Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1991 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,056 1,149,380 19,640 22,128 1.7 1.9
10 Agricultural production, crops 892 535,189 8,854 10,287 1.7 1.9
11 Agricultural production, livestock 830 412,034 6,009 6,465 1.5 1.6
20 Agricultural services, exc. horticultural 334 202,157 4,777 5,377 2.4 2.7
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 795 463,228 16,720 20,649 3.6 4.5
21 Horticultural services 557 367,369 12,672 13,550 3.4 3.7
30 Forestry 165 59,991 4,048 7,042 6.7 11.7
31 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 73 35,867 0 57 0.0 0.2
MINING 1,352 677,005 101,239 114,134 15.0 16.9
40 Metal mining 162 59,100 16,448 19,857 27.8 33.6
41 Coal mining 280 135,582 47,653 50,245 35.1 37.1
42 Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction 696 376,506 13,903 16,938 3.7 4.5
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, exc. fuel 214 105,818 23,235 27,094 22.0 25.6
60 CONSTRUCTION 8,741 5,114,713 1,143,669 1,222,796 22.4 23.9
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 14,209 8,190,647 1,478,962 1,594,820 18.1 19.5
100 Meat products 813 448,226 89,894 97,874 20.1 21.8
101 Dairy products 260 143,228 36,168 39,052 25.3 27.3
102 Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 400 203,498 59,949 61,746 29.5 30.3
110 Grain mill products 261 147,168 30,852 35,874 21.0 24.4
111 Bakery products 357 206,132 66,742 70,881 32.4 34.4
112 Sugar and confectionery products 196 106,112 33,855 35,016 31.9 33.0
120 Beverage industries 342 233,411 57,484 60,826 24.6 26.1
121 Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products 315 180,473 37,731 40,872 20.9 22.6
122 Not specified food industries 7 3,956 2,113 2,113 53.4 53.4
130 Tobacco manufacturers 96 56,558 16,025 16,935 28.3 29.9
132 Knitting mills 251 114,314 7,153 7,153 6.3 6.3
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, exc. wool and knit goods 50 25,243 3,497 3,497 13.9 13.9
141 Floor coverings, exc. hard surface 70 57,466 1,818 2,281 3.2 4.0
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 807 431,613 30,199 35,304 7.0 8.2
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 76 39,809 3,881 4,272 9.7 10.7
151 Apparel and accessories, exc. knit 1,450 854,402 129,114 142,092 15.1 16.6
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 253 131,214 17,585 17,702 13.4 13.5
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 563 320,892 159,221 164,204 49.6 51.2
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 308 192,755 49,020 50,576 25.4 26.2
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 345 215,162 73,976 79,598 34.4 37.0
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 893 484,162 68,527 73,711 14.2 15.2
172 Printing, publishing, allied industries, exc. newspapers 1,979 1,200,417 122,300 134,580 10.2 11.2
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 266 149,486 18,009 19,545 12.0 13.1
181 Drugs 524 302,255 27,468 30,050 9.1 9.9
182 Soaps and cosmetics 312 181,636 21,394 22,851 11.8 12.6
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 111 67,589 10,370 11,202 15.3 16.6
191 Agricultural chemicals 99 52,741 6,635 6,916 12.6 13.1
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 1,027 583,260 102,847 113,680 17.6 19.5
200 Petroleum refining 261 165,836 48,867 52,981 29.5 31.9
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 37 23,002 5,275 6,485 22.9 28.2
210 Tires and inner tubes 137 80,070 28,120 29,335 35.1 36.6
211 Other rubber products, plastics footwear and belting 230 127,934 24,684 25,047 19.3 19.6
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 869 520,281 66,138 72,986 12.7 14.0
