Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1985 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,287 1,184,774 15,406 15,771 1.3 1.3
10 Agricultural production, crops 1,162 626,821 8,135 8,501 1.3 1.4
11 Agricultural production, livestock 821 391,621 4,089 4,089 1.0 1.0
20 Agricultural services, exc. horticultural 304 166,332 3,182 3,182 1.9 1.9
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 689 358,390 31,807 39,306 8.9 11.0
21 Horticultural services 419 242,076 14,102 16,414 5.8 6.8
30 Forestry 181 79,410 15,096 19,305 19.0 24.3
31 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 89 36,904 2,609 3,587 7.1 9.7
MINING 1,891 883,599 152,838 167,461 17.3 19.0
40 Metal mining 133 49,567 17,251 19,438 34.8 39.2
41 Coal mining 369 180,233 81,601 83,631 45.3 46.4
42 Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction 1,155 552,395 23,104 32,388 4.2 5.9
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, exc. fuel 234 101,404 30,882 32,005 30.5 31.6
60 CONSTRUCTION 9,765 5,211,792 1,202,613 1,285,501 23.1 24.7
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 15,194 8,070,745 1,883,580 2,029,478 23.3 25.1
100 Meat products 746 382,087 99,920 108,085 26.2 28.3
101 Dairy products 327 171,647 52,764 55,914 30.7 32.6
102 Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 460 228,637 75,216 82,656 32.9 36.2
110 Grain mill products 221 113,126 42,818 43,763 37.9 38.7
111 Bakery products 451 261,926 110,635 121,068 42.2 46.2
112 Sugar and confectionery products 202 106,654 37,130 38,186 34.8 35.8
120 Beverage industries 420 244,165 89,089 91,462 36.5 37.5
121 Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products 369 185,029 54,289 57,843 29.3 31.3
122 Not specified food industries 0
130 Tobacco manufacturers 113 61,033 22,164 23,046 36.3 37.8
132 Knitting mills 254 135,542 14,064 14,064 10.4 10.4
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, exc. wool and knit goods 88 38,490 8,362 9,384 21.7 24.4
141 Floor coverings, exc. hard surface 82 52,747 6,801 7,654 12.9 14.5
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 877 448,028 40,930 43,974 9.1 9.8
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 77 39,809 7,347 8,749 18.5 22.0
151 Apparel and accessories, exc. knit 1,768 995,676 228,969 243,910 23.0 24.5
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 286 152,901 25,027 27,373 16.4 17.9
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 576 290,776 174,375 177,964 60.0 61.2
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 340 184,011 53,227 58,462 28.9 31.8
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 327 184,846 71,441 74,595 38.6 40.4
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 1,000 502,410 68,517 74,818 13.6 14.9
172 Printing, publishing, allied industries, exc. newspapers 1,967 1,063,684 143,740 163,089 13.5 15.3
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 229 120,418 22,868 25,125 19.0 20.9
181 Drugs 441 229,311 22,151 25,260 9.7 11.0
182 Soaps and cosmetics 284 154,229 23,489 26,055 15.2 16.9
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 106 65,181 12,409 13,446 19.0 20.6
191 Agricultural chemicals 107 48,239 5,339 7,161 11.1 14.8
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 1,069 542,580 103,002 115,619 19.0 21.3
200 Petroleum refining 308 168,902 54,856 57,791 32.5 34.2
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 34 22,513 5,950 6,753 26.4 30.0
210 Tires and inner tubes 189 107,593 48,431 50,924 45.0 47.3
211 Other rubber products, plastics footwear and belting 288 150,617 43,912 46,269 29.2 30.7
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 844 456,136 82,615 95,568 18.1 21.0
220 Leather tanning and finishing 19 9,267 3,647 3,647 39.4 39.4
