Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1990 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,121 1,173,927 19,890 22,576 1.7 1.9
10 Agricultural production, crops 921 515,309 9,667 9,667 1.9 1.9
11 Agricultural production, livestock 826 428,351 6,710 8,252 1.6 1.9
20 Agricultural services, exc. horticultural 374 230,268 3,514 4,658 1.5 2.0
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 820 457,979 15,639 21,145 3.4 4.6
21 Horticultural services 578 355,663 9,100 10,288 2.6 2.9
30 Forestry 176 68,401 5,618 9,613 8.2 14.1
31 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 66 33,915 920 1,244 2.7 3.7
MINING 1,397 676,466 121,469 136,259 18.0 20.1
40 Metal mining 187 64,430 16,716 20,757 25.9 32.2
41 Coal mining 316 159,862 60,653 64,383 37.9 40.3
42 Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction 660 339,630 17,088 19,269 5.0 5.7
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, exc. fuel 234 112,544 27,012 31,851 24.0 28.3
60 CONSTRUCTION 9,874 5,666,481 1,272,895 1,355,009 22.5 23.9
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 14,658 8,276,305 1,536,029 1,657,379 18.6 20.0
100 Meat products 810 444,074 87,332 94,553 19.7 21.3
101 Dairy products 313 172,840 51,286 53,083 29.7 30.7
102 Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 476 243,993 77,359 80,031 31.7 32.8
110 Grain mill products 255 142,413 34,718 36,955 24.4 25.9
111 Bakery products 382 226,729 77,940 83,006 34.4 36.6
112 Sugar and confectionery products 198 105,089 38,545 39,401 36.7 37.5
120 Beverage industries 360 233,478 57,560 60,797 24.7 26.0
121 Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products 365 201,615 38,412 42,919 19.1 21.3
122 Not specified food industries 4 2,678 0 798 0.0 29.8
130 Tobacco manufacturers 87 42,601 7,870 8,388 18.5 19.7
132 Knitting mills 238 107,624 8,392 10,037 7.8 9.3
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, exc. wool and knit goods 58 28,462 3,516 3,516 12.4 12.4
141 Floor coverings, exc. hard surface 89 69,998 8,251 8,251 11.8 11.8
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 848 424,059 35,649 39,423 8.4 9.3
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 91 40,735 6,364 7,647 15.6 18.8
151 Apparel and accessories, exc. knit 1,508 884,162 142,917 156,990 16.2 17.8
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 250 134,427 14,544 14,642 10.8 10.9
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 581 330,752 176,074 179,733 53.2 54.3
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 341 201,369 42,302 46,126 21.0 22.9
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 334 199,232 56,405 57,774 28.3 29.0
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 927 518,144 67,549 75,206 13.0 14.5
172 Printing, publishing, allied industries, exc. newspapers 2,072 1,214,030 124,837 137,317 10.3 11.3
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 291 161,214 23,849 25,713 14.8 15.9
181 Drugs 505 265,843 22,655 27,441 8.5 10.3
182 Soaps and cosmetics 263 152,431 24,443 24,443 16.0 16.0
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 111 67,608 8,600 9,520 12.7 14.1
191 Agricultural chemicals 89 41,783 5,185 5,185 12.4 12.4
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 1,076 609,955 117,268 127,823 19.2 21.0
200 Petroleum refining 227 135,600 36,360 41,163 26.8 30.4
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 46 29,668 7,864 10,084 26.5 34.0
210 Tires and inner tubes 141 83,897 29,294 30,240 34.9 36.0
211 Other rubber products, plastics footwear and belting 236 127,460 31,145 32,638 24.4 25.6
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 839 497,639 56,066 64,360 11.3 12.9
