Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1992 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,514 1,505,448 36,587 42,457 2.4 2.8
10 Agricultural production, crops 802 493,242 11,511 12,662 2.3 2.6
11 Agricultural production, livestock 766 396,557 5,106 6,300 1.3 1.6
12 Veterinary services 225 128,322 1,252 1,252 1.0 1.0
20 Landscape and horticultural services 565 378,976 11,055 12,589 2.9 3.3
30 Agricultural services, n.e.c. 156 108,350 7,663 9,655 7.1 8.9
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 255 111,723 7,284 11,601 6.5 10.4
31 Forestry 184 78,037 5,540 9,858 7.1 12.6
32 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 71 33,686 1,744 1,744 5.2 5.2
MINING 1,212 620,045 93,827 100,020 15.1 16.1
40 Metal mining 150 54,384 16,148 17,437 29.7 32.1
41 Coal mining 247 116,501 39,450 39,559 33.9 34.0
42 Oil and gas extraction 597 338,507 9,272 11,403 2.7 3.4
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, except fuel 218 110,653 28,958 31,620 26.2 28.6
60 CONSTRUCTION 8,427 5,049,321 1,088,356 1,160,572 21.6 23.0
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 13,897 8,166,494 1,433,237 1,532,251 17.6 18.8
100 Meat products 849 484,875 93,095 99,716 19.2 20.6
101 Dairy products 273 151,008 41,075 41,203 27.2 27.3
102 Canned, frozen and preserved fruits and vegetables 365 204,721 51,451 53,879 25.1 26.3
110 Grain mill products 210 129,711 27,400 31,877 21.1 24.6
111 Bakery products 319 194,787 56,218 61,000 28.9 31.3
112 Sugar and confectionery products 197 121,655 35,285 36,346 29.0 29.9
120 Beverage industries 310 199,872 54,196 56,958 27.1 28.5
121 Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred products 333 212,003 42,502 44,744 20.0 21.1
122 Not specified food industries 21 12,399 3,625 3,625 29.2 29.2
130 Tobacco manufactures 85 51,433 19,091 20,452 37.1 39.8
132 Knitting mills 231 101,620 4,763 5,149 4.7 5.1
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, except wool & knit goods 69 35,283 3,705 3,705 10.5 10.5
141 Carpets and rugs 72 46,371 1,339 1,798 2.9 3.9
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 777 411,591 21,431 26,038 5.2 6.3
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 90 47,904 9,356 11,344 19.5 23.7
151 Apparel and accessories, except knit 1,412 857,666 117,074 128,120 13.7 14.9
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 239 131,581 10,221 11,686 7.8 8.9
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 536 307,108 154,623 158,578 50.3 51.6
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 341 210,739 59,447 61,625 28.2 29.2
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 340 216,661 64,422 68,771 29.7 31.7
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 878 501,090 67,328 78,006 13.4 15.6
172 Printing, publishing, & allied ind., exc. newspapers 1,884 1,159,573 110,218 121,515 9.5 10.5
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 268 161,608 17,506 18,409 10.8 11.4
181 Drugs 554 308,896 21,875 23,126 7.1 7.5
182 Soaps and cosmetics 278 166,780 24,372 25,028 14.6 15.0
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 87 53,042 9,800 9,800 18.5 18.5
191 Agricultural chemicals 89 45,547 4,642 4,642 10.2 10.2
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 960 550,484 93,993 98,732 17.1 17.9
200 Petroleum refining 256 157,509 53,484 56,768 34.0 36.0
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 33 21,658 2,650 2,650 12.2 12.2
210 Tires and inner tubes 145 92,547 30,999 32,489 33.5 35.1
211 Other rubber products, & plastics footwear & belting 300 167,842 29,042 30,668 17.3 18.3
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 843 521,737 71,468 76,990 13.7 14.8
220 Leather tanning and finishing 32 17,707 7,386 7,386 41.7 41.7
