Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1993 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,387 1,471,951 23,689 31,335 1.6 2.1
10 Agricultural production, crops 814 532,153 10,685 13,345 2.0 2.5
11 Agricultural production, livestock 689 346,560 2,087 2,633 0.6 0.8
12 Veterinary services 225 137,795 295 2,287 0.2 1.7
20 Landscape and horticultural services 526 358,429 7,889 8,379 2.2 2.3
30 Agricultural services, n.e.c. 133 97,014 2,732 4,691 2.8 4.8
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 266 134,946 10,032 17,584 7.4 13.0
31 Forestry 186 85,838 6,949 13,462 8.1 15.7
32 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 80 49,108 3,083 4,122 6.3 8.4
MINING 1,212 643,207 102,980 113,299 16.0 17.6
40 Metal mining 141 48,102 14,629 14,973 30.4 31.1
41 Coal mining 228 112,823 44,044 46,410 39.0 41.1
42 Oil and gas extraction 582 350,136 12,624 18,443 3.6 5.3
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, except fuel 261 132,145 31,684 33,473 24.0 25.3
60 CONSTRUCTION 8,369 5,129,894 1,105,830 1,163,348 21.6 22.7
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 13,196 7,937,236 1,366,476 1,447,041 17.2 18.2
100 Meat products 802 459,928 78,795 85,248 17.1 18.5
101 Dairy products 267 148,640 34,977 36,595 23.5 24.6
102 Canned, frozen and preserved fruits and vegetables 373 219,404 64,589 65,790 29.4 30.0
110 Grain mill products 219 142,171 29,077 31,856 20.5 22.4
111 Bakery products 325 211,204 67,052 68,416 31.7 32.4
112 Sugar and confectionery products 160 96,714 21,780 22,400 22.5 23.2
120 Beverage industries 313 218,042 55,111 55,415 25.3 25.4
121 Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred products 338 206,780 47,430 48,353 22.9 23.4
122 Not specified food industries 21 13,324 6,312 6,312 47.4 47.4
130 Tobacco manufactures 97 54,889 20,771 20,771 37.8 37.8
132 Knitting mills 261 129,515 6,397 6,397 4.9 4.9
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, except wool & knit goods 63 35,560 4,588 4,588 12.9 12.9
141 Carpets and rugs 70 50,756 3,954 3,954 7.8 7.8
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 669 365,869 26,547 27,809 7.3 7.6
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 78 40,115 8,229 10,520 20.5 26.2
151 Apparel and accessories, except knit 1,312 812,770 101,879 110,583 12.5 13.6
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 270 149,449 10,098 10,098 6.8 6.8
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 504 290,330 170,319 172,358 58.7 59.4
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 326 219,439 46,459 47,649 21.2 21.7
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 328 212,013 68,090 73,349 32.1 34.6
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 830 487,949 61,991 67,748 12.7 13.9
172 Printing, publishing, & allied ind., exc. newspapers 1,820 1,131,196 91,502 105,255 8.1 9.3
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 227 134,676 21,720 23,012 16.1 17.1
181 Drugs 555 309,959 19,437 21,286 6.3 6.9
182 Soaps and cosmetics 246 157,558 19,815 20,161 12.6 12.8
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 55 33,393 5,811 5,811 17.4 17.4
191 Agricultural chemicals 68 37,007 2,487 2,487 6.7 6.7
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 858 507,057 85,608 95,192 16.9 18.8
200 Petroleum refining 232 152,798 48,750 52,712 31.9 34.5
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 30 22,169 3,529 4,162 15.9 18.8
210 Tires and inner tubes 134 81,813 23,611 23,611 28.9 28.9
211 Other rubber products, & plastics footwear & belting 242 134,757 21,639 22,905 16.1 17.0
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 884 555,661 62,816 67,344 11.3 12.1
220 Leather tanning and finishing 22 9,955 5,828 5,828 58.5 58.5
