Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1987 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,084 1,149,315 22,619 26,313 2.0 2.3
10 Agricultural production, crops 998 557,203 12,186 14,735 2.2 2.6
11 Agricultural production, livestock 800 416,963 6,006 6,771 1.4 1.6
20 Agricultural services, exc. horticultural 286 175,149 4,427 4,808 2.5 2.7
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 767 438,995 18,668 24,929 4.3 5.7
21 Horticultural services 512 319,793 10,017 10,233 3.1 3.2
30 Forestry 182 81,525 7,025 13,070 8.6 16.0
31 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 73 37,677 1,626 1,626 4.3 4.3
MINING 1,508 782,919 143,197 152,772 18.3 19.5
40 Metal mining 152 50,974 17,808 19,968 34.9 39.2
41 Coal mining 330 161,347 72,541 75,208 45.0 46.6
42 Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction 774 442,095 7,479 10,660 1.7 2.4
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, exc. fuel 252 128,503 45,369 46,935 35.3 36.5
60 CONSTRUCTION 9,911 5,608,067 1,230,849 1,320,910 21.9 23.6
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 14,920 8,257,269 1,730,227 1,854,171 21.0 22.5
100 Meat products 769 407,265 85,721 97,248 21.0 23.9
101 Dairy products 302 167,865 44,587 47,376 26.6 28.2
102 Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 432 235,714 85,180 91,147 36.1 38.7
110 Grain mill products 200 113,700 27,651 28,705 24.3 25.2
111 Bakery products 404 243,467 90,666 92,518 37.2 38.0
112 Sugar and confectionery products 202 101,108 31,650 34,829 31.3 34.4
120 Beverage industries 351 210,251 68,723 72,306 32.7 34.4
121 Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products 324 183,103 33,536 35,644 18.3 19.5
122 Not specified food industries 2 839 0 0 0.0 0.0
130 Tobacco manufacturers 115 59,210 17,928 20,669 30.3 34.9
132 Knitting mills 267 127,568 8,329 11,470 6.5 9.0
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, exc. wool and knit goods 89 42,103 8,413 10,123 20.0 24.0
141 Floor coverings, exc. hard surface 85 57,248 7,508 7,508 13.1 13.1
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 872 429,961 28,853 29,819 6.7 6.9
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 84 46,652 6,296 7,787 13.5 16.7
151 Apparel and accessories, exc. knit 1,652 985,068 188,839 202,396 19.2 20.5
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 321 175,751 21,990 24,389 12.5 13.9
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 614 320,712 185,094 186,005 57.7 58.0
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 355 204,531 53,277 54,007 26.0 26.4
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 336 194,010 65,438 69,648 33.7 35.9
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 966 518,753 84,475 94,437 16.3 18.2
172 Printing, publishing, allied industries, exc. newspapers 2,049 1,172,823 133,152 144,956 11.4 12.4
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 258 133,094 21,557 24,981 16.2 18.8
181 Drugs 436 237,549 21,443 24,044 9.0 10.1
182 Soaps and cosmetics 295 166,516 25,918 28,127 15.6 16.9
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 113 72,342 13,673 14,933 18.9 20.6
191 Agricultural chemicals 89 42,025 5,835 6,117 13.9 14.6
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 1,051 556,763 121,308 129,852 21.8 23.3
200 Petroleum refining 253 144,062 52,600 55,534 36.5 38.5
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 42 24,822 2,480 3,253 10.0 13.1
210 Tires and inner tubes 160 93,569 44,602 48,531 47.7 51.9
211 Other rubber products, plastics footwear and belting 230 123,673 28,354 29,798 22.9 24.1
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 903 524,016 87,641 95,663 16.7 18.3