221 Footwear, except rubber and plastic 151 76,882 10,347 11,058 13.5 14.4
222 Leather products, except footwear 70 34,602 7,807 8,371 22.6 24.2
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 18,141 11,045,631 2,368,231 2,537,542 21.4 23.0
230 Logging 170 82,192 3,320 3,320 4.0 4.0
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 555 316,169 47,091 50,404 14.9 15.9
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 80 57,278 1,803 1,803 3.1 3.1
241 Miscellaneous wood products 229 121,950 13,322 14,289 10.9 11.7
242 Furniture and fixtures 941 545,292 58,822 66,756 10.8 12.2
250 Glass and glass products 254 161,665 61,190 62,147 37.8 38.4
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 298 183,215 40,088 41,573 21.9 22.7
252 Structural clay products 64 41,829 11,151 11,151 26.7 26.7
261 Pottery and related products 70 41,966 9,263 9,263 22.1 22.1
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone products 178 107,235 28,391 31,040 26.5 28.9
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 553 363,602 187,944 189,696 51.7 52.2
271 Iron and steel foundries 149 96,566 35,572 38,401 36.8 39.8
272 Primary aluminum industries 217 139,466 48,767 50,010 35.0 35.9
280 Other primary metal industries 294 166,012 33,518 35,987 20.2 21.7
281 Cutlery, handtools, and general hardware 173 102,855 18,669 20,868 18.2 20.3
282 Fabricated structural metal products 683 425,204 86,540 91,809 20.4 21.6
290 Screw machine products 109 67,835 8,596 9,884 12.7 14.6
291 Metal forgings and stampings 175 109,154 39,142 39,774 35.9 36.4
292 Ordnance 140 74,600 18,977 22,978 25.4 30.8
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 550 336,379 72,685 78,148 21.6 23.2
301 Not specified metal industries 6 3,175 665 665 20.9 20.9
310 Engines and turbines 127 85,617 38,148 40,129 44.6 46.9
311 Farm machinery and equipment 204 112,368 26,548 26,548 23.6 23.6
312 Construction and material handling machines 305 183,158 43,572 46,205 23.8 25.2
320 Metalworking machinery 451 257,767 20,361 22,664 7.9 8.8
321 Office and accounting machines 84 48,016 1,681 3,208 3.5 6.7
322 Computers and related equipment 904 548,136 9,515 13,734 1.7 2.5
331 Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c. 1,525 935,199 142,068 152,137 15.2 16.3
332 Not specified machinery 10 5,691 453 453 8.0 8.0
340 Household appliances 225 140,871 45,198 50,533 32.1 35.9
341 Radio, TV, and communication equipment 599 375,922 47,777 55,878 12.7 14.9
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 2,076 1,283,269 187,537 201,566 14.6 15.7
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equip., & supplies 49 28,759 3,690 4,096 12.8 14.2
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,929 1,130,014 553,628 572,346 49.0 50.6
352 Aircraft and parts 741 512,671 170,870 190,625 33.3 37.2
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 364 225,951 66,732 76,634 29.5 33.9
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 48 28,632 10,618 10,618 37.1 37.1
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 506 348,676 70,307 84,131 20.2 24.1
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 81 46,446 9,319 9,319 20.1 20.1
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 397 243,223 26,829 30,174 11.0 12.4
372 Medical, dental, and optical instruments and supplies 614 391,133 26,786 30,842 6.8 7.9
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 215 123,007 8,210 10,470 6.7 8.5
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 19 10,620 0 0 0.0 0.0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 205 116,237 6,176 6,348 5.3 5.5
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 536 295,000 25,776 28,001 8.7 9.5
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 39 25,607 918 918 3.6 3.6