220 Leather tanning and finishing 23 13,299 4,596 4,596 34.6 34.6
221 Footwear, exc. rubber and plastic 146 85,554 11,363 15,966 13.3 18.7
222 Leather products, exc. footwear 75 41,493 6,092 7,022 14.7 16.9
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 19,233 11,534,838 2,530,568 2,722,362 21.9 23.6
230 Logging 174 94,851 4,773 5,779 5.0 6.1
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 570 347,724 64,356 68,437 18.5 19.7
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 84 57,731 1,250 1,621 2.2 2.8
241 Miscellaneous wood products 212 118,899 14,101 15,355 11.9 12.9
242 Furniture and fixtures 1,035 589,930 83,921 91,526 14.2 15.5
250 Glass and glass products 271 157,461 60,739 61,646 38.6 39.2
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 302 181,677 40,668 41,912 22.4 23.1
252 Structural clay products 65 40,729 8,907 9,440 21.9 23.2
261 Pottery and related products 73 40,002 9,897 9,897 24.7 24.7
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products 210 122,660 25,929 26,469 21.1 21.6
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 589 369,985 185,670 191,453 50.2 51.7
271 Iron and steel foundries 153 103,031 33,236 36,014 32.3 35.0
272 Primary aluminum industries 216 132,170 48,086 50,018 36.4 37.8
280 Other primary metal industries 345 181,132 47,228 48,624 26.1 26.8
281 Cutlery, handtools, and other hardware 172 107,526 22,552 23,632 21.0 22.0
282 Fabricated structural metal products 729 442,175 93,893 98,553 21.2 22.3
290 Screw machine products 100 64,379 13,911 13,911 21.6 21.6
291 Metal forgings and stampings 198 116,977 43,900 45,633 37.5 39.0
292 Ordnance 148 87,773 28,684 32,275 32.7 36.8
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 508 319,862 82,357 84,861 25.7 26.5
301 Not specified metal industries 4 3,337 0 0 0.0 0.0
310 Engines and turbines 118 85,478 39,353 42,355 46.0 49.6
311 Farm machinery and equipment 198 102,962 29,471 31,375 28.6 30.5
312 Construction and material handling machines 349 217,263 53,882 57,732 24.8 26.6
320 Metalworking machinery 477 264,527 33,361 36,057 12.6 13.6
321 Office and accounting machines 121 73,801 4,390 5,331 5.9 7.2
322 Electronic computing equipment 1,070 619,947 17,600 25,925 2.8 4.2
331 Machinery, exc. electrical, n.e.c. 1,598 970,741 156,180 165,305 16.1 17.0
332 Not specified machinery 4 2,494 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Household appliances 234 142,276 45,031 48,547 31.7 34.1
341 Radio, T.V., and communication equipment 654 404,798 45,408 51,356 11.2 12.7
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 2,216 1,349,027 199,751 220,386 14.8 16.3
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equipment, and supplie 27 17,929 1,054 1,054 5.9 5.9
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,839 1,053,868 524,575 542,755 49.8 51.5
352 Aircraft and parts 862 600,773 189,370 219,038 31.5 36.5
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 410 239,351 76,790 88,001 32.1 36.8
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 53 34,294 12,959 13,171 37.8 38.4
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 605 400,878 65,763 78,815 16.4 19.7
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 82 50,056 8,597 9,144 17.2 18.3
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 445 263,748 26,674 28,728 10.1 10.9
372 Optical and health services supplies 632 380,608 21,052 22,286 5.5 5.9
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 223 118,763 8,777 13,234 7.4 11.1
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 20 10,364 3,080 3,080 29.7 29.7
382 Not specified professional equipment 0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 208 113,534 17,099 17,099 15.1 15.1
