Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1988 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,122 1,179,884 20,323 24,538 1.7 2.1
10 Agricultural production, crops 919 532,514 9,775 11,367 1.8 2.1
11 Agricultural production, livestock 856 426,759 5,452 7,100 1.3 1.7
20 Agricultural services, exc. horticultural 347 220,611 5,096 6,071 2.3 2.8
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 714 416,608 16,316 22,474 3.9 5.4
21 Horticultural services 473 311,940 9,758 10,839 3.1 3.5
30 Forestry 182 78,113 6,051 10,688 7.7 13.7
31 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 59 26,555 508 948 1.9 3.6
MINING 1,386 711,571 132,972 146,019 18.7 20.5
40 Metal mining 169 60,184 23,226 30,249 38.6 50.3
41 Coal mining 317 154,227 65,313 66,782 42.3 43.3
42 Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction 701 399,030 9,606 13,148 2.4 3.3
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, exc. fuel 199 98,130 34,827 35,840 35.5 36.5
60 CONSTRUCTION 9,516 5,703,998 1,250,561 1,333,019 21.9 23.4
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 14,136 8,289,787 1,651,492 1,772,491 19.9 21.4
100 Meat products 725 397,224 75,760 83,059 19.1 20.9
101 Dairy products 304 174,841 52,532 53,157 30.0 30.4
102 Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 411 230,842 83,530 91,048 36.2 39.4
110 Grain mill products 194 109,127 13,386 14,328 12.3 13.1
111 Bakery products 342 212,812 76,490 83,194 35.9 39.1
112 Sugar and confectionery products 195 96,146 28,429 30,139 29.6 31.3
120 Beverage industries 304 195,731 68,251 71,266 34.9 36.4
121 Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products 339 200,587 39,655 41,316 19.8 20.6
122 Not specified food industries 0
130 Tobacco manufacturers 106 58,847 18,647 19,501 31.7 33.1
132 Knitting mills 243 124,206 8,345 9,720 6.7 7.8
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, exc. wool and knit goods 57 30,081 6,464 7,413 21.5 24.6
141 Floor coverings, exc. hard surface 74 48,079 5,849 7,169 12.2 14.9
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 888 443,998 32,738 38,905 7.4 8.8
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 89 44,121 16,136 17,680 36.6 40.1
151 Apparel and accessories, exc. knit 1,447 973,801 183,162 196,370 18.8 20.2
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 296 165,217 17,471 19,040 10.6 11.5
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 606 321,409 173,379 177,654 53.9 55.3
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 370 224,567 53,222 54,741 23.7 24.4
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 289 180,785 62,466 67,699 34.6 37.4
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 862 488,394 62,681 72,464 12.8 14.8
172 Printing, publishing, allied industries, exc. newspapers 1,953 1,210,071 132,829 146,043 11.0 12.1
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 243 137,772 27,374 29,403 19.9 21.3
181 Drugs 445 247,584 21,109 21,587 8.5 8.7
182 Soaps and cosmetics 260 164,850 23,498 24,482 14.3 14.9
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 93 60,804 16,105 17,595 26.5 28.9
191 Agricultural chemicals 74 41,868 6,817 8,257 16.3 19.7
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 1,061 582,813 107,213 116,929 18.4 20.1
200 Petroleum refining 255 159,896 55,180 56,867 34.5 35.6
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 29 16,802 3,227 3,227 19.2 19.2
210 Tires and inner tubes 152 88,317 38,298 39,566 43.4 44.8
211 Other rubber products, plastics footwear and belting 287 183,414 42,225 45,280 23.0 24.7
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 886 545,524 76,327 82,765 14.0 15.2
220 Leather tanning and finishing 21 11,308 4,109 4,109 36.3 36.3