220 Leather tanning and finishing 19 9,689 3,813 4,358 39.4 45.0
221 Footwear, exc. rubber and plastic 154 86,189 7,587 13,384 8.8 15.5
222 Leather products, exc. footwear 74 38,825 4,077 4,435 10.5 11.4
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 20,621 12,179,632 2,688,615 2,894,289 22.1 23.8
230 Logging 196 106,748 6,720 9,743 6.3 9.1
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 696 389,874 63,538 67,530 16.3 17.3
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 104 63,135 3,156 3,156 5.0 5.0
241 Miscellaneous wood products 246 130,266 16,250 18,467 12.5 14.2
242 Furniture and fixtures 1,137 643,142 80,364 85,356 12.5 13.3
250 Glass and glass products 330 190,262 70,576 71,393 37.1 37.5
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 337 198,572 42,483 44,646 21.4 22.5
252 Structural clay products 71 44,835 11,441 14,711 25.5 32.8
261 Pottery and related products 73 38,001 13,113 13,113 34.5 34.5
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products 244 141,870 35,123 41,628 24.8 29.3
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 590 389,970 204,016 206,309 52.3 52.9
271 Iron and steel foundries 202 129,887 50,536 51,956 38.9 40.0
272 Primary aluminum industries 210 128,159 47,541 50,047 37.1 39.1
280 Other primary metal industries 372 207,742 52,426 56,597 25.2 27.2
281 Cutlery, handtools, and other hardware 201 115,856 23,402 24,543 20.2 21.2
282 Fabricated structural metal products 784 469,402 106,919 112,822 22.8 24.0
290 Screw machine products 95 57,617 8,168 8,721 14.2 15.1
291 Metal forgings and stampings 226 127,953 35,693 37,797 27.9 29.5
292 Ordnance 151 82,571 22,648 26,109 27.4 31.6
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 578 360,038 92,922 101,271 25.8 28.1
301 Not specified metal industries 1 761 0 761 0.0 100.0
310 Engines and turbines 127 83,137 38,453 38,453 46.3 46.3
311 Farm machinery and equipment 211 107,258 31,581 34,102 29.4 31.8
312 Construction and material handling machines 381 231,746 55,767 60,126 24.1 25.9
320 Metalworking machinery 472 257,993 35,170 38,975 13.6 15.1
321 Office and accounting machines 141 78,747 6,458 7,265 8.2 9.2
322 Electronic computing equipment 1,164 660,359 13,644 18,183 2.1 2.8
331 Machinery, exc. electrical, n.e.c. 1,629 964,599 165,160 177,448 17.1 18.4
332 Not specified machinery 7 4,098 574 574 14.0 14.0
340 Household appliances 253 155,138 60,022 64,387 38.7 41.5
341 Radio, T.V., and communication equipment 721 433,405 49,630 55,795 11.5 12.9
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 2,434 1,439,888 200,539 222,791 13.9 15.5
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equipment, and supplie 14 10,149 2,619 2,619 25.8 25.8
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,907 1,119,834 542,297 558,555 48.4 49.9
352 Aircraft and parts 969 659,212 211,384 239,452 32.1 36.3
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 426 239,774 61,647 70,727 25.7 29.5
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 44 28,128 13,261 13,261 47.1 47.1
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 639 424,798 81,676 99,605 19.2 23.4
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 112 71,963 19,196 20,299 26.7 28.2
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 424 249,334 24,810 30,100 10.0 12.1
372 Optical and health services supplies 530 312,728 20,328 22,580 6.5 7.2
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 232 127,984 11,082 12,796 8.7 10.0
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 23 11,925 1,380 1,380 11.6 11.6
382 Not specified professional equipment 0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 198 115,663 17,229 17,828 14.9 15.4
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 663 341,141 33,786 35,832 9.9 10.5