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 572 304,482 32,149 39,660 10.6 13.0
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 58 32,867 4,142 4,875 12.6 14.8
TRANSPORTATION 7,924 4,569,885 1,825,673 1,950,963 40.0 42.7
400 Railroads 561 285,586 223,934 226,518 78.4 79.3
401 Bus service and urban transit 776 454,429 196,504 211,525 43.2 46.5
402 Taxicab service 119 64,716 5,397 5,397 8.3 8.3
410 Trucking service 2,783 1,617,236 399,071 427,867 24.7 26.5
411 Warehousing and storage 220 128,573 19,077 20,759 14.8 16.1
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,513 863,449 636,946 695,978 73.8 80.6
420 Water transportation 283 172,126 53,555 56,237 31.1 32.7
421 Air transportation 1,150 696,439 260,472 274,426 37.4 39.4
422 Pipe lines, exc. natural gas 40 19,398 1,970 1,970 10.2 10.2
432 Services incidental to transportation 479 267,932 28,746 30,286 10.7 11.3
COMMUNICATIONS 2,652 1,553,996 510,760 570,512 32.9 36.7
440 Radio and television broadcasting 463 253,739 23,007 27,977 9.1 11.0
441 Telephone (wire and radio) 1,860 1,106,933 469,879 523,086 42.4 47.3
442 Telegraph and miscellaneous communications services 329 193,324 17,874 19,450 9.2 10.1
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,768 1,555,951 526,817 566,116 33.9 36.4
460 Electric light and power 1,307 706,826 266,203 280,807 37.7 39.7
461 Gas and steam supply systems 357 186,540 56,061 58,832 30.1 31.5
462 Electric and gas, and other combinations 285 177,383 67,404 76,147 38.0 42.9
470 Water supply and irrigation 353 205,534 55,290 64,007 26.9 31.1
471 Sanitary services 452 269,608 80,416 84,880 29.8 31.5
472 Not specified utilities 14 10,059 1,442 1,442 14.3 14.3
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,840 4,026,618 281,612 310,335 7.0 7.7
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 322 194,972 12,656 15,039 6.5 7.7
501 Furniture and home furnishings 84 47,885 1,788 1,788 3.7 3.7
502 Lumber and construction materials 268 161,394 15,368 16,812 9.5 10.4
510 Sporting goods, toys, and hobby goods 73 43,119 1,863 1,863 4.3 4.3
511 Metals and minerals, exc. petroleum 127 79,968 10,347 11,229 12.9 14.0
512 Electrical goods 456 279,999 8,648 10,210 3.1 3.6
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 368 209,911 7,818 9,834 3.7 4.7
522 Not specified electrical and hardware products 0
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 1,595 950,113 28,537 33,393 3.0 3.5
531 Scrap and waste materials 222 136,155 10,269 10,269 7.5 7.5
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 106 62,923 3,178 3,178 5.1 5.1
540 Paper and paper products 219 122,304 6,925 6,925 5.7 5.7
541 Drugs, chemicals, and allied products 347 213,428 6,193 7,214 2.9 3.4
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 191 105,040 9,998 13,333 9.5 12.7
550 Groceries and related products 1,215 740,409 116,925 125,722 15.8 17.0
551 Farm products - raw materials 195 88,632 927 1,153 1.0 1.3
552 Petroleum products 258 137,481 5,271 5,388 3.8 3.9
560 Alcoholic beverages 192 120,409 24,469 26,076 20.3 21.7
561 Farm supplies 213 118,565 2,698 3,177 2.3 2.7
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 374 207,384 7,732 7,732 3.7 3.7
571 Not specified wholesale trade 15 6,529 0 0 0.0 0.0
RETAIL TRADE 29,880 17,095,416 1,133,336 1,255,224 6.6 7.3
580 Lumber and building material retailing 782 444,861 16,546 25,119 3.7 5.6
581 Hardware stores 328 179,280 2,571 4,755 1.4 2.7
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 123 72,826 0 313 0.0 0.4
590 Mobile home dealers 32 18,132 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 3,513 2,043,236 104,121 120,406 5.1 5.9
592 Variety stores 241 132,137 2,777 5,052 2.1 3.8
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 196 99,242 3,221 3,884 3.2 3.9
