Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1986 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,115 1,137,110 22,503 25,494 2.0 2.2
10 Agricultural production, crops 1,006 548,442 10,769 12,261 2.0 2.2
11 Agricultural production, livestock 786 389,939 10,791 11,757 2.8 3.0
20 Agricultural services, exc. horticultural 323 198,729 943 1,476 0.5 0.7
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 758 428,561 29,684 39,614 6.9 9.2
21 Horticultural services 484 300,359 12,947 15,601 4.3 5.2
30 Forestry 188 86,454 14,742 20,793 17.1 24.1
31 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 86 41,747 1,995 3,220 4.8 7.7
MINING 1,629 822,461 143,692 157,292 17.5 19.1
40 Metal mining 113 38,306 14,675 15,766 38.3 41.2
41 Coal mining 373 188,668 80,774 83,011 42.8 44.0
42 Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction 916 487,300 14,880 24,006 3.1 4.9
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, exc. fuel 227 108,187 33,362 34,509 30.8 31.9
60 CONSTRUCTION 9,840 5,467,515 1,271,355 1,358,732 23.3 24.9
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 14,920 8,153,884 1,773,182 1,917,889 21.7 23.5
100 Meat products 751 403,139 98,112 107,394 24.3 26.6
101 Dairy products 331 183,750 60,347 62,248 32.8 33.9
102 Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 434 225,480 85,239 89,832 37.8 39.8
110 Grain mill products 221 123,883 34,855 35,902 28.1 29.0
111 Bakery products 416 242,201 95,783 96,892 39.5 40.0
112 Sugar and confectionery products 213 112,230 38,207 39,939 34.0 35.6
120 Beverage industries 399 242,113 87,112 92,958 36.0 38.4
121 Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products 345 181,992 32,399 37,204 17.8 20.4
122 Not specified food industries 0
130 Tobacco manufacturers 120 59,571 17,826 18,169 29.9 30.5
132 Knitting mills 258 124,012 10,213 10,728 8.2 8.7
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, exc. wool and knit goods 65 31,314 6,106 6,714 19.5 21.4
141 Floor coverings, exc. hard surface 78 44,297 7,655 8,297 17.3 18.7
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 907 459,306 39,091 42,667 8.5 9.3
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 92 45,576 7,335 8,638 16.1 19.0
151 Apparel and accessories, exc. knit 1,668 978,765 197,618 215,360 20.2 22.0
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 311 168,994 25,798 26,531 15.3 15.7
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 573 309,157 184,918 193,268 59.8 62.5
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 357 200,415 54,719 58,798 27.3 29.3
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 328 182,963 62,338 65,401 34.1 35.7
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 933 492,182 69,505 77,593 14.1 15.8
172 Printing, publishing, allied industries, exc. newspapers 2,054 1,144,913 139,548 155,473 12.2 13.6
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 245 131,372 22,657 26,432 17.2 20.1
181 Drugs 476 252,696 17,874 23,633 7.1 9.4
182 Soaps and cosmetics 301 168,892 27,024 31,916 16.0 18.9
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 104 62,920 10,833 11,698 17.2 18.6
191 Agricultural chemicals 96 45,218 7,727 9,150 17.1 20.2
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 1,027 534,132 99,874 117,664 18.7 22.0
200 Petroleum refining 275 147,818 49,429 53,287 33.4 36.0
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 29 18,634 7,196 7,196 38.6 38.6
210 Tires and inner tubes 156 92,097 43,479 44,770 47.2 48.6
211 Other rubber products, plastics footwear and belting 263 146,190 33,307 35,528 22.8 24.3
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 792 456,265 70,671 76,363 15.5 16.7
220 Leather tanning and finishing 20 7,131 3,170 3,170 44.5 44.5