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 56 33,969 3,887 4,481 11.4 13.2
TRANSPORTATION 8,139 4,631,513 1,838,999 1,971,267 39.7 42.6
400 Railroads 585 298,684 229,520 234,493 76.8 78.5
401 Bus service and urban transit 757 431,574 167,205 182,282 38.7 42.2
402 Taxicab service 126 67,445 4,594 5,214 6.8 7.7
410 Trucking service 2,820 1,617,163 392,408 421,300 24.3 26.1
411 Warehousing and storage 245 138,651 19,338 19,796 13.9 14.3
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,543 867,214 667,997 724,302 77.0 83.5
420 Water transportation 266 162,495 49,143 53,716 30.2 33.1
421 Air transportation 1,204 717,327 273,826 291,938 38.2 40.7
422 Pipe lines, exc. natural gas 30 15,915 3,146 3,828 19.8 24.1
432 Services incidental to transportation 563 315,045 31,821 34,397 10.1 10.9
COMMUNICATIONS 2,646 1,504,879 532,767 592,668 35.4 39.4
440 Radio and television broadcasting 458 245,143 30,312 34,054 12.4 13.9
441 Telephone (wire and radio) 1,828 1,051,851 481,051 536,450 45.7 51.0
442 Telegraph and miscellaneous communications services 360 207,885 21,403 22,164 10.3 10.7
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,853 1,559,627 532,877 591,369 34.2 37.9
460 Electric light and power 1,325 707,061 263,019 287,239 37.2 40.6
461 Gas and steam supply systems 367 199,368 61,017 70,127 30.6 35.2
462 Electric and gas, and other combinations 278 160,948 63,339 69,825 39.4 43.4
470 Water supply and irrigation 380 213,731 52,343 61,941 24.5 29.0
471 Sanitary services 491 272,220 90,779 99,856 33.3 36.7
472 Not specified utilities 12 6,300 2,380 2,380 37.8 37.8
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,989 4,001,332 262,060 296,671 6.5 7.4
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 311 187,545 10,638 11,141 5.7 5.9
501 Furniture and home furnishings 95 56,551 1,462 2,058 2.6 3.6
502 Lumber and construction materials 232 144,822 12,765 13,786 8.8 9.5
510 Sporting goods, toys, and hobby goods 68 39,574 906 1,349 2.3 3.4
511 Metals and minerals, exc. petroleum 148 89,737 10,299 11,090 11.5 12.4
512 Electrical goods 453 270,850 7,910 10,273 2.9 3.8
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 365 203,770 7,814 8,565 3.8 4.2
522 Not specified electrical and hardware products 0
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 1,738 978,752 20,480 26,226 2.1 2.7
531 Scrap and waste materials 215 128,627 13,584 14,600 10.6 11.4
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 119 66,495 574 1,233 0.9 1.9
540 Paper and paper products 203 114,944 6,094 7,380 5.3 6.4
541 Drugs, chemicals, and allied products 345 204,416 11,560 12,177 5.7 6.0
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 194 105,188 6,419 8,324 6.1 7.9
550 Groceries and related products 1,208 714,461 107,485 119,056 15.0 16.7
551 Farm products - raw materials 183 77,780 1,723 3,079 2.2 4.0
552 Petroleum products 271 151,221 7,655 8,300 5.1 5.5
560 Alcoholic beverages 218 124,820 21,268 21,796 17.0 17.5
561 Farm supplies 227 113,839 1,556 2,441 1.4 2.1
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 379 217,285 11,870 13,798 5.5 6.4
571 Not specified wholesale trade 17 10,655 0 0 0.0 0.0
579 RETAIL TRADE 30,873 17,370,236 1,086,676 1,212,512 6.3 7.0
580 Lumber and building material retailing 848 469,217 25,429 31,020 5.4 6.6
581 Hardware stores 316 172,099 1,937 2,631 1.1 1.5
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 109 63,825 1,165 1,165 1.8 1.8
590 Mobile home dealers 34 18,895 82 82 0.4 0.4
591 Department stores 3,626 2,084,409 93,629 112,699 4.5 5.4
592 Variety stores 238 119,677 3,348 3,348 2.8 2.8
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 233 116,398 11,171 13,634 9.6 11.7
