Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1989 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,001 1,119,650 10,560 13,379 0.9 1.2
10 Agricultural production, crops 896 527,152 5,763 6,307 1.1 1.2
11 Agricultural production, livestock 760 381,659 2,529 2,529 0.7 0.7
20 Agricultural services, exc. horticultural 345 210,838 2,269 4,543 1.1 2.2
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 823 494,541 14,228 25,738 2.9 5.2
21 Horticultural services 549 379,203 7,583 17,540 2.0 4.6
30 Forestry 191 80,062 5,716 6,827 7.1 8.5
31 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 83 35,275 929 1,371 2.6 3.9
MINING 1,378 664,563 116,516 130,856 17.5 19.7
40 Metal mining 190 63,206 21,955 27,061 34.7 42.8
41 Coal mining 313 152,293 60,137 63,594 39.5 41.8
42 Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction 656 338,891 7,740 13,139 2.3 3.9
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, exc. fuel 219 110,173 26,684 27,061 24.2 24.6
60 CONSTRUCTION 9,550 5,797,627 1,320,463 1,402,408 22.8 24.2
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 14,522 8,522,891 1,654,524 1,775,147 19.4 20.8
100 Meat products 781 444,916 83,255 91,271 18.7 20.5
101 Dairy products 328 191,173 59,101 64,142 30.9 33.6
102 Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 431 241,159 88,729 91,184 36.8 37.8
110 Grain mill products 261 150,560 34,265 37,261 22.8 24.7
111 Bakery products 356 218,224 83,027 84,168 38.0 38.6
112 Sugar and confectionery products 195 114,239 36,359 37,462 31.8 32.8
120 Beverage industries 346 220,181 67,585 71,680 30.7 32.6
121 Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products 342 194,602 40,271 43,135 20.7 22.2
122 Not specified food industries 2 1,467 0 0 0.0 0.0
130 Tobacco manufacturers 103 54,651 14,267 14,610 26.1 26.7
132 Knitting mills 256 125,220 4,908 5,520 3.9 4.4
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, exc. wool and knit goods 57 31,720 3,662 5,403 11.5 17.0
141 Floor coverings, exc. hard surface 83 58,659 6,372 6,889 10.9 11.7
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 839 425,654 36,103 38,884 8.5 9.1
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 67 34,477 9,018 9,274 26.2 26.9
151 Apparel and accessories, exc. knit 1,453 966,479 170,958 180,360 17.7 18.7
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 291 158,876 19,187 21,185 12.1 13.3
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 622 356,889 178,292 185,302 50.0 51.9
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 305 184,862 42,246 46,490 22.9 25.1
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 327 200,386 57,259 60,918 28.6 30.4
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 921 532,465 70,083 76,333 13.2 14.3
172 Printing, publishing, allied industries, exc. newspapers 2,010 1,258,319 126,095 146,108 10.0 11.6
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 277 148,815 29,898 32,994 20.1 22.2
181 Drugs 491 272,515 18,556 19,803 6.8 7.3
182 Soaps and cosmetics 284 173,464 30,797 32,733 17.8 18.9
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 101 62,206 11,045 11,918 17.8 19.2
191 Agricultural chemicals 97 45,298 4,497 4,762 9.9 10.5
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 1,065 592,994 117,761 124,097 19.9 20.9
200 Petroleum refining 260 161,481 53,383 57,857 33.1 35.8
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 36 19,287 4,357 5,061 22.6 26.2
210 Tires and inner tubes 140 82,788 35,219 36,928 42.5 44.6
211 Other rubber products, plastics footwear and belting 257 144,507 31,007 32,734 21.5 22.7
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 864 512,799 71,134 79,049 13.9 15.4
