7.4 8.0
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 208 120,869 7,391 8,047 6.1 6.7
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 27 15,486 3,470 4,120 22.4 26.6
382 Not specified professional equipment 1 592 592 592 100.0 100.0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 226 118,518 23,394 23,394 19.7 19.7
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 609 301,478 47,802 52,284 15.9 17.3
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 45 26,530 2,662 3,129 10.0 11.8
TRANSPORTATION 7,588 3,935,511 1,785,300 1,919,627 45.4 48.8
400 Railroads 931 433,518 362,323 368,548 83.6 85.0
401 Bus service and urban transit 742 404,951 189,288 197,751 46.7 48.8
402 Taxicab service 116 60,437 6,666 9,176 11.0 15.2
410 Trucking service 2,484 1,302,408 404,791 433,664 31.1 33.3
411 Warehousing and storage 175 100,878 26,297 28,071 26.1 27.8
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,398 719,840 532,312 596,347 73.9 82.9
420 Water transportation 327 183,414 64,737 70,036 35.3 38.2
421 Air transportation 989 509,466 183,807 198,099 36.1 38.9
422 Pipe lines, exc. natural gas 35 12,582 1,398 2,985 11.1 23.7
432 Services incidental to transportation 391 208,017 13,679 14,950 6.6 7.2
COMMUNICATIONS 2,806 1,512,493 626,302 715,430 41.4 47.3
440 Radio and television broadcasting 458 223,260 24,932 28,212 11.2 12.6
441 Telephone (wire and radio) 2,008 1,104,587 566,806 647,264 51.3 58.6
442 Telegraph and miscellaneous communications services 340 184,645 34,565 39,955 18.7 21.6
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,818 1,482,172 572,450 641,658 38.6 43.3
460 Electric light and power 1,271 666,269 291,995 322,017 43.8 48.3
461 Gas and steam supply systems 377 200,818 57,599 65,364 28.7 32.5
462 Electric and gas, and other combinations 340 184,080 83,417 91,403 45.3 49.7
470 Water supply and irrigation 413 210,807 64,316 81,598 30.5 38.7
471 Sanitary services 407 214,489 75,123 80,784 35.0 37.7
472 Not specified utilities 10 5,709 0 491 0.0 8.6
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,801 3,582,317 307,019 342,053 8.6 9.6
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 351 188,987 16,930 18,600 9.0 9.8
501 Furniture and home furnishings 113 62,258 3,088 4,407 5.0 7.1
502 Lumber and construction materials 253 133,844 10,431 10,739 7.8 8.0
510 Sporting goods, toys, and hobby goods 52 29,473 512 512 1.7 1.7
511 Metals and minerals, exc. petroleum 145 86,761 13,406 14,821 15.5 17.1
512 Electrical goods 472 264,211 12,557 17,121 4.8 6.5
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 349 189,546 16,764 20,552 8.8 10.8
522 Not specified electrical and hardware products 0
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 1,673 877,856 28,546 37,823 3.3 4.3
531 Scrap and waste materials 176 92,782 12,226 12,518 13.2 13.5
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 101 59,757 3,078 3,078 5.2 5.2
540 Paper and paper products 187 103,179 5,363 6,046 5.2 5.9
541 Drugs, chemicals, and allied products 328 174,969 11,958 11,958 6.8 6.8
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 150 87,915 4,335 5,766 4.9 6.6
550 Groceries and related products 1,080 564,921 106,503 112,302 18.9 19.9
551 Farm products - raw materials 279 114,418 6,721 6,784 5.9 5.9
552 Petroleum products 290 140,719 9,143 11,009 6.5 7.8
560 Alcoholic beverages 230 118,135 36,799 37,376 31.2 31.6
561 Farm supplies 241 108,268 2,645 4,626 2.4 4.3
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 305 169,947 5,169 5,169 3.0 3.1
571 Not specified wholesale trade 26 14,370 846 846 5.9 5.9
RETAIL TRADE 29,610 15,356,771 1,197,400 1,341,682 7.8 8.7
580 Lumber and building material retailing 761 377,171 21,886 25,464 5.8 6.8
581 Hardware stores 380 191,623 5,267 8,103 2.7 4.2
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 136 69,423 707 707 1.0 1.0