TRANSPORTATION 7,768 4,597,191 1,776,465 1,884,930 38.6 41.0
400 Railroads 572 303,239 234,618 237,450 77.4 78.3
401 Bus service and urban transit 761 473,965 201,866 213,577 42.6 45.1
402 Taxicab service 105 61,078 4,813 5,840 7.9 9.6
410 Trucking service 2,736 1,625,436 368,307 387,623 22.7 23.8
411 Warehousing and storage 220 134,467 20,644 22,176 15.4 16.5
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,432 823,549 594,962 646,376 72.2 78.5
420 Water transportation 282 175,764 57,743 59,770 32.9 34.0
421 Air transportation 1,105 695,551 269,931 286,497 38.8 41.2
422 Pipe lines, except natural gas 45 18,348 4,926 5,680 26.8 31.0
432 Services incidental to transportation 510 285,794 18,657 19,941 6.5 7.0
COMMUNICATIONS 2,599 1,583,513 530,914 592,798 33.5 37.4
440 Radio and television broadcasting and cable 640 372,980 36,751 42,855 9.9 11.5
441 Telephone communications 1,894 1,170,372 489,137 543,860 41.8 46.5
442 Telegraph and misc. communications services 65 40,161 5,026 6,082 12.5 15.1
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,735 1,617,091 545,397 593,550 33.7 36.7
450 Electric light and power 1,205 698,089 247,283 265,184 35.4 38.0
451 Gas and steam supply systems 347 201,149 59,600 63,045 29.6 31.3
452 Electric and gas, and other combinations 290 178,323 79,632 86,051 44.7 48.3
470 Water supply and irrigation 361 222,469 63,451 75,829 28.5 34.1
471 Sanitary services 503 299,041 91,244 98,983 30.5 33.1
472 Not specified utilities 29 18,020 4,187 4,457 23.2 24.7
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,872 4,137,875 280,722 310,867 6.8 7.5
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 342 206,858 10,990 14,772 5.3 7.1
501 Furniture and home furnishings 96 60,037 3,510 3,510 5.8 5.8
502 Lumber and construction materials 270 167,808 16,367 16,938 9.8 10.1
510 Professional and commercial equipment and supplies 587 388,342 5,165 8,015 1.3 2.1
511 Metals and minerals, except petroleum 128 77,405 6,996 6,996 9.0 9.0
512 Electrical goods 461 285,837 7,562 8,836 2.6 3.1
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 390 231,474 9,732 14,426 4.2 6.2
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 947 555,017 18,758 23,531 3.4 4.2
531 Scrap and waste materials 231 137,355 12,803 12,803 9.3 9.3
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 147 87,028 1,988 3,695 2.3 4.2
540 Paper and paper products 213 129,295 5,986 5,986 4.6 4.6
541 Drugs, chemicals and allied products 323 198,089 7,791 9,565 3.9 4.8
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 176 104,092 5,224 5,224 5.0 5.0
550 Groceries and related products 1,266 771,331 132,313 138,077 17.2 17.9
551 Farm-product raw materials 175 78,617 1,224 1,224 1.6 1.6
552 Petroleum products 237 135,525 4,139 5,347 3.1 3.9
560 Alcoholic beverages 216 128,341 21,110 21,110 16.4 16.4
561 Farm supplies 248 132,615 0 0 0.0 0.0
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 397 250,551 8,666 10,415 3.5 4.2
571 Not specified wholesale trade 22 12,257 398 398 3.2 3.2
RETAIL TRADE 29,563 17,323,585 1,139,332 1,254,780 6.6 7.2
580 Lumber and building material retailing 763 441,039 11,571 14,180 2.6 3.2
581 Hardware stores 285 170,159 2,318 2,923 1.4 1.7
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 160 96,598 589 589 0.6 0.6
590 Mobile home dealers 37 22,772 0 152 0.0 0.7
591 Department stores 3,332 1,988,145 83,630 99,499 4.2 5.0
592 Variety stores 247 131,849 2,002 2,108 1.5 1.6
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 215 119,737 9,768 11,326 8.2 9.5
601 Grocery stores 4,802 2,772,848 746,319 778,267 26.9 28.1
602 Dairy products stores 76 46,229 1,915 1,915 4.1 4.1
610 Retail bakeries 219 121,421 10,300 10,942 8.5 9.0
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 230 143,465 10,127 12,011 7.1 8.4
