Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1995 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,266 1,574,781 33,386 42,764 2.1 2.7
10 Agricultural production, crops 696 521,018 12,864 13,635 2.5 2.6
11 Agricultural production, livestock 637 388,393 4,497 6,436 1.2 1.7
12 Veterinary services 212 126,898 0 2,453 0.0 1.9
20 Landscape and horticultural services 591 439,447 11,887 14,641 2.7 3.3
30 Agricultural services, n.e.c. 130 99,026 4,138 5,599 4.2 5.7
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 213 96,295 11,903 17,224 12.4 17.9
31 Forestry 141 53,990 8,534 12,491 15.8 23.1
32 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 72 42,305 3,369 4,733 8.0 11.2
MINING 1,142 611,931 84,073 87,703 13.7 14.3
40 Metal mining 159 68,477 17,950 18,760 26.2 27.4
41 Coal mining 235 113,838 38,518 39,470 33.8 34.7
42 Oil and gas extraction 546 327,667 5,450 6,680 1.7 2.0
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, except fuel 202 101,950 22,155 22,793 21.7 22.4
60 CONSTRUCTION 8,511 5,658,440 1,071,581 1,151,183 18.9 20.3
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 12,420 8,124,647 1,293,738 1,379,844 15.9 17.0
100 Meat products 680 446,543 84,350 90,317 18.9 20.2
101 Dairy products 208 138,011 32,081 32,778 23.2 23.8
102 Canned, frozen and preserved fruits and vegetables 331 218,052 68,635 69,728 31.5 32.0
110 Grain mill products 207 143,168 28,547 29,988 19.9 20.9
111 Bakery products 342 231,630 71,325 76,092 30.8 32.9
112 Sugar and confectionery products 161 95,249 22,546 25,186 23.7 26.4
120 Beverage industries 275 206,140 53,595 54,961 26.0 26.7
121 Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred products 271 186,031 28,767 32,733 15.5 17.6
122 Not specified food industries 12 7,533 0 0 0.0 0.0
130 Tobacco manufactures 95 53,849 10,452 10,452 19.4 19.4
132 Knitting mills 209 109,157 5,376 8,274 4.9 7.6
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, except wool & knit goods 57 34,130 2,844 2,844 8.3 8.3
141 Carpets and rugs 119 95,232 4,237 4,237 4.4 4.4
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 631 399,265 19,091 20,306 4.8 5.1
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 46 26,038 3,201 4,044 12.3 15.5
151 Apparel and accessories, except knit 1,233 784,053 111,189 116,243 14.2 14.8
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 242 165,140 14,194 14,609 8.6 8.8
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 453 296,529 125,889 133,375 42.5 45.0
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 314 222,509 50,049 53,844 22.5 24.2
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 284 199,406 44,936 46,929 22.5 23.5
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 757 479,191 42,882 49,053 8.9 10.2
172 Printing, publishing, & allied ind., exc. newspapers 1,824 1,206,189 98,303 107,617 8.1 8.9
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 256 163,810 26,019 30,370 15.9 18.5
181 Drugs 513 316,119 19,786 20,381 6.3 6.4
182 Soaps and cosmetics 278 176,274 22,935 24,640 13.0 14.0
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 111 79,424 16,917 17,235 21.3 21.7
191 Agricultural chemicals 60 39,360 2,474 2,626 6.3 6.7
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 771 496,767 88,099 90,984 17.7 18.3
200 Petroleum refining 218 141,234 34,527 37,404 24.4 26.5
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 40 31,059 8,594 8,594 27.7 27.7
210 Tires and inner tubes 135 87,962 29,312 30,405 33.3 34.6
211 Other rubber products, & plastics footwear & belting 227 150,314 25,575 27,542 17.0 18.3
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 842 561,763 69,486 77,237 12.4 13.7
220 Leather tanning and finishing 15 12,175 4,811 5,146 39.5 42.3
221 Footwear, except rubber and plastic 118 69,580 17,196 18,154 24.7 26.1
222 Leather products, except footwear 85 55,760 5,519 5,519 9.9 9.9
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 17,055 11,502,046 2,175,585 2,315,991 18.9 20.1
230 Logging 181 110,694 9,477 9,929 8.6 9.0
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 582 380,113 65,763 66,811 17.3 17.6
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 114 85,411 6,297 6,297 7.4 7.4
241 Miscellaneous wood products 183 125,529 10,565 11,111 8.4 8.9
242 Furniture and fixtures 927 613,508 56,834 63,826 9.3 10.4
250 Glass and glass products 247 183,689 58,064 59,941 31.6 32.6