590 Mobile home dealers 48 26,191 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 3,792 2,096,115 118,066 143,521 5.6 6.8
592 Variety stores 270 133,632 7,881 8,985 5.9 6.7
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 235 95,366 8,532 14,316 8.9 15.0
601 Grocery stores 4,310 2,267,580 678,527 712,375 29.9 31.4
602 Dairy products stores 86 44,915 2,320 2,320 5.2 5.2
610 Retail bakeries 295 154,010 16,688 18,148 10.8 11.8
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 242 137,616 2,556 4,579 1.9 3.3
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,675 865,371 45,628 52,982 5.3 6.1
620 Auto and home supply stores 664 347,033 10,789 17,106 3.1 4.9
621 Gasoline service stations 932 455,021 4,389 5,918 1.0 1.3
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 125 64,522 0 0 0.0 0.0
630 Apparel and accessory stores, exc. shoe 1,195 614,271 20,691 25,330 3.4 4.1
631 Shoe stores 291 160,450 6,461 6,461 4.0 4.0
632 Furniture and home furnishings stores 682 364,728 11,491 14,474 3.2 4.0
640 Household appliances, TV, and radio stores 598 326,279 4,629 8,166 1.4 2.5
641 Eating and drinking places 9,059 4,602,682 160,502 185,931 3.5 4.0
642 Drug stores 962 498,576 30,210 36,999 6.1 7.4
650 Liquor stores 225 113,677 7,365 7,689 6.5 6.8
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 350 177,606 4,735 5,780 2.7 3.3
652 Book and stationery stores 292 141,344 2,381 6,728 1.7 4.8
660 Jewelry stores 234 129,345 0 0 0.0 0.0
661 Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores 104 55,182 0 0 0.0 0.0
662 Mail order houses 137 71,731 4,980 5,599 6.9 7.8
670 Vending machine operators 113 66,177 7,628 8,483 11.5 12.8
671 Direct selling establishments 208 101,484 1,259 1,358 1.2 1.3
672 Fuel and ice dealers 180 84,000 1,557 2,119 1.9 2.5
681 Retail florists 222 114,366 1,202 1,202 1.1 1.1
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 792 400,560 9,073 10,838 2.3 2.7
691 Not specified retail trade 15 8,723 0 0 0.0 0.0
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 11,160 5,953,655 194,589 276,839 3.3 4.6
700 Banking 3,555 1,860,818 37,485 60,396 2.0 3.2
701 Savings and loan associations 512 281,789 2,132 6,669 0.8 2.4
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 699 355,644 9,926 16,839 2.8 4.7
710 Security, commodity brokerage, and investment companies 757 426,709 5,911 10,764 1.4 2.5
711 Insurance 3,345 1,810,802 55,325 85,204 3.1 4.7
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance-law offices 2,292 1,217,893 83,810 96,967 6.9 8.0
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 7,410 4,010,166 257,311 319,042 6.4 8.0
721 Advertising 356 201,651 7,793 8,437 3.9 4.2
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 767 405,911 61,529 66,574 15.2 16.4
730 Commercial research, development, and testing labs 420 192,665 16,279 20,903 8.4 10.8
731 Personnel supply services 777 426,029 14,824 24,573 3.5 5.8
732 Business management and consulting services 436 234,988 4,194 8,413 1.8 3.6
740 Computer and data processing services 709 390,597 10,772 16,954 2.8 4.3
741 Detective and protective services 509 288,596 23,260 32,314 8.1 11.2
742 Business services, n.e.c. 1,336 729,668 35,915 49,771 4.9 6.8
750 Automotive services, exc. repair 447 246,567 21,441 24,077 8.7 9.8
751 Automotive repair shops 997 543,251 24,692 26,945 4.5 5.0
752 Electrical repair shops 154 84,644 12,018 12,018 14.2 14.2
760 Miscellaneous repair services 502 265,599 24,595 28,063 9.3 10.6
PERSONAL SERVICES 6,638 3,238,278 197,046 216,022 6.1 6.7
761 Private households 2,460 1,240,659 8,173 8,827 0.7 0.7
762 Hotels and motels 2,130 925,172 124,054 136,786 13.4 14.8
770 Lodging places, exc. hotels and motels 201 99,376 1,303 1,477 1.3 1.5
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 632 323,331 50,991 52,661 15.8 16.3