221 Footwear, exc. rubber and plastic 221 102,400 16,136 17,057 15.8 16.7
222 Leather products, exc. footwear 104 50,137 11,945 12,746 23.8 25.4
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 22,100 12,207,871 3,151,078 3,442,085 25.8 28.2
230 Logging 193 96,258 8,945 10,186 9.3 10.6
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 691 341,116 64,095 68,077 18.8 20.0
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 105 70,251 4,836 5,412 6.9 7.7
241 Miscellaneous wood products 233 118,672 11,299 13,115 9.5 11.1
242 Furniture and fixtures 1,030 553,344 90,069 100,828 16.3 18.2
250 Glass and glass products 273 150,410 63,973 66,751 42.5 44.4
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 360 189,358 46,762 50,349 24.7 26.6
252 Structural clay products 72 44,397 9,103 12,181 20.5 27.4
261 Pottery and related products 66 36,130 7,114 7,114 19.7 19.7
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products 213 110,683 23,451 24,338 21.2 22.0
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 628 375,547 217,484 225,278 57.9 60.0
271 Iron and steel foundries 202 119,256 52,519 56,707 44.0 47.6
272 Primary aluminum industries 204 115,400 50,773 52,943 44.0 45.9
280 Other primary metal industries 350 174,400 62,447 69,116 35.8 39.6
281 Cutlery, handtools, and other hardware 230 120,851 32,864 34,635 27.2 28.7
282 Fabricated structural metal products 790 452,765 107,189 112,774 23.7 24.9
290 Screw machine products 152 82,089 13,962 14,915 17.0 18.2
291 Metal forgings and stampings 232 133,179 47,956 52,518 36.0 39.4
292 Ordnance 192 99,295 37,490 44,494 37.8 44.8
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 669 380,579 106,745 112,521 28.0 29.6
301 Not specified metal industries 2 1,109 0 0 0.0 0.0
310 Engines and turbines 142 85,581 43,048 46,017 50.3 53.8
311 Farm machinery and equipment 224 116,508 37,393 40,995 32.1 35.2
312 Construction and material handling machines 423 254,451 62,997 68,070 24.8 26.8
320 Metalworking machinery 540 280,180 39,370 45,500 14.1 16.2
321 Office and accounting machines 184 105,868 7,619 8,479 7.2 8.0
322 Electronic computing equipment 1,345 703,955 32,229 43,243 4.6 6.1
331 Machinery, exc. electrical, n.e.c. 1,823 1,009,074 232,850 250,512 23.1 24.8
332 Not specified machinery 7 3,838 1,263 1,263 32.9 32.9
340 Household appliances 291 170,745 62,553 71,595 36.6 41.9
341 Radio, T.V., and communication equipment 967 553,559 98,444 111,695 17.8 20.2
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 2,670 1,497,202 266,121 306,999 17.8 20.5
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equipment, and supplie 13 6,255 708 708 11.3 11.3
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 2,141 1,197,723 685,879 713,341 57.3 59.6
352 Aircraft and parts 1,043 616,881 208,292 241,783 33.8 39.2
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 579 309,240 90,124 103,062 29.1 33.3
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 37 22,923 9,320 9,320 40.7 40.7
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 560 341,683 70,365 84,869 20.6 24.8
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 117 69,341 14,869 17,647 21.4 25.4
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 460 245,310 30,718 33,224 12.5 13.5
372 Optical and health services supplies 534 283,655 23,242 27,710 8.2 9.8
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 253 137,639 13,531 15,856 9.8 11.5
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 29 17,721 5,510 5,979 31.1 33.7
382 Not specified professional equipment 2 1,243 0 0 0.0 0.0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 194 103,822 15,619 16,138 15.0 15.5