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 306 201,716 34,549 37,830 17.1 18.8
252 Structural clay products 51 32,334 4,355 5,054 13.5 15.6
261 Pottery and related products 66 41,484 13,252 13,252 31.9 31.9
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone products 141 89,313 13,190 13,190 14.8 14.8
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 492 349,797 170,321 177,723 48.7 50.8
271 Iron and steel foundries 164 118,235 43,149 44,850 36.5 37.9
272 Primary aluminum industries 197 140,032 45,467 48,706 32.5 34.8
280 Other primary metal industries 278 181,198 43,780 51,310 24.2 28.3
281 Cutlery, handtools, and general hardware 198 136,932 19,684 22,807 14.4 16.7
282 Fabricated structural metal products 695 479,701 90,068 94,118 18.8 19.6
290 Screw machine products 77 53,687 7,100 7,652 13.2 14.3
291 Metal forgings and stampings 211 145,319 34,959 38,261 24.1 26.3
292 Ordnance 83 50,305 8,754 10,176 17.4 20.2
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 549 388,450 73,153 79,998 18.8 20.6
301 Not specified metal industries 9 5,697 1,087 1,087 19.1 19.1
310 Engines and turbines 88 59,603 21,449 21,449 36.0 36.0
311 Farm machinery and equipment 178 112,810 23,020 23,340 20.4 20.7
312 Construction and material handling machines 328 242,094 54,083 58,294 22.3 24.1
320 Metalworking machinery 478 293,637 25,487 28,372 8.7 9.7
321 Office and accounting machines 63 45,887 3,535 3,535 7.7 7.7
322 Computers and related equipment 760 497,511 10,493 15,554 2.1 3.1
331 Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c. 1,528 1,044,590 154,497 163,688 14.8 15.7
332 Not specified machinery 6 4,899 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Household appliances 169 117,149 33,484 35,831 28.6 30.6
341 Radio, TV, and communication equipment 575 388,742 36,856 42,772 9.5 11.0
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 1,878 1,280,136 117,191 131,597 9.2 10.3
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equip., & supplies 22 15,152 1,199 2,050 7.9 13.5
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,947 1,246,456 535,094 548,742 42.9 44.0
352 Aircraft and parts 550 410,061 127,702 136,021 31.1 33.2
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 277 176,736 53,471 61,048 30.3 34.5
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 39 25,814 9,243 9,243 35.8 35.8
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 373 283,904 59,000 63,145 20.8 22.2
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 89 64,013 10,063 10,063 15.7 15.7
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 306 198,616 16,655 19,397 8.4 9.8
372 Medical, dental, and optical instruments and supplies 546 376,483 22,951 23,073 6.1 6.1
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 177 123,159 5,727 6,477 4.7 5.3
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 7 3,912 0 0 0.0 0.0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 229 156,963 5,806 6,277 3.7 4.0
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 580 349,564 33,826 36,385 9.7 10.4
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 111 71,011 4,885 5,709 6.9 8.0
TRANSPORTATION 7,727 5,097,419 1,881,036 1,995,261 36.9 39.1
400 Railroads 454 271,279 202,898 203,867 74.8 75.2
401 Bus service and urban transit 844 544,726 212,928 218,841 39.1 40.2
402 Taxicab service 127 76,752 11,038 11,410 14.4 14.9
410 Trucking service 2,696 1,830,895 390,111 418,257 21.3 22.8
411 Warehousing and storage 203 145,444 21,662 23,145 14.9 15.9
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,384 885,432 658,755 712,332 74.4 80.5
420 Water transportation 237 156,393 43,669 48,740 27.9 31.2
421 Air transportation 1,194 816,614 314,409 333,104 38.5 40.8
422 Pipe lines, except natural gas 19 8,433 1,426 1,426 16.9 16.9
432 Services incidental to transportation 569 361,450 24,140 24,140 6.7 6.7
COMMUNICATIONS 2,390 1,549,268 406,585 451,804 26.2 29.2
440 Radio and television broadcasting and cable 651 414,730 39,126 43,086 9.4 10.4
441 Telephone communications 1,694 1,110,116 363,375 403,881 32.7 36.4
442 Telegraph and misc. communications services 45 24,422 4,085 4,837 16.7 19.8
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,327 1,494,109 482,501 526,949 32.3 35.3
450 Electric light and power 1,028 637,504 208,608 224,812 32.7 35.3