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,578 923,240 40,338 43,463 4.4 4.7
620 Auto and home supply stores 629 379,001 9,227 10,259 2.4 2.7
621 Gasoline service stations 656 377,532 4,024 4,702 1.1 1.2
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 126 75,334 1,138 2,726 1.5 3.6
623 Apparel and accessory stores, except shoe 1,292 754,853 11,897 15,250 1.6 2.0
630 Shoe stores 238 144,746 6,080 8,217 4.2 5.7
631 Furniture and home furnishings stores 674 420,344 14,555 15,952 3.5 3.8
632 Household appliance stores 152 92,315 639 639 0.7 0.7
633 Radio, TV, and computer stores 391 247,582 3,696 4,257 1.5 1.7
640 Music stores 152 97,405 486 1,127 0.5 1.2
641 Eating and drinking places 9,209 5,380,792 102,752 130,625 1.9 2.4
642 Drug stores 981 581,598 22,809 28,645 3.9 4.9
650 Liquor stores 166 96,419 2,822 3,669 2.9 3.8
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 438 261,387 7,632 9,418 2.9 3.6
652 Book and stationery stores 311 175,413 3,066 4,563 1.7 2.6
660 Jewelry stores 229 127,278 348 1,474 0.3 1.2
661 Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops 263 141,032 247 247 0.2 0.2
662 Sewing, needlework and piece goods stores 106 58,450 533 533 0.9 0.9
663 Catalog and mail order houses 172 111,814 7,792 9,564 7.0 8.6
670 Vending machine operators 98 52,401 3,764 4,080 7.2 7.8
671 Direct selling establishments 247 149,351 0 506 0.0 0.3
672 Fuel dealers 166 82,881 9,294 9,629 11.2 11.6
681 Retail florists 202 110,728 934 934 0.8 0.8
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 692 406,020 6,128 9,794 1.5 2.4
691 Not specified retail trade 29 21,407 594 594 2.8 2.8
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 11,640 6,859,479 187,210 247,364 2.7 3.6
700 Banking 3,428 1,936,382 27,573 41,016 1.4 2.1
701 Savings institutions, including credit unions 510 278,174 4,811 5,794 1.7 2.1
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 710 430,026 5,498 7,748 1.3 1.8
710 Security, commodity brokerage, & invest. companies 886 522,485 3,575 9,335 0.7 1.8
711 Insurance 3,568 2,120,450 59,213 85,519 2.8 4.0
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance offices 2,538 1,571,962 86,539 97,953 5.5 6.2
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 7,917 4,954,176 251,584 295,186 5.1 6.0
721 Advertising 343 202,358 6,887 7,412 3.4 3.7
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 835 527,598 60,269 67,218 11.4 12.7
731 Personnel supply services 1,059 653,848 13,902 22,244 2.1 3.4
732 Computer and data processing services 1,193 759,200 11,293 18,605 1.5 2.5
740 Detective and protective services 656 426,941 29,555 32,374 6.9 7.6
741 Business services, n.e.c. 1,561 962,191 37,945 46,901 3.9 4.9
742 Automotive rental and leasing, without drivers 247 162,375 19,088 19,569 11.8 12.1
750 Automotive parking and carwashes 228 140,787 14,652 16,075 10.4 11.4
751 Automotive repair and related services 1,149 721,459 18,516 22,768 2.6 3.2
752 Electrical repair shops 138 91,284 10,863 10,863 11.9 11.9
760 Miscellaneous repair services 508 306,134 28,616 31,157 9.3 10.2
PERSONAL SERVICES 6,251 3,537,275 178,284 206,209 5.0 5.8
761 Private Households 1,836 1,091,508 10,733 13,364 1.0 1.2
762 Hotels and Motels 2,464 1,271,634 130,192 147,045 10.2 11.6
770 Lodging places, except hotels and motels 159 91,796 1,429 2,414 1.6 2.6
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 589 354,787 29,068 31,391 8.2 8.8
772 Beauty shops 732 427,777 1,914 4,930 0.4 1.2
780 Barber shops 45 30,144 565 565 1.9 1.9
781 Funeral service and crematories 128 86,156 1,293 3,409 1.5 4.0
782 Shoe repair shops 8 5,834 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 4 2,588 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 286 175,052 3,090 3,090 1.8 1.8