221 Footwear, exc. rubber and plastic 178 82,683 13,994 15,545 16.9 18.8
222 Leather products, exc. footwear 58 35,265 4,596 4,973 13.0 14.1
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 19,904 12,273,438 2,909,469 3,133,297 23.7 25.5
230 Logging 187 92,316 3,664 4,692 4.0 5.1
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 674 357,027 65,894 70,749 18.5 19.8
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 106 68,361 3,814 3,814 5.6 5.6
241 Miscellaneous wood products 226 136,146 20,822 22,899 15.3 16.8
242 Furniture and fixtures 1,153 668,958 113,512 119,537 17.0 17.9
250 Glass and glass products 274 161,242 67,675 69,916 42.0 43.4
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 347 208,445 43,122 48,394 20.7 23.2
252 Structural clay products 60 36,369 7,295 7,295 20.1 20.1
261 Pottery and related products 53 32,071 8,378 8,378 26.1 26.1
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products 208 121,570 27,556 30,496 22.7 25.1
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 564 381,972 214,549 223,211 56.2 58.4
271 Iron and steel foundries 189 124,130 47,064 49,519 37.9 39.9
272 Primary aluminum industries 218 150,618 62,065 67,812 41.2 45.0
280 Other primary metal industries 292 156,750 44,224 48,654 28.2 31.0
281 Cutlery, handtools, and other hardware 205 129,870 25,430 27,454 19.6 21.1
282 Fabricated structural metal products 803 506,021 104,009 112,562 20.6 22.2
290 Screw machine products 89 58,960 7,224 8,262 12.3 14.0
291 Metal forgings and stampings 214 133,306 51,060 51,662 38.3 38.8
292 Ordnance 181 104,970 35,074 38,609 33.4 36.8
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 563 358,846 93,754 95,685 26.1 26.7
301 Not specified metal industries 0
310 Engines and turbines 116 84,624 41,337 41,337 48.8 48.8
311 Farm machinery and equipment 223 120,183 33,173 36,036 27.6 30.0
312 Construction and material handling machines 360 213,473 54,251 57,138 25.4 26.8
320 Metalworking machinery 448 253,842 33,239 37,249 13.1 14.7
321 Office and accounting machines 135 84,327 6,623 6,714 7.9 8.0
322 Electronic computing equipment 1,138 677,487 17,930 26,911 2.6 4.0
331 Machinery, exc. electrical, n.e.c. 1,638 1,015,422 195,240 209,404 19.2 20.6
332 Not specified machinery 6 4,402 813 1,987 18.5 45.1
340 Household appliances 267 162,180 64,247 69,965 39.6 43.1
341 Radio, T.V., and communication equipment 763 486,407 71,431 80,043 14.7 16.5
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 2,222 1,365,457 202,426 225,177 14.8 16.5
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equipment, and supplie 12 11,405 1,208 1,208 10.6 10.6
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,996 1,195,008 651,396 670,816 54.5 56.1
352 Aircraft and parts 893 670,857 216,075 250,683 32.2 37.4
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 466 264,678 71,415 81,300 27.0 30.7
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 30 21,246 7,597 7,597 35.8 35.8
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 543 428,365 80,180 93,308 18.7 21.8
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 94 58,728 14,469 14,469 24.6 24.6
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 387 222,249 23,905 24,377 10.8 11.0
372 Optical and health services supplies 485 298,946 17,160 19,175 5.7 6.4
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 190 129,560 5,093 6,135 3.9 4.7
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 28 21,227 3,168 3,467 14.9 16.3
382 Not specified professional equipment 1 376 0 0 0.0 0.0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 200 121,856 17,968 21,158 14.7 17.4
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 625 353,720 31,710 36,809 9.0 10.4