221 Footwear, except rubber and plastic 128 65,212 11,941 13,088 18.3 20.1
222 Leather products, except footwear 69 39,164 7,536 7,978 19.2 20.4
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 17,576 10,885,881 2,249,898 2,398,516 20.7 22.0
230 Logging 185 91,978 6,344 6,344 6.9 6.9
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 563 327,193 48,605 54,447 14.9 16.6
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 101 71,815 3,591 3,591 5.0 5.0
241 Miscellaneous wood products 211 114,507 14,979 16,150 13.1 14.1
242 Furniture and fixtures 985 582,349 66,836 71,589 11.5 12.3
250 Glass and glass products 240 154,036 66,354 68,853 43.1 44.7
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 273 164,771 37,015 37,307 22.5 22.6
252 Structural clay products 57 35,457 8,720 10,336 24.6 29.2
261 Pottery and related products 71 46,579 13,327 13,327 28.6 28.6
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone products 162 101,811 22,021 24,332 21.6 23.9
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 512 343,238 190,815 195,309 55.6 56.9
271 Iron and steel foundries 142 95,887 39,652 40,816 41.4 42.6
272 Primary aluminum industries 210 133,538 56,077 56,828 42.0 42.6
280 Other primary metal industries 269 158,605 31,690 34,139 20.0 21.5
281 Cutlery, handtools, and general hardware 158 95,466 21,606 22,514 22.6 23.6
282 Fabricated structural metal products 693 456,205 84,084 86,766 18.4 19.0
290 Screw machine products 81 49,439 9,422 9,422 19.1 19.1
291 Metal forgings and stampings 219 134,894 39,182 41,979 29.0 31.1
292 Ordnance 126 74,502 13,436 16,976 18.0 22.8
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 545 362,039 60,768 63,233 16.8 17.5
301 Not specified metal industries 7 5,523 518 518 9.4 9.4
310 Engines and turbines 117 71,039 24,317 27,361 34.2 38.5
311 Farm machinery and equipment 196 103,391 23,137 24,768 22.4 24.0
312 Construction and material handling machines 324 204,443 45,462 48,551 22.2 23.7
320 Metalworking machinery 450 256,748 22,429 24,724 8.7 9.6
321 Office and accounting machines 75 49,119 2,728 2,728 5.6 5.6
322 Computers and related equipment 867 539,729 12,361 16,212 2.3 3.0
331 Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c. 1,494 929,949 127,205 139,012 13.7 14.9
332 Not specified machinery 2 2,238 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Household appliances 233 144,211 44,097 46,047 30.6 31.9
341 Radio, TV, and communication equipment 585 393,840 53,568 56,003 13.6 14.2
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 1,896 1,169,225 153,330 163,952 13.1 14.0
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equip., & supplies 33 19,467 850 1,218 4.4 6.3
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,909 1,141,936 537,288 547,172 47.1 47.9
352 Aircraft and parts 678 498,101 159,209 186,854 32.0 37.5
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 340 217,295 54,759 71,805 25.2 33.0
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 49 27,700 8,152 8,152 29.4 29.4
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 463 316,438 43,613 53,196 13.8 16.8
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 81 52,474 9,706 10,374 18.5 19.8
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 328 198,311 15,318 15,714 7.7 7.9
372 Medical, dental, and optical instruments and supplies 575 355,261 21,038 21,700 5.9 6.1
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 174 98,777 8,006 8,473 8.1 8.6
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 18 12,186 843 843 6.9 6.9
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 218 125,416 14,571 14,784 11.6 11.8
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 609 327,243 31,960 32,810 9.8 10.0
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 52 31,512 909 1,288 2.9 4.1