220 Leather tanning and finishing 25 12,736 3,574 3,574 28.1 28.1
221 Footwear, exc. rubber and plastic 210 94,332 17,160 20,000 18.2 21.2
222 Leather products, exc. footwear 64 34,067 6,778 6,778 19.9 19.9
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 21,100 12,126,635 3,002,434 3,203,706 24.8 26.4
230 Logging 176 90,758 4,503 6,159 5.0 6.8
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 677 367,799 63,910 68,961 17.4 18.7
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 128 80,783 3,858 4,742 4.8 5.9
241 Miscellaneous wood products 219 129,591 17,345 19,019 13.4 14.7
242 Furniture and fixtures 1,172 633,786 106,805 115,244 16.9 18.2
250 Glass and glass products 287 161,976 75,629 77,163 46.7 47.6
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 344 203,594 42,451 46,890 20.9 23.0
252 Structural clay products 55 34,490 9,568 11,436 27.7 33.2
261 Pottery and related products 57 35,236 8,635 8,635 24.5 24.5
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products 236 133,082 28,816 30,783 21.7 23.1
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 572 356,213 199,515 202,187 56.0 56.8
271 Iron and steel foundries 193 116,986 45,901 47,410 39.2 40.5
272 Primary aluminum industries 251 159,793 67,907 68,454 42.5 42.8
280 Other primary metal industries 356 182,978 57,530 60,779 31.4 33.2
281 Cutlery, handtools, and other hardware 222 123,161 28,884 31,647 23.5 25.7
282 Fabricated structural metal products 807 463,752 108,281 115,530 23.3 24.9
290 Screw machine products 101 57,509 9,879 11,642 17.2 20.2
291 Metal forgings and stampings 242 138,831 54,877 57,366 39.5 41.3
292 Ordnance 201 112,691 37,990 41,029 33.7 36.4
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 550 323,231 88,449 91,396 27.4 28.3
301 Not specified metal industries 3 1,562 0 0 0.0 0.0
310 Engines and turbines 166 103,388 52,846 53,391 51.1 51.6
311 Farm machinery and equipment 216 117,233 28,765 30,429 24.5 26.0
312 Construction and material handling machines 336 206,279 56,407 57,660 27.3 28.0
320 Metalworking machinery 449 249,250 32,178 37,455 12.9 15.0
321 Office and accounting machines 134 82,406 6,670 6,670 8.1 8.1
322 Electronic computing equipment 1,179 646,390 19,576 24,979 3.0 3.9
331 Machinery, exc. electrical, n.e.c. 1,648 954,366 187,173 197,840 19.6 20.7
332 Not specified machinery 3 2,651 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Household appliances 298 169,339 65,400 68,858 38.6 40.7
341 Radio, T.V., and communication equipment 873 503,686 88,729 98,564 17.6 19.6
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 2,481 1,410,654 244,097 263,605 17.3 18.7
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equipment, and supplie 12 7,583 998 998 13.2 13.2
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 2,029 1,157,803 628,657 646,820 54.3 55.9
352 Aircraft and parts 1,053 680,938 233,057 263,567 34.2 38.7
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 475 270,787 71,842 80,838 26.5 29.9
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 39 23,525 10,057 10,865 42.7 46.2
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 653 428,921 74,522 91,688 17.4 21.4
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 97 55,782 16,154 16,690 29.0 29.9
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 423 233,936 29,286 31,570 12.5 13.5
372 Optical and health services supplies 543 306,307 22,917 26,775 7.5 8.7
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 214 115,919 7,810 8,094 6.7 7.0
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 39 22,210 1,832 1,832 8.2 8.2
382 Not specified professional equipment 0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 197 109,742 14,181 15,505 12.9 14.1
