Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1994 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,179 1,490,894 33,284 41,277 2.2 2.8
10 Agricultural production, crops 672 503,050 11,626 11,724 2.3 2.3
11 Agricultural production, livestock 637 365,205 6,354 6,354 1.7 1.7
12 Veterinary services 202 127,694 2,450 2,450 1.9 1.9
20 Landscape and horticultural services 548 409,112 11,848 19,744 2.9 4.8
30 Agricultural services, n.e.c. 120 85,833 1,006 1,006 1.2 1.2
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 254 131,632 15,981 21,187 12.1 16.1
31 Forestry 195 102,383 13,500 18,705 13.2 18.3
32 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 59 29,249 2,481 2,481 8.5 8.5
MINING 1,189 653,453 102,228 111,185 15.6 17.0
40 Metal mining 150 65,359 23,593 25,865 36.1 39.6
41 Coal mining 229 117,310 44,529 46,790 38.0 39.9
42 Oil and gas extraction 604 367,589 13,525 16,738 3.7 4.6
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, except fuel 206 103,195 20,581 21,792 19.9 21.1
60 CONSTRUCTION 8,331 5,409,181 1,109,698 1,173,300 20.5 21.7
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 2,636 8,013,699 1,361,324 1,464,211 17.0 18.3
100 Meat products 730 466,080 79,617 90,018 17.1 19.3
101 Dairy products 231 155,831 45,734 45,734 29.3 29.3
102 Canned, frozen and preserved fruits and vegetables 349 223,244 54,245 56,514 24.3 25.3
110 Grain mill products 206 143,433 25,872 27,435 18.0 19.1
111 Bakery products 327 221,948 59,308 61,607 26.7 27.8
112 Sugar and confectionery products 166 102,398 28,921 30,973 28.2 30.2
120 Beverage industries 258 195,523 51,143 52,156 26.2 26.7
121 Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred products 280 180,078 32,369 36,897 18.0 20.5
122 Not specified food industries 20 13,770 4,379 4,379 31.8 31.8
130 Tobacco manufactures 81 51,068 18,430 19,543 36.1 38.3
132 Knitting mills 208 104,574 5,620 5,620 5.4 5.4
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, except wool & knit goods 43 27,211 0 0 0.0 0.0
141 Carpets and rugs 79 62,710 2,469 2,469 3.9 3.9
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 657 394,202 24,717 27,312 6.3 6.9
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 57 30,420 6,078 6,431 20.0 21.1
151 Apparel and accessories, except knit 1,225 792,878 112,749 122,543 14.2 15.5
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 240 151,083 16,612 18,226 11.0 12.1
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 489 303,664 156,730 161,518 51.6 53.2
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 286 191,386 40,238 44,921 21.0 23.5
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 310 204,698 69,332 74,046 33.9 36.2
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 812 473,581 64,963 69,802 13.7 14.7
172 Printing, publishing, & allied ind., exc. newspapers 1,812 1,185,462 92,079 108,389 7.8 9.1
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 242 151,585 22,270 22,893 14.7 15.1
181 Drugs 510 292,462 20,654 25,017 7.1 8.6
182 Soaps and cosmetics 279 184,573 29,936 32,398 16.2 17.6
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 90 69,560 14,349 15,173 20.6 21.8
191 Agricultural chemicals 86 49,070 5,827 6,336 11.9 12.9
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 828 505,838 82,875 90,967 16.4 18.0
200 Petroleum refining 248 158,616 41,318 42,539 26.0 26.8
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 31 21,559 6,094 6,094 28.3 28.3
210 Tires and inner tubes 124 79,396 29,438 29,438 37.1 37.1
211 Other rubber products, & plastics footwear & belting 271 158,021 34,203 36,714 21.6 23.2
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 829 537,363 59,896 66,668 11.1 12.4
220 Leather tanning and finishing 17 9,224 2,330 2,330 25.3 25.3