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 32 19,468 1,232 1,232 6.3 6.3
TRANSPORTATION 7,628 4,526,483 1,895,167 2,010,806 41.9 44.4
400 Railroads 673 362,865 292,239 296,108 80.5 81.6
401 Bus service and urban transit 695 437,048 182,829 190,700 41.8 43.6
402 Taxicab service 103 61,658 6,686 7,160 10.8 11.6
410 Trucking service 2,645 1,543,802 379,544 403,468 24.6 26.1
411 Warehousing and storage 187 106,622 18,187 19,700 17.1 18.5
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,485 872,514 650,088 710,207 74.5 81.4
420 Water transportation 282 182,787 58,130 58,618 31.8 32.1
421 Air transportation 1,100 683,276 284,763 299,280 41.7 43.8
422 Pipe lines, exc. natural gas 31 16,796 903 1,557 5.4 9.3
432 Services incidental to transportation 427 259,114 21,798 24,007 8.4 9.3
COMMUNICATIONS 2,643 1,558,119 534,968 603,229 34.3 38.7
440 Radio and television broadcasting 488 273,324 31,379 39,776 11.5 14.6
441 Telephone (wire and radio) 1,881 1,113,928 486,710 544,445 43.7 48.9
442 Telegraph and miscellaneous communications services 274 170,867 16,880 19,008 9.9 11.1
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,671 1,558,048 537,461 584,063 34.5 37.5
460 Electric light and power 1,252 687,036 252,184 277,577 36.7 40.4
461 Gas and steam supply systems 339 213,324 60,563 66,295 28.4 31.1
462 Electric and gas, and other combinations 277 181,533 89,623 92,757 49.4 51.1
470 Water supply and irrigation 376 221,683 58,961 64,234 26.6 29.0
471 Sanitary services 419 250,543 75,222 82,293 30.0 32.8
472 Not specified utilities 8 3,930 907 907 23.1 23.1
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,595 3,878,565 291,006 337,935 7.5 8.7
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 304 178,488 7,045 8,000 3.9 4.5
501 Furniture and home furnishings 112 68,637 3,388 4,722 4.9 6.9
502 Lumber and construction materials 253 146,760 12,070 12,542 8.2 8.5
510 Sporting goods, toys, and hobby goods 65 34,243 1,843 1,992 5.4 5.8
511 Metals and minerals, exc. petroleum 120 73,183 7,609 8,741 10.4 11.9
512 Electrical goods 427 278,324 12,051 17,180 4.3 6.2
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 336 188,189 11,585 13,583 6.2 7.2
522 Not specified electrical and hardware products 0
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 1,641 952,860 30,377 39,705 3.2 4.2
531 Scrap and waste materials 197 123,085 9,529 10,937 7.7 8.9
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 110 64,873 0 0 0.0 0.0
540 Paper and paper products 168 103,855 5,326 6,837 5.1 6.6
541 Drugs, chemicals, and allied products 263 162,307 15,032 15,032 9.3 9.3
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 160 94,313 8,008 11,250 8.5 11.9
550 Groceries and related products 1,130 687,524 112,896 122,159 16.4 17.8
551 Farm products - raw materials 205 87,689 2,162 3,346 2.5 3.8
552 Petroleum products 282 154,872 7,115 8,831 4.6 5.7
560 Alcoholic beverages 227 139,631 24,894 29,739 17.8 21.3
561 Farm supplies 229 119,817 3,018 3,523 2.5 2.9
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 349 209,510 17,056 19,814 8.1 9.5
571 Not specified wholesale trade 17 10,406 0 0 0.0 0.0
RETAIL TRADE 28,773 16,811,395 1,105,952 1,237,264 6.6 7.4
580 Lumber and building material retailing 802 462,403 24,743 29,222 5.4 6.3
581 Hardware stores 298 174,368 5,148 5,148 3.0 3.0
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 116 67,516 0 0 0.0 0.0
590 Mobile home dealers 45 24,256 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 3,479 2,068,280 91,730 109,781 4.4 5.3
592 Variety stores 228 107,554 3,178 3,908 3.0 3.6
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 229 121,759 14,067 17,543 11.6 14.4