220 Leather tanning and finishing 27 11,650 2,070 2,744 17.8 23.6
221 Footwear, exc. rubber and plastic 172 85,918 9,682 12,398 11.3 14.4
222 Leather products, exc. footwear 75 43,992 4,079 4,489 9.3 10.2
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 20,009 12,308,056 2,849,508 3,045,594 23.2 24.7
230 Logging 201 103,269 2,358 2,520 2.3 2.4
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 713 393,079 81,012 85,831 20.6 21.8
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 109 62,414 5,820 5,820 9.3 9.3
241 Miscellaneous wood products 247 136,372 11,212 11,571 8.2 8.5
242 Furniture and fixtures 1,044 627,541 93,913 99,036 15.0 15.8
250 Glass and glass products 329 194,080 78,491 81,065 40.4 41.8
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 359 207,849 46,274 49,315 22.3 23.7
252 Structural clay products 71 52,092 11,600 15,586 22.3 29.9
261 Pottery and related products 57 33,257 7,426 7,426 22.3 22.3
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products 221 130,230 30,142 36,403 23.1 28.0
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 572 395,712 228,041 231,736 57.6 58.6
271 Iron and steel foundries 189 125,088 40,057 43,831 32.0 35.0
272 Primary aluminum industries 202 129,840 58,910 59,443 45.4 45.8
280 Other primary metal industries 320 179,015 57,282 58,792 32.0 32.8
281 Cutlery, handtools, and other hardware 196 125,267 29,390 31,744 23.5 25.3
282 Fabricated structural metal products 743 467,128 92,812 96,817 19.9 20.7
290 Screw machine products 104 66,516 5,782 5,782 8.7 8.7
291 Metal forgings and stampings 234 135,166 43,772 45,612 32.4 33.7
292 Ordnance 165 85,566 23,973 26,486 28.0 31.0
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 552 356,941 87,956 94,197 24.6 26.4
301 Not specified metal industries 1 626 0 0 0.0 0.0
310 Engines and turbines 147 95,347 38,931 40,984 40.8 43.0
311 Farm machinery and equipment 167 85,894 21,567 23,505 25.1 27.4
312 Construction and material handling machines 358 219,965 55,556 57,363 25.3 26.1
320 Metalworking machinery 524 301,302 38,497 45,134 12.8 15.0
321 Office and accounting machines 171 107,869 7,478 10,185 6.9 9.4
322 Electronic computing equipment 1,158 689,174 18,710 22,563 2.7 3.3
331 Machinery, exc. electrical, n.e.c. 1,627 1,004,260 165,060 177,184 16.4 17.6
332 Not specified machinery 6 4,287 574 574 13.4 13.4
340 Household appliances 269 173,291 78,947 84,126 45.6 48.5
341 Radio, T.V., and communication equipment 740 462,431 70,566 77,827 15.3 16.8
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 2,271 1,392,151 223,957 253,833 16.1 18.2
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equipment, and supplie 9 5,933 0 0 0.0 0.0
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,993 1,198,081 602,187 617,932 50.3 51.6
352 Aircraft and parts 839 608,379 185,651 211,215 30.5 34.7
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 476 276,266 65,320 70,548 23.6 25.5
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 40 25,296 12,337 13,342 48.8 52.7
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 530 416,477 87,196 98,212 20.9 23.6
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 90 59,508 19,927 20,627 33.5 34.7
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 357 216,400 30,058 31,305 13.9 14.5
372 Optical and health services supplies 493 299,087 16,036 21,086 5.4 7.1
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 196 133,429 12,605 13,778 9.4 10.3
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 18 12,099 1,257 1,257 10.4 10.4
382 Not specified professional equipment 0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 209 125,783 16,671 16,671 13.3 13.3
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 637 352,857 41,137 44,273 11.7 12.5