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 635 324,939 43,676 46,029 13.4 14.2
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 59 34,803 4,875 6,509 14.0 18.7
TRANSPORTATION 7,916 4,383,631 1,833,399 1,968,060 41.8 44.9
400 Railroads 692 366,075 293,005 297,377 80.0 81.2
401 Bus service and urban transit 734 424,625 183,922 198,941 43.3 46.9
402 Taxicab service 139 75,775 8,163 9,069 10.8 12.0
410 Trucking service 2,649 1,466,315 368,062 391,384 25.1 26.7
411 Warehousing and storage 207 121,928 14,612 16,343 12.0 13.4
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,615 869,757 645,273 707,583 74.2 81.4
420 Water transportation 314 179,968 53,224 56,728 29.6 31.5
421 Air transportation 1,132 643,111 248,665 269,723 38.7 41.9
422 Pipe lines, exc. natural gas 31 12,283 2,299 2,299 18.7 18.7
432 Services incidental to transportation 403 223,794 16,175 18,612 7.2 8.3
COMMUNICATIONS 2,713 1,497,769 544,664 615,866 36.4 41.1
440 Radio and television broadcasting 486 267,186 28,662 34,872 10.7 13.1
441 Telephone (wire and radio) 1,901 1,047,450 497,309 561,850 47.5 53.6
442 Telegraph and miscellaneous communications services 326 183,133 18,694 19,144 10.2 10.5
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,735 1,530,193 536,287 586,228 35.0 38.3
460 Electric light and power 1,260 675,469 241,914 259,245 35.8 38.4
461 Gas and steam supply systems 348 197,369 66,171 71,475 33.5 36.2
462 Electric and gas, and other combinations 321 181,555 82,346 91,963 45.4 50.7
470 Water supply and irrigation 334 193,775 64,730 71,695 33.4 37.0
471 Sanitary services 462 277,211 80,475 91,199 29.0 32.9
472 Not specified utilities 10 4,814 651 651 13.5 13.5
WHOLESALE TRADE 7,053 3,940,259 329,835 358,879 8.4 9.1
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 391 218,960 15,231 17,473 7.0 8.0
501 Furniture and home furnishings 116 65,492 5,404 5,404 8.3 8.3
502 Lumber and construction materials 280 153,165 13,600 14,431 8.9 9.4
510 Sporting goods, toys, and hobby goods 65 35,987 1,556 2,493 4.3 6.9
511 Metals and minerals, exc. petroleum 139 81,047 9,751 10,421 12.0 12.9
512 Electrical goods 435 249,743 9,165 11,506 3.7 4.6
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 382 209,274 14,193 15,398 6.8 7.4
522 Not specified electrical and hardware products 0
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 1,768 987,955 34,991 39,568 3.5 4.0
531 Scrap and waste materials 180 104,821 8,100 9,564 7.7 9.1
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 93 57,269 1,659 2,722 2.9 4.8
540 Paper and paper products 184 106,516 7,816 7,816 7.3 7.3
541 Drugs, chemicals, and allied products 297 166,814 9,447 10,360 5.7 6.2
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 167 94,723 8,044 8,526 8.5 9.0
550 Groceries and related products 1,151 639,666 129,925 135,949 20.3 21.3
551 Farm products - raw materials 199 90,003 3,912 4,019 4.3 4.5
552 Petroleum products 316 169,446 9,421 11,828 5.6 7.0
560 Alcoholic beverages 258 153,164 33,566 36,090 21.9 23.6
561 Farm supplies 233 122,397 3,384 3,384 2.8 2.8
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 360 211,173 9,801 10,906 4.6 5.2
571 Not specified wholesale trade 39 22,645 869 1,022 3.8 4.5
RETAIL TRADE 30,199 16,574,049 1,122,304 1,229,273 6.8 7.4
580 Lumber and building material retailing 856 470,329 22,228 23,696 4.7 5.0
581 Hardware stores 309 162,948 5,425 7,173 3.3 4.4
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 103 55,782 0 0 0.0 0.0
590 Mobile home dealers 56 25,473 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 3,662 2,075,012 101,653 119,240 4.9 5.7
592 Variety stores 267 124,786 4,941 7,635 4.0 6.1
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 261 126,378 12,447 13,914 9.8 11.0