601 Grocery stores 4,413 2,539,675 681,978 724,176 26.9 28.5
602 Dairy products stores 80 50,371 876 876 1.7 1.7
610 Retail bakeries 268 161,725 12,768 14,382 7.9 8.9
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 217 128,397 5,221 6,749 4.1 5.3
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,713 995,641 33,765 48,266 3.4 4.8
620 Auto and home supply stores 655 397,364 11,081 13,053 2.8 3.3
621 Gasoline service stations 745 425,984 8,272 8,665 1.9 2.0
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 132 68,619 1,464 1,997 2.1 2.9
630 Apparel and accessory stores, exc. shoe 1,207 718,018 18,763 19,714 2.6 2.7
631 Shoe stores 252 146,452 1,602 1,602 1.1 1.1
632 Furniture and home furnishings stores 745 445,767 12,997 16,177 2.9 3.6
640 Household appliances, TV, and radio stores 615 369,928 5,405 6,912 1.5 1.9
641 Eating and drinking places 8,563 5,025,584 94,433 115,927 1.9 2.3
642 Drug stores 843 499,509 28,747 32,071 5.8 6.4
650 Liquor stores 178 95,577 5,752 6,488 6.0 6.8
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 421 258,322 6,143 6,143 2.4 2.4
652 Book and stationery stores 308 168,757 4,830 5,463 2.9 3.2
660 Jewelry stores 257 153,547 441 4,301 0.3 2.8
661 Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores 91 53,132 1,722 1,722 3.2 3.2
662 Mail order houses 163 96,105 5,504 6,454 5.7 6.7
670 Vending machine operators 117 65,142 10,298 10,381 15.8 15.9
671 Direct selling establishments 182 107,316 1,245 1,870 1.2 1.7
672 Fuel and ice dealers 179 90,034 4,885 5,047 5.4 5.6
681 Retail florists 228 127,981 767 767 0.6 0.6
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 981 581,154 8,129 11,428 1.4 2.0
691 Not specified retail trade 23 15,157 0 1,033 0.0 6.8
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 11,680 7,002,764 223,599 288,441 3.2 4.1
700 Banking 3,492 2,029,359 28,549 46,952 1.4 2.3
701 Savings and loan associations 370 240,542 5,862 8,653 2.4 3.6
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 876 516,880 17,744 22,787 3.4 4.4
710 Security, commodity brokerage, and investment companies 932 568,753 13,792 22,282 2.4 3.9
711 Insurance 3,425 2,062,144 59,097 79,213 2.9 3.8
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance-law offices 2,585 1,585,086 98,555 108,555 6.2 6.8
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 8,487 5,266,019 247,577 307,971 4.7 5.8
721 Advertising 362 237,041 6,612 11,187 2.8 4.7
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 832 544,158 68,252 74,510 12.5 13.7
730 Commercial research, development, and testing labs 473 245,701 10,289 13,608 4.2 5.5
731 Personnel supply services 1,074 661,911 19,427 28,064 2.9 4.2
732 Business management and consulting services 592 365,553 6,698 14,064 1.8 3.8
740 Computer and data processing services 985 632,821 6,990 12,367 1.1 2.0
741 Detective and protective services 541 339,106 25,982 33,588 7.7 9.9
742 Business services, n.e.c. 1,609 993,136 33,004 44,065 3.3 4.4
750 Automotive services, exc. repair 495 308,847 17,951 19,475 5.8 6.3
751 Automotive repair shops 940 577,415 19,694 23,310 3.4 4.0
752 Electrical repair shops 137 85,319 9,793 10,661 11.5 12.5
760 Miscellaneous repair services 447 275,011 22,884 23,074 8.3 8.4
PERSONAL SERVICES 6,283 3,541,487 173,203 183,501 4.9 5.2
761 Private households 1,890 1,125,578 1,157 1,157 0.1 0.1
762 Hotels and motels 2,323 1,183,857 129,531 135,957 10.9 11.5
770 Lodging places, exc. hotels and motels 197 110,797 1,048 1,048 0.9 0.9
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 584 351,410 29,852 30,519 8.5 8.7
772 Beauty shops 757 451,083 3,522 5,821 0.8 1.3
780 Barber shops 42 28,360 2,647 2,647 9.3 9.3
781 Funeral service and crematories 105 60,594 2,325 2,325 3.8 3.8