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 55 35,441 3,061 3,061 8.6 8.6
TRANSPORTATION 7,780 4,652,923 1,828,741 1,950,534 39.3 41.9
400 Railroads 621 340,024 266,718 271,243 78.4 79.8
401 Bus service and urban transit 706 412,172 159,401 169,010 38.7 41.0
402 Taxicab service 128 80,620 5,735 9,643 7.1 12.0
410 Trucking service 2,667 1,576,313 378,013 402,566 24.0 25.5
411 Warehousing and storage 223 138,550 13,236 14,910 9.6 10.8
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,479 897,960 656,986 715,281 73.2 79.7
420 Water transportation 278 169,545 50,255 51,474 29.6 30.4
421 Air transportation 1,154 725,071 275,690 292,943 38.0 40.4
422 Pipe lines, exc. natural gas 28 12,530 783 783 6.2 6.2
432 Services incidental to transportation 496 300,138 21,924 22,682 7.3 7.6
COMMUNICATIONS 2,604 1,515,290 540,433 601,247 35.7 39.7
440 Radio and television broadcasting 468 251,335 28,567 32,568 11.4 13.0
441 Telephone (wire and radio) 1,839 1,092,398 500,466 554,743 45.8 50.8
442 Telegraph and miscellaneous communications services 297 171,557 11,400 13,936 6.6 8.1
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,661 1,523,591 501,156 557,559 32.9 36.6
460 Electric light and power 1,217 659,118 229,341 255,676 34.8 38.8
461 Gas and steam supply systems 311 180,834 60,614 63,486 33.5 35.1
462 Electric and gas, and other combinations 281 194,804 77,306 85,610 39.7 43.9
470 Water supply and irrigation 380 214,856 50,321 56,035 23.4 26.1
471 Sanitary services 455 265,091 80,420 92,598 30.3 34.9
472 Not specified utilities 17 8,888 3,153 4,155 35.5 46.7
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,750 3,942,025 269,408 308,080 6.8 7.8
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 358 212,476 14,796 15,948 7.0 7.5
501 Furniture and home furnishings 96 56,402 397 397 0.7 0.7
502 Lumber and construction materials 239 143,799 10,851 12,008 7.5 8.4
510 Sporting goods, toys, and hobby goods 57 34,109 0 0 0.0 0.0
511 Metals and minerals, exc. petroleum 132 80,783 5,301 6,047 6.6 7.5
512 Electrical goods 433 270,543 8,319 13,419 3.1 5.0
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 346 201,493 4,066 5,294 2.0 2.6
522 Not specified electrical and hardware products 0
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 1,661 948,937 27,766 36,633 2.9 3.9
531 Scrap and waste materials 214 129,514 7,721 7,907 6.0 6.1
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 99 63,373 2,453 3,085 3.9 4.9
540 Paper and paper products 205 120,940 8,952 9,614 7.4 7.9
541 Drugs, chemicals, and allied products 311 184,001 9,620 12,383 5.2 6.7
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 155 101,449 10,138 12,093 10.0 11.9
550 Groceries and related products 1,166 715,972 117,355 120,360 16.4 16.8
551 Farm products - raw materials 208 92,428 3,703 5,658 4.0 6.1
552 Petroleum products 250 135,549 7,930 13,476 5.9 9.9
560 Alcoholic beverages 219 119,812 18,196 20,289 15.2 16.9
561 Farm supplies 225 114,845 1,766 3,392 1.5 3.0
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 356 202,147 10,075 10,075 5.0 5.0
571 Not specified wholesale trade 20 13,455 0 0 0.0 0.0
RETAIL TRADE 29,518 17,298,914 1,063,204 1,184,645 6.1 6.8
580 Lumber and building material retailing 775 462,453 23,258 27,097 5.0 5.9
581 Hardware stores 305 180,351 1,640 3,299 0.9 1.8
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 127 80,369 497 1,444 0.6 1.8
590 Mobile home dealers 45 20,964 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 3,501 2,082,221 82,378 98,961 4.0 4.8
592 Variety stores 212 108,017 498 2,006 0.5 1.9
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 246 133,816 6,900 9,113 5.2 6.8