221 Footwear, except rubber and plastic 134 70,467 12,020 12,604 17.1 17.9
222 Leather products, except footwear 81 50,724 8,509 8,509 16.8 16.8
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 7,363 11,366,143 2,171,708 2,353,164 19.1 20.7
230 Logging 186 100,507 4,597 5,318 4.6 5.3
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 571 360,185 45,643 49,917 12.7 13.9
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 81 53,588 4,166 4,870 7.8 9.1
241 Miscellaneous wood products 186 123,430 12,065 13,848 9.8 11.2
242 Furniture and fixtures 991 630,813 68,073 75,365 10.8 11.9
250 Glass and glass products 261 173,897 70,578 70,944 40.6 40.8
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 279 179,230 32,149 33,436 17.9 18.7
252 Structural clay products 38 27,302 2,493 2,727 9.1 10.0
261 Pottery and related products 70 45,836 8,381 8,770 18.3 19.1
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone products 147 93,066 19,481 20,321 20.9 21.8
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 494 356,304 174,928 178,067 49.1 50.0
271 Iron and steel foundries 158 110,732 34,759 35,176 31.4 31.8
272 Primary aluminum industries 211 139,942 52,540 52,901 37.5 37.8
280 Other primary metal industries 254 152,759 33,353 38,542 21.8 25.2
281 Cutlery, handtools, and general hardware 162 102,432 17,620 18,742 17.2 18.3
282 Fabricated structural metal products 671 454,878 66,634 72,050 14.6 15.8
290 Screw machine products 66 46,577 3,943 3,943 8.5 8.5
291 Metal forgings and stampings 206 138,990 46,049 50,791 33.1 36.5
292 Ordnance 103 59,883 8,747 10,992 14.6 18.4
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 581 400,067 85,435 87,599 21.4 21.9
301 Not specified metal industries 2 2,051 0 0 0.0 0.0
310 Engines and turbines 100 67,876 26,697 28,583 39.3 42.1
311 Farm machinery and equipment 192 111,433 14,100 16,384 12.7 14.7
312 Construction and material handling machines 343 222,845 39,014 42,711 17.5 19.2
320 Metalworking machinery 468 281,259 25,874 28,922 9.2 10.3
321 Office and accounting machines 63 41,267 2,412 2,412 5.8 5.8
322 Computers and related equipment 795 523,336 9,433 11,159 1.8 2.1
331 Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c. 1,584 1,063,433 160,532 172,025 15.1 16.2
332 Not specified machinery 6 3,910 1,503 1,503 38.4 38.4
340 Household appliances 183 117,447 31,109 33,048 26.5 28.1
341 Radio, TV, and communication equipment 606 419,787 47,171 53,347 11.2 12.7
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 1,931 1,259,730 135,720 156,014 10.8 12.4
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equip., & supplies 12 9,139 787 787 8.6 8.6
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,922 1,213,488 538,757 549,924 44.4 45.3
352 Aircraft and parts 565 429,638 125,306 167,370 29.2 39.0
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 283 186,050 51,194 63,453 27.5 34.1
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 57 33,965 13,158 14,760 38.7 43.5
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 457 332,787 47,300 55,600 14.2 16.7
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 86 55,093 13,709 14,853 24.9 27.0
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 315 211,154 16,773 17,859 7.9 8.5
372 Medical, dental, and optical instruments and supplies 535 352,551 20,514 22,374 5.8 6.3
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 176 107,860 12,411 12,790 11.5 11.9
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 17 9,417 2,604 2,604 27.6 27.6
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 249 156,898 12,203 15,152 7.8 9.7
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 631 360,822 26,544 29,152 7.4 8.1
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 69 42,489 5,251 6,059 12.4 14.3