451 Gas and steam supply systems 273 171,916 55,051 58,248 32.0 33.9
452 Electric and gas, and other combinations 219 150,330 72,518 77,975 48.2 51.9
470 Water supply and irrigation 332 219,031 66,425 74,737 30.3 34.1
471 Sanitary services 458 302,620 78,958 90,236 26.1 29.8
472 Not specified utilities 17 12,709 941 941 7.4 7.4
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,381 4,265,181 282,542 321,657 6.6 7.5
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 271 182,725 8,741 11,144 4.8 6.1
501 Furniture and home furnishings 110 81,233 530 530 0.7 0.7
502 Lumber and construction materials 292 193,901 12,942 13,688 6.7 7.1
510 Professional and commercial equipment and supplies 506 354,791 851 5,143 0.2 1.4
511 Metals and minerals, except petroleum 114 82,547 9,074 9,604 11.0 11.6
512 Electrical goods 389 263,729 7,617 9,482 2.9 3.6
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 357 241,865 5,332 6,880 2.2 2.8
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 862 553,039 16,603 19,810 3.0 3.6
531 Scrap and waste materials 272 192,961 16,611 19,012 8.6 9.9
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 161 103,055 3,479 3,479 3.4 3.4
540 Paper and paper products 164 115,757 1,979 1,979 1.7 1.7
541 Drugs, chemicals and allied products 269 176,514 7,525 9,163 4.3 5.2
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 213 128,589 8,598 10,402 6.7 8.1
550 Groceries and related products 1,188 827,067 131,529 142,683 15.9 17.3
551 Farm-product raw materials 137 70,190 2,664 4,002 3.8 5.7
552 Petroleum products 196 114,437 8,281 8,649 7.2 7.6
560 Alcoholic beverages 172 118,718 24,042 24,508 20.3 20.6
561 Farm supplies 225 135,905 3,990 4,743 2.9 3.5
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 448 302,616 12,155 16,059 4.0 5.3
571 Not specified wholesale trade 35 25,543 0 698 0.0 2.7
RETAIL TRADE 28,967 18,863,237 1,127,954 1,245,516 6.0 6.6
580 Lumber and building material retailing 807 504,306 18,651 21,359 3.7 4.2
581 Hardware stores 347 216,457 2,825 3,405 1.3 1.6
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 146 94,179 0 0 0.0 0.0
590 Mobile home dealers 38 24,651 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 3,414 2,280,189 100,679 115,367 4.4 5.1
592 Variety stores 202 126,278 1,148 2,180 0.9 1.7
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 221 128,598 4,617 6,935 3.6 5.4
601 Grocery stores 4,409 2,849,276 692,313 730,021 24.3 25.6
602 Dairy products stores 60 41,135 2,995 2,995 7.3 7.3
610 Retail bakeries 256 154,027 12,721 13,066 8.3 8.5
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 227 153,083 499 499 0.3 0.3
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,647 1,068,418 39,049 43,286 3.7 4.1
620 Auto and home supply stores 566 374,352 10,632 11,779 2.8 3.1
621 Gasoline service stations 512 300,026 2,239 3,175 0.7 1.1
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 128 79,352 869 1,351 1.1 1.7
623 Apparel and accessory stores, except shoe 1,110 718,743 16,902 20,294 2.4 2.8
630 Shoe stores 223 158,392 4,832 7,424 3.1 4.7
631 Furniture and home furnishings stores 683 454,084 9,096 10,889 2.0 2.4
632 Household appliance stores 116 75,845 857 1,618 1.1 2.1
633 Radio, TV, and computer stores 540 373,071 3,515 4,477 0.9 1.2
640 Music stores 183 123,525 1,407 1,407 1.1 1.1
641 Eating and drinking places 8,885 5,871,699 112,892 140,442 1.9 2.4
642 Drug stores 833 537,532 49,364 53,153 9.2 9.9
650 Liquor stores 141 83,303 1,450 2,333 1.7 2.8
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 459 297,125 4,578 5,367 1.5 1.8
652 Book and stationery stores 362 223,515 805 1,596 0.4 0.7
660 Jewelry stores 215 132,960 782 782 0.6 0.6
661 Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops 245 156,073 3,346 4,779 2.1 3.1
662 Sewing, needlework and piece goods stores 63 39,051 0 0 0.0 0.0
663 Catalog and mail order houses 233 150,198 5,040 6,967 3.4 4.6
670 Vending machine operators 80 53,691 3,908 3,908 7.3 7.3
671 Direct selling establishments 218 133,089 1,442 3,074 1.1 2.3
672 Fuel dealers 194 112,188 7,163 7,531 6.4 6.7
681 Retail florists 233 150,680 456 456 0.3 0.3
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 889 570,137 9,553 12,277 1.7 2.2
691 Not specified retail trade 82 54,008 1,325 1,325 2.5 2.5
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 10,918 6,972,768 195,193 239,291 2.8 3.4