221 Footwear, exc. rubber and plastic 206 94,069 18,111 19,974 19.3 21.2
222 Leather products, exc. footwear 76 40,195 7,105 7,105 17.7 17.7
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 21,595 12,288,141 3,136,376 3,364,218 25.5 27.4
230 Logging 186 91,293 3,688 4,267 4.0 4.7
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 612 340,412 55,643 60,353 16.3 17.7
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 96 61,387 2,985 3,541 4.9 5.8
241 Miscellaneous wood products 211 112,869 19,247 21,231 17.1 18.8
242 Furniture and fixtures 1,155 636,340 99,114 109,490 15.6 17.2
250 Glass and glass products 310 178,927 83,516 86,454 46.7 48.3
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 361 208,393 47,986 49,733 23.0 23.9
252 Structural clay products 76 47,512 13,578 13,578 28.6 28.6
261 Pottery and related products 60 35,894 6,656 6,656 18.5 18.5
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products 230 120,923 28,366 28,366 23.5 23.5
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 560 349,147 210,755 215,159 60.4 61.6
271 Iron and steel foundries 203 125,046 55,668 57,364 44.5 45.9
272 Primary aluminum industries 216 130,467 51,617 51,617 39.6 39.6
280 Other primary metal industries 339 178,251 56,606 62,350 31.8 35.0
281 Cutlery, handtools, and other hardware 222 120,177 30,304 32,268 25.2 26.9
282 Fabricated structural metal products 812 466,602 113,889 124,125 24.4 26.6
290 Screw machine products 106 65,642 7,174 8,839 10.9 13.5
291 Metal forgings and stampings 246 138,929 46,849 50,036 33.7 36.0
292 Ordnance 199 110,254 36,768 43,396 33.3 39.4
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 630 379,635 113,982 119,437 30.0 31.5
301 Not specified metal industries 4 2,256 0 0 0.0 0.0
310 Engines and turbines 161 92,854 43,527 44,626 46.9 48.1
311 Farm machinery and equipment 197 104,215 25,003 26,625 24.0 25.5
312 Construction and material handling machines 381 224,654 61,120 64,000 27.2 28.5
320 Metalworking machinery 499 266,945 38,787 42,529 14.5 15.9
321 Office and accounting machines 164 98,313 9,047 10,421 9.2 10.6
322 Electronic computing equipment 1,255 648,956 26,741 29,404 4.1 4.5
331 Machinery, exc. electrical, n.e.c. 1,712 978,499 204,532 214,898 20.9 22.0
332 Not specified machinery 6 3,649 1,205 1,205 33.0 33.0
340 Household appliances 303 178,098 69,550 76,107 39.1 42.7
341 Radio, T.V., and communication equipment 866 492,977 87,136 95,803 17.7 19.4
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 2,528 1,438,998 236,872 260,275 16.5 18.1
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equipment, and supplie 14 9,264 0 0 0.0 0.0
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 2,157 1,230,458 681,536 700,714 55.4 56.9
352 Aircraft and parts 1,057 676,447 253,260 291,226 37.4 43.1
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 518 297,943 89,324 102,421 30.0 34.4
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 38 21,033 8,757 8,757 41.6 41.6
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 617 395,724 66,806 85,538 16.9 21.6
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 100 65,346 14,424 15,931 22.1 24.4
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 452 245,829 30,783 34,558 12.5 14.1
372 Optical and health services supplies 532 300,438 26,123 29,328 8.7 9.8
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 250 131,784 12,097 13,114 9.2 10.0
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 29 15,399 2,391 2,391 15.5 15.5
382 Not specified professional equipment 0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 203 105,781 11,019 11,855 10.4 11.2
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 677 337,483 50,730 53,024 15.0 15.7