TRANSPORTATION 7,920 5,105,823 1,932,336 2,064,517 37.8 40.4
400 Railroads 503 284,021 211,515 213,900 74.5 75.3
401 Bus service and urban transit 818 533,828 209,534 223,108 39.3 41.8
402 Taxicab service 141 78,688 7,571 8,441 9.6 10.7
410 Trucking service 2,797 1,848,681 397,879 423,353 21.5 22.9
411 Warehousing and storage 206 145,793 19,820 22,133 13.6 15.2
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,430 889,249 673,005 734,637 75.7 82.6
420 Water transportation 264 173,784 53,478 55,760 30.8 32.1
421 Air transportation 1,191 808,896 331,847 350,984 41.0 43.4
422 Pipe lines, except natural gas 35 16,811 3,063 4,545 18.2 27.0
432 Services incidental to transportation 535 326,071 24,625 27,657 7.6 8.5
COMMUNICATIONS 2,338 1,517,036 425,792 491,661 28.1 32.4
440 Radio and television broadcasting and cable 627 380,279 37,453 44,948 9.8 11.8
441 Telephone communications 1,664 1,104,645 382,856 440,631 34.7 39.9
442 Telegraph and misc. communications services 47 32,112 5,483 6,082 17.1 18.9
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,422 1,520,781 488,619 521,754 32.1 34.3
450 Electric light and power 1,062 629,253 213,732 227,633 34.0 36.2
451 Gas and steam supply systems 287 177,844 50,284 51,640 28.3 29.0
452 Electric and gas, and other combinations 221 156,685 77,860 82,618 49.7 52.7
470 Water supply and irrigation 363 234,358 60,674 66,917 25.9 28.6
471 Sanitary services 474 314,344 83,241 89,493 26.5 28.5
472 Not specified utilities 15 8,297 2,828 3,453 34.1 41.6
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,282 4,001,628 259,248 289,021 6.5 7.2
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 278 173,913 11,150 12,113 6.4 7.0
501 Furniture and home furnishings 104 73,723 1,965 3,207 2.7 4.3
502 Lumber and construction materials 256 155,988 6,307 6,819 4.0 4.4
510 Professional and commercial equipment and supplies 520 351,554 3,765 5,171 1.1 1.5
511 Metals and minerals, except petroleum 103 70,625 6,358 7,201 9.0 10.2
512 Electrical goods 395 266,554 10,535 11,515 4.0 4.3
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 355 234,397 16,779 17,299 7.2 7.4
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 842 501,793 12,498 14,308 2.5 2.9
531 Scrap and waste materials 260 176,440 17,524 17,890 9.9 10.1
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 141 87,475 3,459 3,459 4.0 4.0
540 Paper and paper products 158 98,895 1,856 5,295 1.9 5.4
541 Drugs, chemicals and allied products 260 164,283 7,865 8,774 4.8 5.3
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 175 105,045 9,612 11,230 9.1 10.7
550 Groceries and related products 1,187 778,196 111,318 119,698 14.3 15.4
551 Farm-product raw materials 162 83,263 822 1,708 1.0 2.1
552 Petroleum products 197 122,997 7,381 8,733 6.0 7.1
560 Alcoholic beverages 175 117,281 14,630 16,707 12.5 14.2
561 Farm supplies 217 119,722 2,476 2,476 2.1 2.1
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 474 308,242 11,686 13,990 3.8 4.5
571 Not specified wholesale trade 23 11,240 1,262 1,429 11.2 12.7
RETAIL TRADE 8,789 18,406,884 1,132,694 1,249,955 6.2 6.8
580 Lumber and building material retailing 806 496,845 17,111 21,057 3.4 4.2
581 Hardware stores 302 184,697 6,321 6,321 3.4 3.4
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 150 96,749 2,291 2,291 2.4 2.4
590 Mobile home dealers 33 20,256 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 3,320 2,176,720 93,308 106,680 4.3 4.9
592 Variety stores 223 128,949 1,657 2,883 1.3 2.2
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 195 116,422 9,519 9,519 8.2 8.2
601 Grocery stores 4,519 2,867,560 706,044 747,740 24.6 26.1
602 Dairy products stores 43 28,271 0 0 0.0 0.0
610 Retail bakeries 245 152,513 8,586 9,244 5.6 6.1