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 582 279,016 36,399 39,488 13.0 14.2
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 53 29,369 3,539 4,342 12.1 14.8
TRANSPORTATION 7,757 4,056,090 1,813,814 1,943,150 44.7 47.9
400 Railroads 808 397,999 326,721 330,819 82.1 83.1
401 Bus service and urban transit 769 412,242 205,613 217,793 49.9 52.8
402 Taxicab service 133 71,406 10,247 12,952 14.4 18.1
410 Trucking service 2,635 1,386,493 420,006 442,622 30.3 31.9
411 Warehousing and storage 191 98,152 20,659 23,086 21.0 23.5
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,422 725,112 538,982 599,656 74.3 82.7
420 Water transportation 319 180,584 63,760 65,513 35.3 36.3
421 Air transportation 962 510,801 206,358 224,719 40.4 44.0
422 Pipe lines, exc. natural gas 47 22,315 3,568 4,888 16.0 21.9
432 Services incidental to transportation 471 250,985 17,900 21,102 7.1 8.4
COMMUNICATIONS 2,974 1,577,810 625,533 687,773 39.6 43.6
440 Radio and television broadcasting 461 222,427 23,055 25,472 10.4 11.5
441 Telephone (wire and radio) 2,145 1,159,358 578,425 634,271 49.9 54.7
442 Telegraph and miscellaneous communications services 368 196,024 24,053 28,029 12.3 14.3
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,806 1,472,819 522,493 579,785 35.5 39.4
460 Electric light and power 1,252 645,057 256,600 281,918 39.8 43.7
461 Gas and steam supply systems 381 196,513 52,679 56,715 26.8 28.9
462 Electric and gas, and other combinations 309 174,767 69,504 82,550 39.8 47.2
470 Water supply and irrigation 428 222,729 60,825 67,173 27.3 30.2
471 Sanitary services 423 225,781 80,430 88,973 35.6 39.4
472 Not specified utilities 13 7,972 2,455 2,455 30.8 30.8
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,998 3,743,153 282,001 314,657 7.5 8.4
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 400 213,395 16,142 17,811 7.6 8.3
501 Furniture and home furnishings 103 55,996 3,811 4,965 6.8 8.9
502 Lumber and construction materials 229 118,455 12,311 14,875 10.4 12.6
510 Sporting goods, toys, and hobby goods 65 35,409 2,198 2,198 6.2 6.2
511 Metals and minerals, exc. petroleum 155 87,858 11,413 11,805 13.0 13.4
512 Electrical goods 485 267,964 11,944 16,201 4.5 6.0
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 359 198,440 7,868 7,868 4.0 4.0
522 Not specified electrical and hardware products 1 480 480 480 100.0 100.0
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 1,742 937,358 27,807 34,333 3.0 3.7
531 Scrap and waste materials 174 94,896 8,081 8,081 8.5 8.5
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 110 66,743 637 637 1.0 1.0
540 Paper and paper products 199 109,477 6,674 7,393 6.1 6.8
541 Drugs, chemicals, and allied products 327 174,232 7,705 9,062 4.4 5.2
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 168 93,485 7,673 8,592 8.2 9.2
550 Groceries and related products 1,125 615,661 100,169 106,315 16.3 17.3
551 Farm products - raw materials 236 98,199 6,993 6,993 7.1 7.1
552 Petroleum products 315 161,732 12,796 15,182 7.9 9.4
560 Alcoholic beverages 232 120,845 27,732 30,338 22.9 25.1
561 Farm supplies 216 104,366 2,497 3,385 2.4 3.2
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 334 173,958 6,167 7,242 3.5 4.2
571 Not specified wholesale trade 23 14,201 901 901 6.3 6.3
RETAIL TRADE 30,113 15,765,116 1,130,169 1,253,574 7.2 8.0
580 Lumber and building material retailing 739 381,289 21,916 24,761 5.7 6.5
581 Hardware stores 334 168,829 8,063 8,932 4.8 5.3
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 132 69,764 990 990 1.4 1.4
590 Mobile home dealers 54 32,652 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 3,709 2,036,393 119,257 146,517 5.9 7.2
592 Variety stores 277 137,469 2,096 3,074 1.5 2.2