772 Beauty shops 750 399,704 5,842 7,877 1.5 2.0
780 Barber shops 61 35,551 2,967 2,967 8.3 8.3
781 Funeral service and crematories 104 56,390 1,256 1,930 2.2 3.4
782 Shoe repair shops 10 4,984 0 153 0.0 3.1
790 Dressmaking shops 6 3,389 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 284 149,721 2,460 3,345 1.6 2.2
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,085 1,040,202 135,914 155,902 13.1 15.0
800 Theaters and motion pictures 515 270,123 67,461 74,249 25.0 27.5
801 Bowling alleys, billiard and pool parlors 121 63,047 2,145 2,805 3.4 4.4
802 Miscellaneous entertainment and recreation services 1,449 707,032 66,308 78,848 9.4 11.2
831 HOSPITALS 8,176 4,249,813 721,837 906,766 17.0 21.3
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 6,106 3,086,476 305,222 355,441 9.9 11.5
812 Offices of physicians 1,155 604,553 11,075 15,236 1.8 2.5
820 Offices of dentists 679 346,476 3,063 3,595 0.9 1.0
821 Offices of chiropractors 68 33,831 815 815 2.4 2.4
822 Offices of optometrists 64 29,500 613 613 2.1 2.1
830 Offices of health practitioners, n.e.c. 35 18,249 0 447 0.0 2.4
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,733 1,355,745 209,683 235,717 15.5 17.4
840 Health services, n.e.c. 1,372 698,121 79,973 99,019 11.5 14.2
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 15,865 7,855,650 2,693,424 3,336,946 34.3 42.5
842 Elementary and secondary schools 10,800 5,364,935 2,367,527 2,893,170 44.1 53.9
850 Colleges and universities 4,492 2,203,686 280,782 385,211 12.7 17.5
851 Business, trade, and vocational schools 106 52,805 3,267 4,966 6.2 9.4
852 Libraries 312 160,496 33,542 41,085 20.9 25.6
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 155 73,729 8,306 12,514 11.3 17.0
SOCIAL SERVICES 2,752 1,432,838 154,660 193,092 10.8 13.5
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 259 137,816 7,192 10,604 5.2 7.7
862 Child day care services 766 400,859 12,239 17,800 3.1 4.4
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 469 237,616 20,648 25,187 8.7 10.6
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,258 656,547 114,580 139,502 17.5 21.2
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 5,543 2,839,740 109,517 139,447 3.9 4.9
841 Legal services 1,163 611,722 7,733 13,327 1.3 2.2
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 142 66,947 10,935 14,264 16.3 21.3
880 Religious organizations 1,308 660,168 4,827 7,005 0.7 1.1
881 Membership organizations 808 385,339 49,973 55,504 13.0 14.4
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,050 552,970 20,691 26,661 3.7 4.8
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 714 385,533 3,966 7,672 1.0 2.0
891 Noncommercial educational and scientific research 281 137,417 10,555 14,179 7.7 10.3
892 Miscellaneous professional and related services 77 39,643 837 837 2.1 2.1
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 9,796 4,778,441 1,360,513 1,751,078 28.5 36.7
900 Executive and legislative offices 327 144,410 15,908 22,162 11.0 15.3
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,057 499,460 115,346 150,098 23.1 30.1
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,088 1,625,566 696,145 812,522 42.8 50.0
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 679 327,204 74,353 104,332 22.7 31.9
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,235 598,795 172,638 228,522 28.8 38.2
930 Administration of environmental quality & housing programs 691 294,153 52,053 75,167 17.7 25.6
931 Administration of economic programs 1,111 507,980 132,067 170,235 26.0 33.5
932 National security and international affairs 1,608 780,873 102,002 188,040 13.1 24.1
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1984. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1980 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.