TRANSPORTATION 7,882 4,803,670 1,836,627 1,964,988 38.2 40.9
400 Railroads 548 300,931 233,293 234,725 77.5 78.0
401 Bus service and urban transit 788 505,193 196,094 209,432 38.8 41.5
402 Taxicab service 105 61,876 5,947 6,695 9.6 10.8
410 Trucking service 2,819 1,712,453 382,814 406,544 22.4 23.7
411 Warehousing and storage 229 141,885 24,272 27,069 17.1 19.1
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,435 845,670 605,198 666,980 71.6 78.9
420 Water transportation 263 175,191 60,220 62,629 34.4 35.7
421 Air transportation 1,169 756,609 300,758 320,954 39.8 42.4
422 Pipe lines, except natural gas 35 14,192 688 688 4.8 4.8
432 Services incidental to transportation 491 289,670 27,343 29,273 9.4 10.1
COMMUNICATIONS 2,469 1,552,303 513,643 562,933 33.1 36.3
440 Radio and television broadcasting and cable 635 391,433 42,718 50,734 10.9 13.0
441 Telephone communications 1,789 1,131,310 466,291 504,500 41.2 44.6
442 Telegraph and misc. communications services 45 29,561 4,633 7,699 15.7 26.0
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,602 1,592,509 524,212 562,388 32.9 35.3
450 Electric light and power 1,134 665,841 248,687 266,803 37.3 40.1
451 Gas and steam supply systems 319 197,107 67,448 69,111 34.2 35.1
452 Electric and gas, and other combinations 264 174,933 70,801 73,755 40.5 42.2
470 Water supply and irrigation 322 201,337 46,386 54,276 23.0 27.0
471 Sanitary services 537 338,907 87,079 93,806 25.7 27.7
472 Not specified utilities 26 14,383 3,810 4,637 26.5 32.2
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,395 3,901,505 268,627 304,415 6.9 7.8
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 280 169,771 15,387 16,169 9.1 9.5
501 Furniture and home furnishings 82 54,754 336 336 0.6 0.6
502 Lumber and construction materials 251 158,320 11,119 11,231 7.0 7.1
510 Professional and commercial equipment and supplies 588 376,285 4,658 8,950 1.2 2.4
511 Metals and minerals, except petroleum 126 86,183 10,048 10,048 11.7 11.7
512 Electrical goods 434 286,413 10,244 13,420 3.6 4.7
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 337 199,928 7,478 8,421 3.7 4.2
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 845 497,669 15,429 21,256 3.1 4.3
531 Scrap and waste materials 214 128,656 14,187 15,257 11.0 11.9
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 178 114,096 2,897 2,897 2.5 2.5
540 Paper and paper products 204 129,770 4,890 4,890 3.8 3.8
541 Drugs, chemicals and allied products 270 165,177 5,478 8,994 3.3 5.4
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 181 99,749 7,344 7,797 7.4 7.8
550 Groceries and related products 1,161 710,792 114,581 120,666 16.1 17.0
551 Farm-product raw materials 167 66,796 1,502 2,051 2.2 3.1
552 Petroleum products 240 141,342 10,017 12,253 7.1 8.7
560 Alcoholic beverages 227 143,518 20,856 24,912 14.5 17.4
561 Farm supplies 212 121,060 4,552 4,552 3.8 3.8
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 380 240,067 6,137 8,442 2.6 3.5
571 Not specified wholesale trade 18 11,159 1,488 1,873 13.3 16.8
RETAIL TRADE 29,683 17,849,362 1,111,716 1,214,925 6.2 6.8
580 Lumber and building material retailing 750 452,197 20,472 23,085 4.5 5.1
581 Hardware stores 328 203,737 6,622 6,708 3.3 3.3
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 126 74,975 0 0 0.0 0.0
590 Mobile home dealers 32 21,320 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 3,426 2,081,813 81,195 95,574 3.9 4.6
592 Variety stores 251 140,179 2,588 2,588 1.8 1.8
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 193 100,539 9,477 10,940 9.4 10.9
601 Grocery stores 4,799 2,888,029 711,483 742,812 24.6 25.7
602 Dairy products stores 49 30,792 1,652 1,652 5.4 5.4
610 Retail bakeries 232 127,226 5,741 6,164 4.5 4.8