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 45 26,701 1,211 1,211 4.5 4.5
TRANSPORTATION 7,727 4,197,777 1,822,401 1,959,228 43.4 46.7
400 Railroads 726 379,250 306,328 310,033 80.8 81.7
401 Bus service and urban transit 758 415,610 187,923 199,851 45.2 48.1
402 Taxicab service 116 63,373 12,735 13,912 20.1 22.0
410 Trucking service 2,537 1,385,572 374,293 404,021 27.0 29.2
411 Warehousing and storage 199 108,150 23,943 25,319 22.1 23.4
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,552 824,272 599,854 660,043 72.8 80.1
420 Water transportation 314 183,632 76,197 79,040 41.5 43.0
421 Air transportation 1,019 568,874 225,990 247,618 39.7 43.5
422 Pipe lines, exc. natural gas 43 16,995 1,695 1,695 10.0 10.0
432 Services incidental to transportation 463 252,049 13,444 17,695 5.3 7.0
COMMUNICATIONS 2,883 1,568,651 614,920 688,012 39.2 43.9
440 Radio and television broadcasting 477 241,698 30,906 33,872 12.8 14.0
441 Telephone (wire and radio) 2,034 1,124,402 568,882 634,311 50.6 56.4
442 Telegraph and miscellaneous communications services 372 202,551 15,132 19,828 7.5 9.8
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,641 1,441,938 498,737 544,945 34.6 37.8
460 Electric light and power 1,214 627,644 233,767 255,947 37.2 40.8
461 Gas and steam supply systems 334 178,786 50,066 56,502 28.0 31.6
462 Electric and gas, and other combinations 308 187,410 89,864 94,628 48.0 50.5
470 Water supply and irrigation 368 198,617 52,382 61,172 26.4 30.8
471 Sanitary services 406 242,770 72,040 76,078 29.7 31.3
472 Not specified utilities 11 6,712 618 618 9.2 9.2
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,783 3,771,396 282,489 310,166 7.5 8.2
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 370 207,419 14,404 16,136 6.9 7.8
501 Furniture and home furnishings 98 54,843 3,579 3,579 6.5 6.5
502 Lumber and construction materials 233 136,705 12,803 13,313 9.4 9.7
510 Sporting goods, toys, and hobby goods 67 38,736 937 1,360 2.4 3.5
511 Metals and minerals, exc. petroleum 156 92,993 15,173 15,727 16.3 16.9
512 Electrical goods 448 262,431 3,551 4,043 1.4 1.5
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 352 189,419 8,220 8,710 4.3 4.6
522 Not specified electrical and hardware products 3 2,071 0 0 0.0 0.0
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 1,663 912,971 25,778 34,412 2.8 3.8
531 Scrap and waste materials 161 93,757 9,049 9,049 9.7 9.7
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 101 61,842 784 784 1.3 1.3
540 Paper and paper products 183 101,600 5,424 5,424 5.3 5.3
541 Drugs, chemicals, and allied products 320 177,902 10,141 13,411 5.7 7.5
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 168 91,173 6,362 7,388 7.0 8.1
550 Groceries and related products 1,143 651,865 115,230 120,589 17.7 18.5
551 Farm products - raw materials 206 91,712 1,593 2,030 1.7 2.2
552 Petroleum products 301 155,002 7,847 11,136 5.1 7.2
560 Alcoholic beverages 220 121,876 26,420 27,190 21.7 22.3
561 Farm supplies 222 116,794 2,694 2,694 2.3 2.3
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 340 193,384 8,868 8,868 4.6 4.6
571 Not specified wholesale trade 28 16,902 3,634 4,323 21.5 25.6
RETAIL TRADE 29,973 16,176,868 1,156,778 1,261,159 7.2 7.8
580 Lumber and building material retailing 824 433,448 17,116 18,314 3.9 4.2
581 Hardware stores 303 156,262 5,215 6,260 3.3 4.0
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 115 60,004 0 577 0.0 1.0
590 Mobile home dealers 51 26,517 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 3,702 2,050,799 126,476 146,699 6.2 7.2
592 Variety stores 232 114,921 2,471 2,471 2.1 2.1
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 228 111,243 9,397 10,449 8.4 9.4