601 Grocery stores 4,585 2,503,599 678,849 713,327 27.1 28.5
602 Dairy products stores 84 47,115 2,694 2,694 5.7 5.7
610 Retail bakeries 275 147,164 12,413 13,524 8.4 9.2
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 262 143,198 4,951 5,606 3.5 3.9
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,739 986,729 38,498 44,087 3.9 4.5
620 Auto and home supply stores 665 360,685 8,193 9,538 2.3 2.6
621 Gasoline service stations 821 436,905 6,237 8,155 1.4 1.9
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 129 68,109 0 0 0.0 0.0
630 Apparel and accessory stores, exc. shoe 1,237 670,179 14,500 17,078 2.2 2.5
631 Shoe stores 268 155,003 5,469 5,927 3.5 3.8
632 Furniture and home furnishings stores 804 455,479 11,274 12,175 2.5 2.7
640 Household appliances, TV, and radio stores 670 377,831 5,025 7,356 1.3 1.9
641 Eating and drinking places 9,184 5,014,268 106,425 124,285 2.1 2.5
642 Drug stores 885 484,338 32,877 36,602 6.8 7.6
650 Liquor stores 179 93,403 6,949 8,363 7.4 9.0
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 443 241,976 5,395 6,689 2.2 2.8
652 Book and stationery stores 295 163,735 3,634 3,634 2.2 2.2
660 Jewelry stores 263 144,236 2,928 4,366 2.0 3.0
661 Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores 99 57,013 560 560 1.0 1.0
662 Mail order houses 186 114,260 5,911 6,445 5.2 5.6
670 Vending machine operators 123 68,830 8,957 9,823 13.0 14.3
671 Direct selling establishments 166 90,000 0 0 0.0 0.0
672 Fuel and ice dealers 152 68,450 6,500 7,277 9.5 10.6
681 Retail florists 246 131,577 1,251 1,754 1.0 1.3
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 905 497,363 6,120 8,351 1.2 1.7
691 Not specified retail trade 20 11,898 0 0 0.0 0.0
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 12,488 6,928,692 208,432 274,771 3.0 4.0
700 Banking 3,708 1,974,647 25,972 42,527 1.3 2.2
701 Savings and loan associations 420 243,091 975 3,425 0.4 1.4
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 908 518,359 6,745 12,375 1.3 2.4
710 Security, commodity brokerage, and investment companies 997 559,967 10,236 17,249 1.8 3.1
711 Insurance 3,698 2,050,604 58,302 77,057 2.8 3.8
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance-law offices 2,757 1,582,024 106,202 122,139 6.7 7.7
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 8,584 4,933,641 249,645 303,093 5.1 6.1
721 Advertising 402 225,485 7,077 10,587 3.1 4.7
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 796 476,095 59,634 63,740 12.5 13.4
730 Commercial research, development, and testing labs 472 233,230 10,724 14,206 4.6 6.1
731 Personnel supply services 1,003 563,412 14,511 20,901 2.6 3.7
732 Business management and consulting services 567 313,268 7,808 11,459 2.5 3.7
740 Computer and data processing services 955 577,997 16,784 24,345 2.9 4.2
741 Detective and protective services 603 347,067 24,617 31,206 7.1 9.0
742 Business services, n.e.c. 1,695 1,007,581 41,514 51,514 4.1 5.1
750 Automotive services, exc. repair 468 267,057 22,846 24,805 8.6 9.3
751 Automotive repair shops 950 538,503 14,961 18,842 2.8 3.5
752 Electrical repair shops 154 88,094 9,960 9,960 11.3 11.3
760 Miscellaneous repair services 519 295,852 19,209 21,528 6.5 7.3
PERSONAL SERVICES 6,703 3,521,977 185,045 208,483 5.3 5.9
761 Private households 2,107 1,149,032 1,725 1,725 0.2 0.2
762 Hotels and motels 2,304 1,109,230 127,885 141,788 11.5 12.8
770 Lodging places, exc. hotels and motels 214 114,951 1,895 3,535 1.6 3.1
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 697 390,077 43,889 48,682 11.3 12.5
772 Beauty shops 807 445,853 4,242 5,732 1.0 1.3
780 Barber shops 49 30,085 2,958 2,958 9.8 9.8
781 Funeral service and crematories 112 61,117 1,344 1,781 2.2 2.9