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 224 145,834 3,314 3,314 2.3 2.3
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,567 1,019,281 38,466 42,077 3.8 4.1
620 Auto and home supply stores 573 355,518 7,082 10,427 2.0 2.9
621 Gasoline service stations 522 327,691 3,152 6,092 1.0 1.9
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 113 72,379 0 0 0.0 0.0
623 Apparel and accessory stores, except shoe 1,087 703,838 20,112 22,339 2.9 3.2
630 Shoe stores 217 152,079 2,927 2,927 1.9 1.9
631 Furniture and home furnishings stores 732 459,706 15,197 17,096 3.3 3.7
632 Household appliance stores 138 95,707 1,480 1,480 1.5 1.5
633 Radio, TV, and computer stores 488 340,562 5,113 5,886 1.5 1.7
640 Music stores 168 113,968 0 0 0.0 0.0
641 Eating and drinking places 8,959 5,764,690 105,603 134,168 1.8 2.3
642 Drug stores 852 522,017 31,965 37,263 6.1 7.1
650 Liquor stores 148 86,072 5,929 5,929 6.9 6.9
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 471 297,552 3,081 4,570 1.0 1.5
652 Book and stationery stores 315 206,519 2,099 2,099 1.0 1.0
660 Jewelry stores 217 126,309 997 997 0.8 0.8
661 Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops 234 133,930 566 566 0.4 0.4
662 Sewing, needlework and piece goods stores 90 53,463 1,510 1,510 2.8 2.8
663 Catalog and mail order houses 246 150,072 6,705 7,052 4.5 4.7
670 Vending machine operators 92 59,058 8,384 8,384 14.2 14.2
671 Direct selling establishments 200 125,761 3,003 4,604 2.4 3.7
672 Fuel dealers 224 120,241 6,865 8,572 5.7 7.1
681 Retail florists 196 122,905 2,192 2,192 1.8 1.8
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 836 554,772 11,962 14,523 2.2 2.6
691 Not specified retail trade 44 27,978 154 154 0.5 0.5
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 1,166 7,132,001 217,477 291,151 3.0 4.1
700 Banking 3,161 1,943,633 21,825 43,861 1.1 2.3
701 Savings institutions, including credit unions 533 334,422 8,044 10,037 2.4 3.0
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 768 516,422 6,219 10,279 1.2 2.0
710 Security, commodity brokerage, & invest. companies 979 619,965 10,520 14,952 1.7 2.4
711 Insurance 3,370 2,173,538 76,658 101,933 3.5 4.7
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance offices 2,355 1,544,021 94,212 110,089 6.1 7.1
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 8,372 5,619,575 250,218 295,844 4.5 5.3
721 Advertising 357 227,770 4,605 6,562 2.0 2.9
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 913 611,337 58,519 67,107 9.6 11.0
731 Personnel supply services 1,185 788,992 12,760 18,992 1.6 2.4
732 Computer and data processing services 1,270 860,276 9,183 15,672 1.1 1.8
740 Detective and protective services 622 444,935 34,742 42,432 7.8 9.5
741 Business services, n.e.c. 1,848 1,199,437 35,475 42,159 3.0 3.5
742 Automotive rental and leasing, without drivers 239 161,736 12,051 12,051 7.5 7.5
750 Automotive parking and carwashes 220 164,379 11,583 13,065 7.0 7.9
751 Automotive repair and related services 1,118 756,721 27,188 31,013 3.6 4.1
752 Electrical repair shops 131 88,460 7,170 7,993 8.1 9.0
760 Miscellaneous repair services 469 315,531 36,941 38,799 11.7 12.3
PERSONAL SERVICES 5,681 3,509,858 182,313 202,324 5.2 5.8
761 Private Households 1,459 948,161 8,655 12,539 0.9 1.3
762 Hotels and Motels 2,230 1,278,201 127,772 137,278 10.0 10.7
770 Lodging places, except hotels and motels 171 112,123 951 1,982 0.8 1.8
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 577 376,854 33,748 37,640 9.0 10.0
772 Beauty shops 782 485,057 6,471 6,931 1.3 1.4
780 Barber shops 55 42,765 531 531 1.2 1.2
781 Funeral service and crematories 113 73,142 1,735 1,735 2.4 2.4
782 Shoe repair shops 4 2,068 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 4 2,366 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 286 189,121 2,450 3,688 1.3 2.0