601 Grocery stores 4,822 2,730,342 723,058 757,182 26.5 27.7
602 Dairy products stores 88 45,976 2,792 3,273 6.1 7.1
610 Retail bakeries 222 126,536 9,598 10,730 7.6 8.5
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 231 134,695 5,912 6,474 4.4 4.8
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,604 934,169 35,822 39,680 3.8 4.2
620 Auto and home supply stores 636 379,930 7,654 13,395 2.0 3.5
621 Gasoline service stations 677 369,777 1,921 3,756 0.5 1.0
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 143 80,415 2,472 2,472 3.1 3.1
630 Apparel and accessory stores, exc. shoe 1,272 746,218 18,159 22,840 2.4 3.1
631 Shoe stores 238 137,339 2,474 4,166 1.8 3.0
632 Furniture and home furnishings stores 697 428,907 11,338 13,624 2.6 3.2
640 Household appliances, TV, and radio stores 718 432,246 6,689 10,558 1.5 2.4
641 Eating and drinking places 9,292 5,285,007 103,460 117,037 2.0 2.2
642 Drug stores 926 522,285 25,580 32,098 4.9 6.1
650 Liquor stores 184 103,183 5,983 6,476 5.8 6.3
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 437 247,639 8,933 9,348 3.6 3.8
652 Book and stationery stores 305 162,815 3,454 5,742 2.1 3.5
660 Jewelry stores 222 122,829 724 724 0.6 0.6
661 Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores 90 44,229 0 0 0.0 0.0
662 Mail order houses 177 116,653 6,746 6,746 5.8 5.8
670 Vending machine operators 108 62,125 7,192 7,782 11.6 12.5
671 Direct selling establishments 162 95,749 584 1,803 0.6 1.9
672 Fuel and ice dealers 192 103,393 7,427 9,716 7.2 9.4
681 Retail florists 248 135,586 0 688 0.0 0.5
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 945 541,368 6,129 9,384 1.1 1.7
691 Not specified retail trade 29 16,291 0 0 0.0 0.0
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 11,973 6,915,442 216,940 281,738 3.1 4.1
700 Banking 3,602 2,012,039 34,956 53,780 1.7 2.7
701 Savings and loan associations 200 112,194 4,500 4,788 4.0 4.3
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 919 519,522 14,193 15,766 2.7 3.0
710 Security, commodity brokerage, and investment companies 894 529,319 9,884 12,771 1.9 2.4
711 Insurance 3,737 2,168,312 60,485 92,187 2.8 4.3
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance-law offices 2,621 1,574,058 92,922 102,445 5.9 6.5
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 9,347 5,596,223 235,332 283,894 4.2 5.1
721 Advertising 328 189,843 7,685 7,685 4.0 4.0
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 935 564,096 55,389 63,692 9.8 11.3
730 Commercial research, development, and testing labs 526 266,588 14,630 17,187 5.5 6.4
731 Personnel supply services 988 597,181 11,755 20,425 2.0 3.4
732 Business management and consulting services 675 394,950 7,205 8,747 1.8 2.2
740 Computer and data processing services 1,147 728,320 9,377 14,083 1.3 1.9
741 Detective and protective services 604 386,192 30,505 38,053 7.9 9.9
742 Business services, n.e.c. 1,814 1,078,941 27,822 34,443 2.6 3.2
750 Automotive services, exc. repair 577 349,704 26,007 29,645 7.4 8.5
751 Automotive repair shops 1,088 644,661 11,615 14,556 1.8 2.3
752 Electrical repair shops 146 91,810 10,326 10,326 11.2 11.2
760 Miscellaneous repair services 519 303,938 23,016 25,053 7.6 8.2
PERSONAL SERVICES 6,416 3,554,548 167,424 184,053 4.7 5.2
761 Private households 1,698 999,142 2,172 2,693 0.2 0.3
762 Hotels and motels 2,566 1,304,147 130,295 138,995 10.0 10.7
770 Lodging places, exc. hotels and motels 185 109,800 1,763 2,131 1.6 1.9
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 621 359,263 22,653 25,729 6.3 7.2
772 Beauty shops 770 447,919 5,271 7,695 1.2 1.7
780 Barber shops 46 30,087 2,704 2,704 9.0 9.0
781 Funeral service and crematories 109 63,087 1,191 1,191 1.9 1.9