601 Grocery stores 4,490 2,447,098 683,815 708,917 27.9 29.0
602 Dairy products stores 82 39,473 929 929 2.4 2.4
610 Retail bakeries 271 133,054 11,818 13,393 8.9 10.1
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 238 126,590 6,765 6,938 5.3 5.5
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,795 980,573 44,181 51,955 4.5 5.3
620 Auto and home supply stores 686 372,830 8,904 14,125 2.4 3.8
621 Gasoline service stations 871 459,939 6,187 7,904 1.3 1.7
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 153 79,823 0 530 0.0 0.7
630 Apparel and accessory stores, exc. shoe 1,304 700,251 21,787 23,339 3.1 3.3
631 Shoe stores 276 151,791 3,439 4,336 2.3 2.9
632 Furniture and home furnishings stores 744 422,401 8,206 11,199 1.9 2.7
640 Household appliances, TV, and radio stores 634 347,236 5,631 6,876 1.6 2.0
641 Eating and drinking places 9,091 4,874,211 110,649 134,473 2.3 2.8
642 Drug stores 839 460,683 32,007 34,821 6.9 7.6
650 Liquor stores 215 107,859 5,765 5,929 5.3 5.5
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 431 230,612 5,975 6,663 2.6 2.9
652 Book and stationery stores 280 160,458 2,132 3,443 1.3 2.1
660 Jewelry stores 246 133,740 1,660 1,660 1.2 1.2
661 Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores 116 63,647 488 488 0.8 0.8
662 Mail order houses 150 89,682 5,915 5,915 6.6 6.6
670 Vending machine operators 96 55,630 11,729 12,081 21.1 21.7
671 Direct selling establishments 202 102,495 1,511 1,511 1.5 1.5
672 Fuel and ice dealers 175 81,586 6,525 6,525 8.0 8.0
681 Retail florists 254 134,771 0 0 0.0 0.0
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 863 456,749 10,083 11,119 2.2 2.4
691 Not specified retail trade 16 10,490 0 1,319 0.0 12.6
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 12,066 6,582,486 206,552 273,586 3.1 4.2
700 Banking 3,735 1,967,017 25,748 41,897 1.3 2.1
701 Savings and loan associations 426 248,926 1,858 5,941 0.7 2.4
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 849 461,479 8,287 11,201 1.8 2.4
710 Security, commodity brokerage, and investment companies 897 496,638 10,167 13,553 2.0 2.7
711 Insurance 3,596 1,977,165 62,942 88,641 3.2 4.5
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance-law offices 2,563 1,431,261 97,550 112,353 6.8 7.8
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 8,307 4,608,462 253,178 303,639 5.5 6.6
721 Advertising 404 230,443 6,981 9,719 3.0 4.2
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 794 441,401 60,736 65,026 13.8 14.7
730 Commercial research, development, and testing labs 444 209,920 9,129 12,301 4.3 5.9
731 Personnel supply services 978 549,844 20,027 25,888 3.6 4.7
732 Business management and consulting services 550 301,958 3,800 8,113 1.3 2.7
740 Computer and data processing services 918 527,825 11,582 19,117 2.2 3.6
741 Detective and protective services 552 307,443 25,684 30,981 8.4 10.1
742 Business services, n.e.c. 1,568 874,038 40,505 49,720 4.6 5.7
750 Automotive services, exc. repair 476 260,461 22,952 27,361 8.8 10.5
751 Automotive repair shops 975 551,588 17,684 20,451 3.2 3.7
752 Electrical repair shops 142 79,567 8,503 9,058 10.7 11.4
760 Miscellaneous repair services 506 273,974 25,595 25,904 9.3 9.5
PERSONAL SERVICES 6,544 3,421,315 195,754 226,615 5.7 6.6
761 Private households 2,217 1,201,722 4,988 5,717 0.4 0.5
762 Hotels and motels 2,167 1,031,618 140,765 159,158 13.6 15.4
770 Lodging places, exc. hotels and motels 212 109,161 1,703 1,703 1.6 1.6
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 650 357,873 38,315 45,257 10.7 12.6
772 Beauty shops 812 452,192 6,827 9,249 1.5 2.0
780 Barber shops 43 24,962 1,452 2,207 5.8 8.8
781 Funeral service and crematories 89 47,013 1,106 1,506 2.4 3.2