601 Grocery stores 4,862 2,720,726 673,158 709,211 24.7 26.1
602 Dairy products stores 74 43,153 1,283 1,552 3.0 3.6
610 Retail bakeries 258 139,907 10,071 10,071 7.2 7.2
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 264 152,436 4,882 7,075 3.2 4.6
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,797 1,023,276 47,462 55,867 4.6 5.5
620 Auto and home supply stores 657 363,302 7,589 8,395 2.1 2.3
621 Gasoline service stations 772 420,438 2,734 3,852 0.7 0.9
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 152 83,986 0 0 0.0 0.0
630 Apparel and accessory stores, exc. shoe 1,358 743,619 18,887 25,074 2.5 3.4
631 Shoe stores 265 156,153 387 1,444 0.2 0.9
632 Furniture and home furnishings stores 722 410,544 13,142 14,574 3.2 3.5
640 Household appliances, TV, and radio stores 761 438,087 2,169 3,259 0.5 0.7
641 Eating and drinking places 9,249 5,259,897 88,433 111,291 1.7 2.1
642 Drug stores 945 523,343 34,795 40,782 6.6 7.8
650 Liquor stores 195 104,814 3,875 5,193 3.7 5.0
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 463 254,233 6,656 6,711 2.6 2.6
652 Book and stationery stores 351 193,565 5,650 6,267 2.9 3.2
660 Jewelry stores 280 155,126 3,857 4,722 2.5 3.0
661 Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores 95 49,806 0 0 0.0 0.0
662 Mail order houses 179 105,855 3,860 3,860 3.6 3.6
670 Vending machine operators 109 59,438 4,961 5,446 8.3 9.2
671 Direct selling establishments 165 100,707 0 1,196 0.0 1.2
672 Fuel and ice dealers 193 96,758 7,222 8,021 7.5 8.3
681 Retail florists 281 153,647 0 0 0.0 0.0
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 988 553,194 7,841 13,069 1.4 2.4
691 Not specified retail trade 34 19,703 1,001 1,001 5.1 5.1
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 12,400 7,040,474 220,915 291,340 3.1 4.1
700 Banking 3,741 2,030,764 27,854 53,313 1.4 2.6
701 Savings and loan associations 306 180,635 1,284 2,935 0.7 1.6
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 892 505,431 12,719 18,124 2.5 3.6
710 Security, commodity brokerage, and investment companies 1,017 587,736 10,971 17,154 1.9 2.9
711 Insurance 3,793 2,180,630 74,713 97,149 3.4 4.5
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance-law offices 2,651 1,555,279 93,374 102,666 6.0 6.6
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 9,435 5,482,286 243,079 298,683 4.4 5.4
721 Advertising 369 215,157 7,335 8,458 3.4 3.9
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 854 480,468 57,494 61,133 12.0 12.7
730 Commercial research, development, and testing labs 487 259,373 14,023 17,371 5.4 6.7
731 Personnel supply services 1,112 651,155 15,965 22,725 2.5 3.5
732 Business management and consulting services 703 396,427 6,926 9,748 1.7 2.5
740 Computer and data processing services 1,133 677,543 7,025 14,304 1.0 2.1
741 Detective and protective services 565 332,238 26,973 34,421 8.1 10.4
742 Business services, n.e.c. 1,876 1,092,300 32,754 44,673 3.0 4.1
750 Automotive services, exc. repair 588 357,004 23,390 26,596 6.6 7.4
751 Automotive repair shops 1,105 641,189 15,849 20,671 2.5 3.2
752 Electrical repair shops 152 94,995 5,458 6,059 5.7 6.4
760 Miscellaneous repair services 491 284,438 29,886 32,525 10.5 11.4
PERSONAL SERVICES 6,543 3,539,279 163,683 192,790 4.6 5.4
761 Private households 1,756 997,959 0 1,429 0.0 0.1
762 Hotels and motels 2,493 1,253,500 126,998 146,059 10.1 11.7
770 Lodging places, exc. hotels and motels 231 131,148 624 987 0.5 0.8
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 746 407,446 28,656 31,895 7.0 7.8
772 Beauty shops 763 425,788 3,483 7,310 0.8 1.7
780 Barber shops 42 26,559 1,323 1,323 5.0 5.0
781 Funeral service and crematories 100 58,843 1,000 1,000 1.7 1.7