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 244 160,191 6,235 7,290 3.9 4.6
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,667 1,023,825 34,818 38,962 3.4 3.8
620 Auto and home supply stores 634 384,104 6,536 9,768 1.7 2.5
621 Gasoline service stations 610 350,888 4,928 6,412 1.4 1.8
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 107 66,495 1,183 1,458 1.8 2.2
623 Apparel and accessory stores, except shoe 1,282 772,787 16,690 24,028 2.2 3.1
630 Shoe stores 237 143,146 2,382 2,382 1.7 1.7
631 Furniture and home furnishings stores 685 434,334 15,821 18,184 3.6 4.2
632 Household appliance stores 134 87,112 1,085 1,855 1.2 2.1
633 Radio, TV, and computer stores 459 294,452 3,217 4,160 1.1 1.4
640 Music stores 184 123,837 570 2,045 0.5 1.7
641 Eating and drinking places 9,313 5,558,434 115,433 131,973 2.1 2.4
642 Drug stores 874 530,596 25,764 30,918 4.9 5.8
650 Liquor stores 158 87,697 2,545 2,545 2.9 2.9
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 438 247,475 2,359 2,359 1.0 1.0
652 Book and stationery stores 335 201,354 1,933 3,632 1.0 1.8
660 Jewelry stores 200 109,548 298 947 0.3 0.9
661 Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops 238 139,927 0 194 0.0 0.1
662 Sewing, needlework and piece goods stores 98 63,633 4,500 4,500 7.1 7.1
663 Catalog and mail order houses 165 112,723 4,329 5,229 3.8 4.6
670 Vending machine operators 100 56,037 3,794 3,888 6.8 6.9
671 Direct selling establishments 176 106,421 3,816 4,299 3.6 4.0
672 Fuel dealers 191 100,879 8,298 8,298 8.2 8.2
681 Retail florists 190 112,770 0 586 0.0 0.5
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 747 441,053 5,470 8,397 1.2 1.9
691 Not specified retail trade 31 18,837 483 1,092 2.6 5.8
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 11,499 7,014,928 189,275 244,633 2.7 3.5
700 Banking 3,275 1,939,336 17,896 31,316 0.9 1.6
701 Savings institutions, including credit unions 530 312,419 5,482 8,109 1.8 2.6
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 783 473,339 4,389 8,675 0.9 1.8
710 Security, commodity brokerage, & invest. companies 952 577,808 8,142 12,220 1.4 2.1
711 Insurance 3,437 2,117,971 59,351 79,652 2.8 3.8
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance offices 2,522 1,594,054 94,017 104,661 5.9 6.6
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 8,151 5,181,632 224,006 277,359 4.3 5.4
721 Advertising 369 228,704 6,876 8,137 3.0 3.6
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 821 534,247 49,537 56,307 9.3 10.5
731 Personnel supply services 1,055 641,055 10,082 19,597 1.6 3.1
732 Computer and data processing services 1,248 808,098 11,469 20,199 1.4 2.5
740 Detective and protective services 658 448,979 31,744 39,898 7.1 8.9
741 Business services, n.e.c. 1,803 1,125,943 36,120 44,694 3.2 4.0
742 Automotive rental and leasing, without drivers 250 167,483 17,898 18,499 10.7 11.0
750 Automotive parking and carwashes 190 119,832 10,030 12,371 8.4 10.3
751 Automotive repair and related services 1,115 712,281 19,639 24,347 2.8 3.4
752 Electrical repair shops 152 93,503 5,143 5,821 5.5 6.2
760 Miscellaneous repair services 490 301,506 25,468 27,488 8.4 9.1
PERSONAL SERVICES 6,074 3,597,747 185,017 208,321 5.1 5.8
761 Private Households 1,748 1,070,569 5,410 7,120 0.5 0.7
762 Hotels and Motels 2,298 1,261,741 134,818 149,291 10.7 11.8
770 Lodging places, except hotels and motels 178 112,770 1,274 1,274 1.1 1.1
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 593 369,373 35,817 39,564 9.7 10.7
772 Beauty shops 794 478,279 1,703 3,859 0.4 0.8
780 Barber shops 45 36,976 2,417 2,417 6.5 6.5
781 Funeral service and crematories 114 76,003 2,242 3,460 2.9 4.6
782 Shoe repair shops 6 4,348 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 4 2,588 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 294 185,099 1,336 1,336 0.7 0.7