782 Shoe repair shops 10 5,145 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 7 5,672 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 337 185,956 597 1,817 0.3 1.0
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,061 1,098,376 129,694 152,841 11.8 13.9
800 Theaters and motion pictures 531 283,881 55,852 60,274 19.7 21.2
801 Bowling alleys, billiard and pool parlors 106 55,364 903 1,851 1.6 3.3
802 Miscellaneous entertainment and recreation services 1,424 759,131 72,938 90,716 9.6 12.0
831 HOSPITALS 8,281 4,418,516 651,016 816,330 14.7 18.5
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 6,102 3,205,014 265,112 304,225 8.3 9.5
812 Offices of physicians 1,211 647,605 6,417 9,644 1.0 1.5
820 Offices of dentists 673 357,184 4,198 6,456 1.2 1.8
821 Offices of chiropractors 73 37,309 0 0 0.0 0.0
822 Offices of optometrists 58 31,046 190 190 0.6 0.6
830 Offices of health practitioners, n.e.c. 42 23,852 325 325 1.4 1.4
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,599 1,336,993 153,157 168,720 11.5 12.6
840 Health services, n.e.c. 1,446 771,025 100,826 118,890 13.1 15.4
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 15,849 8,183,001 2,726,640 3,358,805 33.3 41.0
842 Elementary and secondary schools 10,623 5,489,951 2,381,131 2,889,924 43.4 52.6
850 Colleges and universities 4,608 2,371,998 307,120 420,181 12.9 17.7
851 Business, trade, and vocational schools 106 53,481 7,148 8,588 13.4 16.1
852 Libraries 348 177,711 26,347 31,369 14.8 17.7
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 164 89,859 4,894 8,742 5.4 9.7
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,090 1,613,322 175,712 210,634 10.9 13.1
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 352 172,725 10,482 14,564 6.1 8.4
862 Child day care services 826 439,335 11,042 17,996 2.5 4.1
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 526 261,646 24,582 30,950 9.4 11.8
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,386 739,617 129,606 147,125 17.5 19.9
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 6,059 3,178,346 113,064 143,915 3.6 4.5
841 Legal services 1,450 750,595 10,420 14,491 1.4 1.9
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 152 74,962 5,751 8,005 7.7 10.7
880 Religious organizations 1,326 693,105 5,143 8,984 0.7 1.3
881 Membership organizations 877 427,595 58,145 60,728 13.6 14.2
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,202 669,048 20,315 31,331 3.0 4.7
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 752 407,426 3,128 6,141 0.8 1.5
891 Noncommercial educational and scientific research 231 122,418 8,507 11,997 6.9 9.8
892 Miscellaneous professional and related services 69 33,198 1,656 2,239 5.0 6.7
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 9,924 5,139,411 1,506,340 1,860,511 29.3 36.2
900 Executive and legislative offices 319 152,431 21,331 25,380 14.0 16.6
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,052 539,963 117,612 147,721 21.8 27.4
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,242 1,744,592 776,015 877,004 44.5 50.3
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 719 378,872 90,586 124,467 23.9 32.9
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,288 630,451 186,417 238,460 29.6 37.8
930 Administration of environmental quality & housing programs 597 275,535 61,882 78,068 22.5 28.3
931 Administration of economic programs 1,091 542,101 149,089 180,232 27.5 33.2
932 National security and international affairs 1,616 875,466 103,408 189,179 11.8 21.6
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1986. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1980 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.