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,852 1,672,417 154,837 186,626 9.3 11.2
800 Theaters and motion pictures 567 349,559 51,258 58,803 14.7 16.8
801 Video tape rental 156 85,460 0 0 0.0 0.0
802 Bowling centers 113 65,240 2,541 3,175 3.9 4.9
810 Miscellaneous entertainment & recreation services 2,016 1,172,158 101,038 124,648 8.6 10.6
831 HOSPITALS 8,583 4,912,853 712,998 857,769 14.5 17.5
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 8,089 4,676,352 330,225 391,327 7.1 8.4
812 Offices and clinics of physicians 1,931 1,145,381 34,544 43,594 3.0 3.8
820 Offices and clinics of dentists 770 426,406 4,401 4,401 1.0 1.0
821 Offices and clinics of chiropractors 116 64,722 0 851 0.0 1.3
822 Offices and clinics of optometrists 94 55,574 118 118 0.2 0.2
830 Offices and clinics of health practitioners, n.e.c. 67 41,757 192 192 0.5 0.5
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 3,046 1,723,951 189,848 210,145 11.0 12.2
840 Health services, n.e.c. 2,065 1,218,562 101,122 132,025 8.3 10.8
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 16,403 9,150,325 3,158,084 3,758,638 34.5 41.1
842 Elementary and secondary schools 11,016 6,199,686 2,766,388 3,262,607 44.6 52.6
850 Colleges and universities 4,767 2,605,812 352,741 447,277 13.5 17.2
851 Vocational schools 136 80,179 8,124 9,699 10.1 12.1
852 Libraries 305 163,443 20,431 25,714 12.5 15.7
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 179 101,204 10,399 13,341 10.3 13.2
SOCIAL SERVICES 4,024 2,273,829 213,875 263,503 9.4 11.6
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 387 220,366 11,463 14,320 5.2 6.5
862 Child day care services 1,391 792,182 22,451 34,967 2.8 4.4
863 Family child care homes 35 17,457 2,343 2,343 13.4 13.4
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 640 351,320 27,885 34,104 7.9 9.7
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,571 892,505 149,733 177,769 16.8 19.9
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 7,428 4,298,128 159,424 197,115 3.7 4.6
841 Legal services 1,528 884,905 7,660 13,982 0.9 1.6
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 193 116,534 11,563 15,522 9.9 13.3
873 Labor unions 136 87,505 69,820 71,823 79.8 82.1
880 Religious organizations 1,415 797,641 9,456 13,441 1.2 1.7
881 Membership organizations, n.e.c. 662 362,710 13,848 19,906 3.8 5.5
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,090 664,482 12,308 15,331 1.9 2.3
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 751 444,206 8,263 9,770 1.9 2.2
891 Research, development, and testing services 1,008 570,969 21,058 29,486 3.7 5.2
892 Management and public relations services 536 307,811 2,906 5,313 0.9 1.7
893 Miscellaneous professional and related services 109 61,365 2,542 2,542 4.1 4.1
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 9,676 5,595,559 1,743,415 2,114,963 31.2 37.8
900 Executive and legislative offices 320 158,839 21,266 26,608 13.4 16.8
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,073 616,849 140,237 175,289 22.7 28.4
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,398 2,065,431 938,111 1,036,346 45.4 50.2
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 642 364,766 103,945 132,383 28.5 36.3
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,278 719,930 213,685 263,269 29.7 36.6
930 Administration of environ. quality & housing programs 515 235,973 50,190 58,797 21.3 24.9
931 Administration of economic programs 1,088 594,425 168,246 209,441 28.3 35.2
932 National security and international affairs 1,362 839,347 107,735 212,829 12.8 25.4
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1992. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1990 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.