782 Shoe repair shops 12 9,063 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 6 3,461 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 395 209,108 1,107 2,282 0.5 1.1
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,026 1,126,266 145,573 162,438 12.9 14.4
800 Theaters and motion pictures 507 278,918 66,204 70,648 23.7 25.3
801 Bowling alleys, billiard and pool parlors 114 65,128 1,874 2,306 2.9 3.5
802 Miscellaneous entertainment and recreation services 1,405 782,219 77,495 89,484 9.9 11.4
831 HOSPITALS 8,138 4,430,849 669,679 822,848 15.1 18.6
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 6,498 3,488,564 280,845 320,793 8.1 9.2
812 Offices of physicians 1,245 685,833 4,887 8,420 0.7 1.2
820 Offices of dentists 750 408,798 4,546 9,344 1.1 2.3
821 Offices of chiropractors 91 47,976 0 0 0.0 0.0
822 Offices of optometrists 62 30,718 0 0 0.0 0.0
830 Offices of health practitioners, n.e.c. 61 38,791 2,921 2,921 7.5 7.5
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,593 1,330,212 149,118 166,794 11.2 12.5
840 Health services, n.e.c. 1,696 946,237 119,373 133,314 12.6 14.1
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 15,830 8,286,175 2,800,634 3,381,957 33.8 40.8
842 Elementary and secondary schools 10,653 5,580,855 2,443,718 2,909,605 43.8 52.1
850 Colleges and universities 4,541 2,380,603 319,851 425,249 13.4 17.9
851 Business, trade, and vocational schools 125 68,097 4,264 5,383 6.3 7.9
852 Libraries 346 173,318 27,850 34,301 16.1 19.8
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 165 83,303 4,951 7,419 5.9 8.9
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,220 1,719,489 154,728 184,634 9.0 10.7
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 389 199,479 10,740 13,196 5.4 6.6
862 Child day care services 859 452,538 13,101 16,424 2.9 3.6
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 586 318,207 24,353 29,896 7.7 9.4
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,386 749,265 106,534 125,118 14.2 16.7
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 6,155 3,338,732 138,482 170,382 4.1 5.1
841 Legal services 1,480 805,750 10,683 15,148 1.3 1.9
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 176 91,006 12,502 15,213 13.7 16.7
880 Religious organizations 1,359 738,672 5,174 6,130 0.7 0.8
881 Membership organizations 877 454,338 72,631 80,838 16.0 17.8
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,218 666,573 21,669 26,359 3.3 4.0
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 738 412,588 2,849 9,556 0.7 2.3
891 Noncommercial educational and scientific research 222 121,791 12,382 16,546 10.2 13.6
892 Miscellaneous professional and related services 85 48,015 592 592 1.2 1.2
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 9,886 5,239,261 1,565,518 1,880,450 29.9 35.9
900 Executive and legislative offices 279 137,207 14,279 18,360 10.4 13.4
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,079 572,547 130,562 156,689 22.8 27.4
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,326 1,859,249 826,018 912,122 44.4 49.1
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 716 386,174 97,219 128,022 25.2 33.2
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,207 603,837 182,740 227,090 30.3 37.6
930 Administration of environmental quality & housing programs 641 303,949 74,175 87,364 24.4 28.7
931 Administration of economic programs 1,071 517,528 124,166 153,485 24.0 29.7
932 National security and international affairs 1,567 858,770 116,359 197,318 13.5 23.0
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1987. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1980 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.