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,842 1,805,208 180,595 196,821 10.0 10.9
800 Theaters and motion pictures 531 354,614 70,281 76,001 19.8 21.4
801 Video tape rental 187 126,098 2,279 2,279 1.8 1.8
802 Bowling centers 90 50,370 666 666 1.3 1.3
810 Miscellaneous entertainment & recreation services 2,034 1,274,125 107,369 117,876 8.4 9.3
831 HOSPITALS 8,198 4,988,330 721,513 849,887 14.5 17.0
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 8,003 4,894,516 399,481 465,242 8.2 9.5
812 Offices and clinics of physicians 1,817 1,138,713 35,587 48,017 3.1 4.2
820 Offices and clinics of dentists 723 442,519 4,248 5,172 1.0 1.2
821 Offices and clinics of chiropractors 94 62,558 0 0 0.0 0.0
822 Offices and clinics of optometrists 78 46,971 0 0 0.0 0.0
830 Offices and clinics of health practitioners, n.e.c. 72 46,006 2,118 3,907 4.6 8.5
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,857 1,684,657 215,681 238,361 12.8 14.1
840 Health services, n.e.c. 2,362 1,473,092 141,846 169,786 9.6 11.5
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 6,070 9,584,845 3,426,943 4,007,695 35.8 41.8
842 Elementary and secondary schools 733 6,452,689 2,990,281 3,444,958 46.3 53.4
850 Colleges and universities 4,666 2,738,438 382,106 498,153 14.0 18.2
851 Vocational schools 142 87,757 18,152 19,365 20.7 22.1
852 Libraries 342 196,538 25,633 32,858 13.0 16.7
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 187 109,423 10,772 12,362 9.8 11.3
SOCIAL SERVICES 4,173 2,518,171 218,232 255,896 8.7 10.2
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 396 235,315 12,308 14,033 5.2 6.0
862 Child day care services 1,404 834,798 19,204 30,824 2.3 3.7
863 Family child care homes 40 24,117 505 505 2.1 2.1
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 685 423,100 35,503 40,714 8.4 9.6
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,648 1,000,842 150,712 169,819 15.1 17.0
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 7,160 4,447,984 147,689 187,801 3.3 4.2
841 Legal services 1,489 931,641 14,228 20,230 1.5 2.2
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 164 90,823 10,264 11,162 11.3 12.3
873 Labor unions 112 71,328 53,685 55,615 75.3 78.0
880 Religious organizations 1,406 887,165 11,732 16,194 1.3 1.8
881 Membership organizations, n.e.c. 627 370,636 8,970 14,238 2.4 3.8
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,016 633,274 23,190 28,848 3.7 4.6
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 687 422,037 4,269 7,242 1.0 1.7
891 Research, development, and testing services 972 598,131 16,806 23,180 2.8 3.9
892 Management and public relations services 590 386,983 3,424 6,932 0.9 1.8
893 Miscellaneous professional and related services 97 55,965 1,120 4,161 2.0 7.4
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 9,436 5,870,116 1,962,976 2,308,585 33.4 39.3
900 Executive and legislative offices 291 149,431 11,743 14,078 7.9 9.4
901 General government, n.e.c. 911 571,002 156,003 187,829 27.3 32.9
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,491 2,288,064 1,097,409 1,182,709 48.0 51.7
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 710 433,010 117,464 154,068 27.1 35.6
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,305 775,545 230,512 285,950 29.7 36.9
930 Administration of environ. quality & housing programs 520 280,946 55,810 69,307 19.9 24.7
931 Administration of economic programs 1,063 624,240 183,043 227,834 29.3 36.5
932 National security and international affairs 1,145 747,879 110,992 186,810 14.8 25.0
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1994. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1990 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.