782 Shoe repair shops 6 3,319 512 512 15.4 15.4
790 Dressmaking shops 2 681 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 413 237,104 863 2,404 0.4 1.0
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,294 1,310,801 151,825 178,766 11.6 13.6
800 Theaters and motion pictures 531 315,754 58,290 62,851 18.5 19.9
801 Bowling alleys, billiard and pool parlors 99 60,993 2,409 3,005 4.0 4.9
802 Miscellaneous entertainment and recreation services 1,664 934,054 91,125 112,909 9.8 12.1
831 HOSPITALS 8,730 4,837,816 685,804 834,476 14.2 17.2
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 7,698 4,335,041 351,824 406,717 8.1 9.4
812 Offices of physicians 1,424 813,597 9,054 12,360 1.1 1.5
820 Offices of dentists 775 431,943 4,970 8,559 1.2 2.0
821 Offices of chiropractors 113 70,146 0 1,084 0.0 1.5
822 Offices of optometrists 81 46,017 0 0 0.0 0.0
830 Offices of health practitioners, n.e.c. 67 39,903 534 1,091 1.3 2.7
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,953 1,629,166 196,370 216,652 12.1 13.3
840 Health services, n.e.c. 2,285 1,304,269 140,896 166,972 10.8 12.8
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 16,565 9,032,567 3,109,614 3,718,357 34.4 41.2
842 Elementary and secondary schools 11,130 6,094,929 2,729,843 3,212,266 44.8 52.7
850 Colleges and universities 4,799 2,584,187 339,854 456,356 13.2 17.7
851 Business, trade, and vocational schools 119 65,842 4,737 6,198 7.2 9.4
852 Libraries 313 176,838 26,028 29,645 14.7 16.8
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 204 110,770 9,151 13,891 8.3 12.5
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,704 2,032,400 182,340 216,871 9.0 10.7
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 409 210,817 11,704 14,221 5.6 6.7
862 Child day care services 1,045 570,700 19,692 23,591 3.5 4.1
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 672 370,337 21,285 26,485 5.7 7.2
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,578 880,546 129,658 152,575 14.7 17.3
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 6,364 3,551,378 118,339 154,042 3.3 4.3
841 Legal services 1,634 918,215 11,562 18,252 1.3 2.0
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 178 86,825 2,749 4,231 3.2 4.9
880 Religious organizations 1,362 746,651 6,009 9,228 0.8 1.2
881 Membership organizations 897 476,768 66,381 69,747 13.9 14.6
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,186 694,359 14,931 25,189 2.2 3.6
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 797 448,640 7,311 11,332 1.6 2.5
891 Noncommercial educational and scientific research 248 143,802 7,734 13,792 5.4 9.6
892 Miscellaneous professional and related services 62 36,118 1,662 2,271 4.6 6.3
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 10,019 5,688,373 1,780,008 2,124,829 31.3 37.4
900 Executive and legislative offices 322 164,097 19,267 22,160 11.7 13.5
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,090 593,769 141,592 174,315 23.8 29.4
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,472 2,089,694 956,566 1,047,926 45.8 50.1
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 687 386,639 111,861 134,713 28.9 34.8
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,270 701,676 188,980 235,780 26.9 33.6
930 Administration of environmental quality & housing programs 656 329,966 73,362 92,163 22.2 27.9
931 Administration of economic programs 1,094 581,555 172,631 204,196 29.7 35.1
932 National security and international affairs 1,428 840,978 115,749 213,576 13.8 25.4
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1991. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1980 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.