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 242 112,578 7,344 10,374 6.5 9.2
601 Grocery stores 4,324 2,283,266 634,063 670,025 27.8 29.3
602 Dairy products stores 92 46,400 3,521 3,521 7.6 7.6
610 Retail bakeries 285 149,131 18,097 18,971 12.1 12.7
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 274 146,441 9,422 10,043 6.4 6.9
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,790 949,575 45,273 55,898 4.8 5.9
620 Auto and home supply stores 661 338,320 11,691 13,620 3.5 4.0
621 Gasoline service stations 958 489,121 2,951 3,634 0.6 0.7
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 145 75,089 0 0 0.0 0.0
630 Apparel and accessory stores, exc. shoe 1,228 641,606 18,835 23,950 2.9 3.7
631 Shoe stores 271 149,014 1,624 1,624 1.1 1.1
632 Furniture and home furnishings stores 776 419,447 11,387 11,387 2.7 2.7
640 Household appliances, TV, and radio stores 687 355,256 6,525 8,838 1.8 2.5
641 Eating and drinking places 9,223 4,765,707 126,746 149,006 2.7 3.1
642 Drug stores 877 458,890 32,473 35,678 7.1 7.8
650 Liquor stores 201 95,874 4,673 5,363 4.9 5.6
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 350 180,049 4,043 5,228 2.2 2.9
652 Book and stationery stores 299 150,025 4,546 4,546 3.0 3.0
660 Jewelry stores 235 124,805 4,440 4,440 3.6 3.6
661 Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores 119 62,312 0 236 0.0 0.4
662 Mail order houses 149 79,140 3,717 3,717 4.7 4.7
670 Vending machine operators 114 61,405 9,042 9,157 14.7 14.9
671 Direct selling establishments 224 113,825 1,406 1,406 1.2 1.2
672 Fuel and ice dealers 203 93,233 4,464 4,464 4.8 4.8
681 Retail florists 263 138,896 1,019 1,019 0.7 0.7
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 862 452,304 9,565 12,173 2.1 2.7
691 Not specified retail trade 16 7,013 984 984 14.0 14.0
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 11,618 6,188,747 217,733 290,120 3.5 4.7
700 Banking 3,721 1,921,846 35,227 55,370 1.8 2.9
701 Savings and loan associations 479 262,456 1,298 2,648 0.5 1.0
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 757 392,924 10,471 19,970 2.7 5.1
710 Security, commodity brokerage, and investment companies 849 467,516 8,407 11,180 1.8 2.4
711 Insurance 3,454 1,859,970 69,133 91,981 3.7 4.9
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance-law offices 2,358 1,284,035 93,198 108,972 7.3 8.5
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 8,226 4,452,160 251,698 304,515 5.7 6.8
721 Advertising 389 209,162 2,526 4,971 1.2 2.4
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 742 412,167 57,207 62,242 13.9 15.1
730 Commercial research, development, and testing labs 462 200,797 12,295 16,263 6.1 8.1
731 Personnel supply services 979 542,845 18,582 27,741 3.4 5.1
732 Business management and consulting services 462 243,308 2,521 4,334 1.0 1.8
740 Computer and data processing services 829 454,295 7,509 13,234 1.7 2.9
741 Detective and protective services 556 307,621 33,010 40,354 10.7 13.1
742 Business services, n.e.c. 1,469 797,081 39,714 47,972 5.0 6.0
750 Automotive services, exc. repair 533 294,750 21,900 23,384 7.4 7.9
751 Automotive repair shops 1,139 630,256 26,773 30,499 4.2 4.8
752 Electrical repair shops 166 90,191 12,906 13,739 14.3 15.2
760 Miscellaneous repair services 500 269,687 16,757 19,781 6.2 7.3
PERSONAL SERVICES 6,624 3,318,123 186,353 210,365 5.6 6.3
761 Private households 2,310 1,199,257 1,601 1,601 0.1 0.1
762 Hotels and motels 2,156 969,178 133,887 149,592 13.8 15.4
770 Lodging places, exc. hotels and motels 183 91,541 1,440 2,942 1.6 3.2
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 631 336,073 36,362 40,228 10.8 12.0
772 Beauty shops 833 445,465 8,686 10,442 1.9 2.3
780 Barber shops 43 21,273 1,391 1,391 6.5 6.5