782 Shoe repair shops 10 6,944 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 5 2,547 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 370 220,315 3,120 4,026 1.4 1.8
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 1,992 1,195,253 138,531 159,463 11.6 13.3
800 Theaters and motion pictures 438 296,354 62,865 67,864 21.2 22.9
801 Bowling alleys, billiard and pool parlors 108 65,077 637 637 1.0 1.0
802 Miscellaneous entertainment and recreation services 1,446 833,822 75,029 90,962 9.0 10.9
831 HOSPITALS 7,782 4,508,296 665,137 781,866 14.8 17.3
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 6,553 3,721,545 309,994 355,622 8.3 9.6
812 Offices of physicians 1,263 735,761 5,267 8,389 0.7 1.1
820 Offices of dentists 714 385,933 3,352 3,439 0.9 0.9
821 Offices of chiropractors 74 52,275 0 0 0.0 0.0
822 Offices of optometrists 87 46,227 740 740 1.6 1.6
830 Offices of health practitioners, n.e.c. 53 30,280 1,813 1,813 6.0 6.0
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,643 1,463,931 174,653 195,039 11.9 13.3
840 Health services, n.e.c. 1,719 1,007,138 124,169 146,202 12.3 14.5
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 15,426 8,510,889 2,969,637 3,593,118 34.9 42.2
842 Elementary and secondary schools 10,402 5,752,773 2,587,875 3,097,073 45.0 53.8
850 Colleges and universities 4,437 2,436,438 340,554 444,030 14.0 18.2
851 Business, trade, and vocational schools 128 70,154 3,911 6,749 5.6 9.6
852 Libraries 317 178,306 32,350 39,287 18.1 22.0
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 142 73,218 4,946 5,980 6.8 8.2
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,148 1,819,601 156,264 189,019 8.6 10.4
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 372 203,753 9,873 11,759 4.8 5.8
862 Child day care services 890 509,318 13,611 19,764 2.7 3.9
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 563 330,957 18,707 22,320 5.7 6.7
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,323 775,573 114,073 135,176 14.7 17.4
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 5,946 3,468,414 124,471 163,418 3.6 4.7
841 Legal services 1,412 855,190 11,775 15,256 1.4 1.8
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 181 94,620 8,458 12,148 8.9 12.8
880 Religious organizations 1,308 750,030 10,017 15,609 1.3 2.1
881 Membership organizations 844 468,052 66,956 73,861 14.3 15.8
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,194 696,718 17,824 29,183 2.6 4.2
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 757 445,838 3,542 6,761 0.8 1.5
891 Noncommercial educational and scientific research 179 116,148 4,893 9,592 4.2 8.3
892 Miscellaneous professional and related services 71 41,818 1,008 1,008 2.4 2.4
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 9,733 5,465,283 1,647,566 2,013,769 30.1 36.8
900 Executive and legislative offices 320 160,143 13,186 20,843 8.2 13.0
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,064 576,671 131,111 157,235 22.7 27.3
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,200 1,920,031 866,991 956,433 45.2 49.8
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 716 401,225 102,928 146,972 25.7 36.6
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,184 638,905 187,277 239,659 29.3 37.5
930 Administration of environmental quality & housing programs 633 313,890 67,298 85,959 21.4 27.4
931 Administration of economic programs 1,045 547,479 153,091 187,386 28.0 34.2
932 National security and international affairs 1,571 906,939 125,683 219,282 13.9 24.2
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1988. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1980 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.