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,859 1,762,765 168,798 194,396 9.6 11.0
800 Theaters and motion pictures 536 345,338 63,535 68,422 18.4 19.8
801 Video tape rental 153 97,300 0 0 0.0 0.0
802 Bowling centers 93 55,195 1,100 1,972 2.0 3.6
810 Miscellaneous entertainment & recreation services 2,077 1,264,931 104,164 124,002 8.2 9.8
831 HOSPITALS 8,647 5,038,461 740,080 879,770 14.7 17.5
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 8,196 4,840,126 346,009 415,510 7.1 8.6
812 Offices and clinics of physicians 1,873 1,133,697 24,323 35,048 2.1 3.1
820 Offices and clinics of dentists 739 435,588 4,146 5,340 1.0 1.2
821 Offices and clinics of chiropractors 121 69,688 0 0 0.0 0.0
822 Offices and clinics of optometrists 90 46,862 776 776 1.7 1.7
830 Offices and clinics of health practitioners, n.e.c. 62 38,484 665 665 1.7 1.7
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 3,028 1,732,113 183,724 207,771 10.6 12.0
840 Health services, n.e.c. 2,283 1,383,694 132,375 165,909 9.6 12.0
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 16,358 9,399,285 3,411,250 4,005,235 36.3 42.6
842 Elementary and secondary schools 11,000 6,397,218 2,976,439 3,472,882 46.5 54.3
850 Colleges and universities 4,732 2,647,041 393,106 479,736 14.9 18.1
851 Vocational schools 134 79,356 12,906 14,235 16.3 17.9
852 Libraries 327 179,937 23,758 32,017 13.2 17.8
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 165 95,733 5,041 6,365 5.3 6.6
SOCIAL SERVICES 4,062 2,336,925 188,122 227,275 8.0 9.7
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 426 229,968 9,493 14,343 4.1 6.2
862 Child day care services 1,431 844,307 21,909 29,365 2.6 3.5
863 Family child care homes 20 13,192 0 0 0.0 0.0
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 677 383,451 28,285 33,807 7.4 8.8
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,508 866,008 128,435 149,760 14.8 17.3
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 7,092 4,221,027 154,565 185,980 3.7 4.4
841 Legal services 1,508 881,122 15,586 18,257 1.8 2.1
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 165 92,002 8,313 10,062 9.0 10.9
873 Labor unions 122 71,736 53,054 54,338 74.0 75.7
880 Religious organizations 1,404 834,269 12,227 17,119 1.5 2.1
881 Membership organizations, n.e.c. 649 362,961 12,893 16,509 3.6 4.5
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,047 638,170 27,315 33,288 4.3 5.2
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 682 421,729 2,771 4,616 0.7 1.1
891 Research, development, and testing services 954 583,181 15,936 24,230 2.7 4.2
892 Management and public relations services 476 284,083 4,038 4,599 1.4 1.6
893 Miscellaneous professional and related services 85 51,774 2,433 2,963 4.7 5.7
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 9,620 5,772,074 1,877,207 2,227,127 32.5 38.6
900 Executive and legislative offices 289 150,975 15,850 19,995 10.5 13.2
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,073 613,130 148,006 184,569 24.1 30.1
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,519 2,217,034 1,039,561 1,116,496 46.9 50.4
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 684 412,874 119,240 149,849 28.9 36.3
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,283 748,560 229,782 285,281 30.7 38.1
930 Administration of environ. quality & housing programs 540 266,383 60,742 73,764 22.8 27.7
931 Administration of economic programs 1,031 586,223 157,589 198,108 26.9 33.8
932 National security and international affairs 1,201 776,896 106,437 199,064 13.7 25.6
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1993. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1990 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.