781 Funeral service and crematories 105 59,374 634 1,124 1.1 1.9
782 Shoe repair shops 11 4,533 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 6 2,823 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 346 188,607 2,353 3,044 1.2 1.6
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,044 1,055,374 136,110 155,028 12.9 14.7
800 Theaters and motion pictures 505 263,906 59,230 64,428 22.4 24.4
801 Bowling alleys, billiard and pool parlors 131 68,885 729 1,492 1.1 2.2
802 Miscellaneous entertainment and recreation services 1,408 722,583 76,151 89,109 10.5 12.3
831 HOSPITALS 8,188 4,271,870 629,832 794,301 14.7 18.6
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 6,015 3,092,163 264,097 313,149 8.5 10.1
812 Offices of physicians 1,174 619,817 11,466 12,815 1.8 2.1
820 Offices of dentists 682 355,897 4,141 7,219 1.2 2.0
821 Offices of chiropractors 72 32,661 0 0 0.0 0.0
822 Offices of optometrists 56 28,621 182 182 0.6 0.6
830 Offices of health practitioners, n.e.c. 50 25,252 636 636 2.5 2.5
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,579 1,294,428 166,637 188,803 12.9 14.6
840 Health services, n.e.c. 1,402 735,488 81,036 103,495 11.0 14.1
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 16,183 8,080,734 2,789,775 3,418,869 34.5 42.3
842 Elementary and secondary schools 10,930 5,477,043 2,435,136 2,945,869 44.5 53.8
850 Colleges and universities 4,634 2,305,169 318,305 424,727 13.8 18.4
851 Business, trade, and vocational schools 122 55,770 3,384 6,247 6.1 11.2
852 Libraries 343 167,697 26,068 33,527 15.5 20.0
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 154 75,054 6,880 8,499 9.2 11.3
SOCIAL SERVICES 2,969 1,523,099 147,181 178,082 9.7 11.7
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 284 137,931 7,233 9,891 5.2 7.2
862 Child day care services 821 428,234 11,856 15,375 2.8 3.6
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 559 279,739 20,207 23,756 7.2 8.5
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,305 677,194 107,885 129,060 15.9 19.1
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 5,817 3,020,642 132,067 165,574 4.4 5.5
841 Legal services 1,329 678,022 16,991 20,606 2.5 3.0
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 145 69,459 9,773 12,203 14.1 17.6
880 Religious organizations 1,336 696,808 5,889 11,716 0.8 1.7
881 Membership organizations 835 413,573 60,960 64,938 14.7 15.7
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,116 609,068 23,884 32,289 3.9 5.3
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 709 373,058 3,420 7,025 0.9 1.9
891 Noncommercial educational and scientific research 269 138,388 9,571 15,217 6.9 11.0
892 Miscellaneous professional and related services 78 42,266 1,579 1,579 3.7 3.7
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 9,974 4,985,452 1,429,923 1,769,579 28.7 35.5
900 Executive and legislative offices 366 153,568 22,798 26,064 14.8 17.0
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,023 502,261 107,884 144,724 21.5 28.8
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,098 1,637,249 715,396 800,618 43.7 48.9
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 693 349,456 81,360 105,767 23.3 30.3
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,306 641,932 196,272 247,832 30.6 38.6
930 Administration of environmental quality & housing programs 744 328,701 63,169 80,193 19.2 24.4
931 Administration of economic programs 1,119 524,927 136,722 178,555 26.0 34.0
932 National security and international affairs 1,625 847,356 106,321 185,824 12.5 21.9
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1985. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1980 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.