601 Grocery stores 4,619 2,667,866 676,911 706,829 25.4 26.5
602 Dairy products stores 92 51,390 2,178 2,961 4.2 5.8
610 Retail bakeries 264 154,789 14,008 16,472 9.0 10.6
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 251 153,652 6,739 7,682 4.4 5.0
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,773 1,049,527 47,519 55,120 4.5 5.3
620 Auto and home supply stores 625 354,313 6,025 7,300 1.7 2.1
621 Gasoline service stations 739 415,113 2,519 2,838 0.6 0.7
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 124 74,353 1,781 1,781 2.4 2.4
630 Apparel and accessory stores, exc. shoe 1,275 728,911 15,383 19,463 2.1 2.7
631 Shoe stores 262 154,699 2,148 2,887 1.4 1.9
632 Furniture and home furnishings stores 735 427,717 10,129 13,988 2.4 3.3
640 Household appliances, TV, and radio stores 710 461,150 6,093 11,380 1.3 2.5
641 Eating and drinking places 8,887 5,232,770 91,777 111,972 1.8 2.1
642 Drug stores 862 514,058 30,288 35,176 5.9 6.8
650 Liquor stores 176 97,408 3,060 3,571 3.1 3.7
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 408 238,589 4,525 7,785 1.9 3.3
652 Book and stationery stores 314 182,807 3,283 4,999 1.8 2.7
660 Jewelry stores 249 145,675 2,279 3,085 1.6 2.1
661 Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores 108 61,434 0 0 0.0 0.0
662 Mail order houses 165 98,050 3,755 3,755 3.8 3.8
670 Vending machine operators 104 61,973 1,769 2,567 2.9 4.1
671 Direct selling establishments 168 106,684 1,553 1,553 1.5 1.5
672 Fuel and ice dealers 177 91,804 5,115 5,115 5.6 5.6
681 Retail florists 241 128,069 0 1,273 0.0 1.0
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 959 566,814 8,443 11,128 1.5 2.0
691 Not specified retail trade 20 11,110 754 2,045 6.8 18.4
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 11,747 7,045,421 196,961 257,059 2.8 3.6
700 Banking 3,540 2,060,991 32,483 48,779 1.6 2.4
701 Savings and loan associations 349 213,731 1,361 3,145 0.6 1.5
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 886 520,220 12,639 19,795 2.4 3.8
710 Security, commodity brokerage, and investment companies 866 535,895 6,453 11,217 1.2 2.1
711 Insurance 3,522 2,140,671 60,369 77,629 2.8 3.6
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance-law offices 2,584 1,573,914 83,656 96,494 5.3 6.1
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 8,973 5,567,057 259,647 315,068 4.7 5.7
721 Advertising 335 216,457 3,515 7,296 1.6 3.4
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 889 563,707 64,197 70,775 11.4 12.6
730 Commercial research, development, and testing labs 490 247,314 13,096 14,016 5.3 5.7
731 Personnel supply services 1,132 718,561 28,257 37,556 3.9 5.2
732 Business management and consulting services 597 359,509 4,269 5,321 1.2 1.5
740 Computer and data processing services 1,072 694,488 9,579 18,439 1.4 2.7
741 Detective and protective services 550 345,204 24,037 32,074 7.0 9.3
742 Business services, n.e.c. 1,711 1,064,252 38,421 48,020 3.6 4.5
750 Automotive services, exc. repair 543 350,030 21,525 25,088 6.1 7.2
751 Automotive repair shops 1,014 607,307 19,014 21,395 3.1 3.5
752 Electrical repair shops 140 84,123 9,363 10,232 11.1 12.2
760 Miscellaneous repair services 500 316,105 24,374 24,856 7.7 7.9
PERSONAL SERVICES 6,306 3,584,739 198,492 218,181 5.5 6.1
761 Private households 1,807 1,078,226 901 4,007 0.1 0.4
762 Hotels and motels 2,279 1,176,541 144,110 152,180 12.2 12.9
770 Lodging places, exc. hotels and motels 224 125,380 489 2,233 0.4 1.8
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 696 427,593 41,032 45,005 9.6 10.5
772 Beauty shops 731 432,968 5,283 6,391 1.2 1.5
780 Barber shops 33 20,131 147 147 0.7 0.7
781 Funeral service and crematories 117 71,151 1,027 1,027 1.4 1.4