782 Shoe repair shops 2 865 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 6 2,908 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 404 234,264 1,600 2,785 0.7 1.2
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,275 1,235,350 140,811 159,187 11.4 12.9
800 Theaters and motion pictures 578 337,493 64,787 66,853 19.2 19.8
801 Bowling alleys, billiard and pool parlors 93 54,385 1,587 1,587 2.9 2.9
802 Miscellaneous entertainment and recreation services 1,604 843,472 74,438 90,746 8.8 10.8
831 HOSPITALS 8,548 4,709,388 678,972 836,864 14.4 17.8
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 7,489 4,122,276 321,484 392,717 7.8 9.5
812 Offices of physicians 1,477 809,662 12,393 24,125 1.5 3.0
820 Offices of dentists 766 426,548 7,114 9,380 1.7 2.2
821 Offices of chiropractors 90 53,144 0 0 0.0 0.0
822 Offices of optometrists 79 42,229 0 132 0.0 0.3
830 Offices of health practitioners, n.e.c. 64 35,323 0 0 0.0 0.0
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,846 1,547,183 164,939 192,182 10.7 12.4
840 Health services, n.e.c. 2,167 1,208,187 137,039 166,897 11.3 13.8
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 16,861 9,050,206 3,079,360 3,709,073 34.0 41.0
842 Elementary and secondary schools 11,220 6,048,835 2,716,948 3,237,215 44.9 53.5
850 Colleges and universities 5,016 2,661,768 328,089 425,679 12.3 16.0
851 Business, trade, and vocational schools 114 61,992 4,213 5,654 6.8 9.1
852 Libraries 337 178,034 24,687 30,100 13.9 16.9
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 174 99,577 5,423 10,425 5.4 10.5
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,617 1,965,531 171,795 209,576 8.7 10.7
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 434 228,444 5,937 7,664 2.6 3.4
862 Child day care services 1,027 570,511 14,139 19,066 2.5 3.3
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 676 367,825 36,242 42,193 9.9 11.5
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,480 798,751 115,477 140,653 14.5 17.6
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 6,643 3,660,688 131,823 165,550 3.6 4.5
841 Legal services 1,629 896,703 17,637 23,148 2.0 2.6
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 204 97,204 6,388 7,961 6.6 8.2
880 Religious organizations 1,451 795,447 3,073 7,109 0.4 0.9
881 Membership organizations 983 518,570 71,910 77,754 13.9 15.0
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,295 746,558 17,356 25,083 2.3 3.4
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 750 415,667 5,474 10,029 1.3 2.4
891 Noncommercial educational and scientific research 259 147,766 9,025 13,505 6.1 9.1
892 Miscellaneous professional and related services 72 42,772 961 961 2.2 2.2
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 10,228 5,600,905 1,679,974 2,050,915 30.0 36.6
900 Executive and legislative offices 308 154,857 16,465 21,149 10.6 13.7
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,208 645,105 149,153 184,154 23.1 28.5
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,440 1,995,829 868,687 960,067 43.5 48.1
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 667 366,901 93,806 122,522 25.6 33.4
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,269 663,186 200,385 245,624 30.2 37.0
930 Administration of environmental quality & housing programs 632 296,823 70,167 80,323 23.6 27.1
931 Administration of economic programs 1,174 623,062 172,110 215,724 27.6 34.6
932 National security and international affairs 1,530 855,142 109,201 221,351 12.8 25.9
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1990. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1980 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.