782 Shoe repair shops 9 4,737 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 9 4,145 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 401 243,866 5,503 7,192 2.3 2.9
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 1,946 1,132,562 123,392 140,245 10.9 12.4
800 Theaters and motion pictures 440 298,059 51,438 58,718 17.3 19.7
801 Bowling alleys, billiard and pool parlors 97 51,960 180 180 0.3 0.3
802 Miscellaneous entertainment and recreation services 1,409 782,542 71,773 81,347 9.2 10.4
831 HOSPITALS 7,881 4,552,193 679,088 802,345 14.9 17.6
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 6,895 3,867,718 321,636 369,226 8.3 9.5
812 Offices of physicians 1,300 747,159 8,508 11,859 1.1 1.6
820 Offices of dentists 729 410,569 6,429 7,972 1.6 1.9
821 Offices of chiropractors 94 56,718 358 358 0.6 0.6
822 Offices of optometrists 76 43,726 1,121 1,121 2.6 2.6
830 Offices of health practitioners, n.e.c. 64 38,209 2,660 2,660 7.0 7.0
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,783 1,504,269 183,056 206,390 12.2 13.7
840 Health services, n.e.c. 1,849 1,067,068 119,504 138,866 11.2 13.0
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 15,854 8,845,338 3,043,337 3,690,068 34.4 41.7
842 Elementary and secondary schools 10,687 5,994,231 2,702,170 3,232,892 45.1 53.9
850 Colleges and universities 4,590 2,530,185 306,386 411,233 12.1 16.3
851 Business, trade, and vocational schools 127 70,233 4,083 4,715 5.8 6.7
852 Libraries 297 164,470 25,792 31,917 15.7 19.4
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 153 86,219 4,905 9,312 5.7 10.8
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,327 1,909,907 162,102 200,359 8.5 10.5
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 401 236,774 10,629 13,287 4.5 5.6
862 Child day care services 974 567,043 14,484 20,738 2.6 3.7
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 616 346,903 26,559 29,301 7.7 8.4
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,336 759,188 110,430 137,034 14.5 18.1
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 6,085 3,558,346 126,247 164,750 3.5 4.6
841 Legal services 1,455 861,074 11,958 20,536 1.4 2.4
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 166 86,433 5,087 6,853 5.9 7.9
880 Religious organizations 1,361 764,938 6,063 11,576 0.8 1.5
881 Membership organizations 877 486,151 65,623 73,901 13.5 15.2
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,175 720,174 21,549 28,840 3.0 4.0
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 786 477,528 6,392 9,872 1.3 2.1
891 Noncommercial educational and scientific research 183 109,690 7,514 10,177 6.9 9.3
892 Miscellaneous professional and related services 82 52,357 2,060 2,995 3.9 5.7
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 9,801 5,576,276 1,680,809 2,045,074 30.1 36.7
900 Executive and legislative offices 318 170,349 21,577 24,980 12.7 14.7
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,014 575,695 141,491 181,822 24.6 31.6
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,240 1,950,127 882,637 972,534 45.3 49.9
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 722 414,885 106,076 142,217 25.6 34.3
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,256 681,148 201,539 249,267 29.6 36.6
930 Administration of environmental quality & housing programs 631 317,212 83,027 97,969 26.2 30.9
931 Administration of economic programs 1,067 553,524 137,485 167,222 24.8 30.2
932 National security and international affairs 1,553 913,335 106,978 209,064 11.7 22.9
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1989. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1980 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.