700 Banking 3,007 1,863,085 15,072 25,538 0.8 1.4
701 Savings institutions, including credit unions 498 303,588 8,227 10,857 2.7 3.6
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 763 503,163 3,401 4,649 0.7 0.9
710 Security, commodity brokerage, & invest. companies 1,029 633,376 9,226 12,513 1.5 2.0
711 Insurance 3,298 2,116,644 64,131 82,786 3.0 3.9
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance offices 2,323 1,552,912 95,137 102,948 6.1 6.6
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 8,550 5,807,709 209,489 262,305 3.6 4.5
721 Advertising 321 202,330 4,070 4,798 2.0 2.4
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 892 599,484 45,158 51,516 7.5 8.6
731 Personnel supply services 1,167 821,157 16,197 29,935 2.0 3.6
732 Computer and data processing services 1,426 958,015 11,902 17,177 1.2 1.8
740 Detective and protective services 663 472,962 28,062 37,205 5.9 7.9
741 Business services, n.e.c. 1,916 1,286,833 25,525 36,449 2.0 2.8
742 Automotive rental and leasing, without drivers 215 153,299 10,259 10,259 6.7 6.7
750 Automotive parking and carwashes 238 168,624 6,711 7,099 4.0 4.2
751 Automotive repair and related services 1,091 724,822 18,558 22,451 2.6 3.1
752 Electrical repair shops 122 80,818 10,050 10,050 12.4 12.4
760 Miscellaneous repair services 499 339,365 32,998 35,367 9.7 10.4
PERSONAL SERVICES 5,610 3,500,329 194,477 214,484 5.6 6.1
761 Private Households 1,462 959,160 10,362 14,406 1.1 1.5
762 Hotels and Motels 2,214 1,275,643 146,323 153,560 11.5 12.0
770 Lodging places, except hotels and motels 151 105,167 0 1,068 0.0 1.0
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 604 407,780 31,785 35,332 7.8 8.7
772 Beauty shops 743 469,246 2,891 4,551 0.6 1.0
780 Barber shops 43 27,692 493 493 1.8 1.8
781 Funeral service and crematories 114 71,555 607 607 0.8 0.8
782 Shoe repair shops 8 6,491 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 3 1,238 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 268 176,356 2,016 4,467 1.1 2.5
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,849 1,891,444 167,021 189,225 8.8 10.0
800 Theaters and motion pictures 586 407,998 60,244 68,352 14.8 16.8
801 Video tape rental 143 93,967 0 0 0.0 0.0
802 Bowling centers 77 49,696 0 0 0.0 0.0
810 Miscellaneous entertainment & recreation services 2,043 1,339,783 106,777 120,873 8.0 9.0
831 HOSPITALS 8,078 4,974,929 695,721 821,321 14.0 16.5
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 8,289 5,303,924 363,394 434,244 6.9 8.2
812 Offices and clinics of physicians 1,893 1,235,389 43,280 53,908 3.5 4.4
820 Offices and clinics of dentists 811 496,801 2,993 8,453 0.6 1.7
821 Offices and clinics of chiropractors 82 54,682 0 0 0.0 0.0
822 Offices and clinics of optometrists 70 46,831 1,534 2,280 3.3 4.9
830 Offices and clinics of health practitioners, n.e.c. 66 44,756 1,618 1,618 3.6 3.6
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,740 1,716,794 170,501 193,564 9.9 11.3
840 Health services, n.e.c. 2,627 1,708,671 143,467 174,422 8.4 10.2
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 15,881 9,733,251 3,441,345 4,005,928 35.4 41.2
842 Elementary and secondary schools 10,676 6,619,776 3,000,660 3,464,079 45.3 52.3
850 Colleges and universities 4,608 2,761,379 385,030 481,035 13.9 17.4
851 Vocational schools 125 73,965 6,685 8,678 9.0 11.7
852 Libraries 290 170,058 41,835 43,439 24.6 25.5
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 182 108,073 7,135 8,698 6.6 8.0
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,853 2,405,869 198,841 236,967 8.3 9.8
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 349 224,797 15,009 17,665 6.7 7.9
862 Child day care services 1,251 781,809 12,736 19,725 1.6 2.5
863 Family child care homes 37 24,925 0 0 0.0 0.0
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 640 399,370 24,069 33,724 6.0 8.4
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,576 974,968 147,027 165,852 15.1 17.0
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 7,383 4,632,070 134,526 177,103 2.9 3.8
841 Legal services 1,541 977,641 10,342 13,496 1.1 1.4
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 175 96,861 5,398 6,312 5.6 6.5
873 Labor unions 115 67,660 51,747 52,933 76.5 78.2
880 Religious organizations 1,405 899,429 11,106 12,976 1.2 1.4
881 Membership organizations, n.e.c. 583 360,044 7,614 13,678 2.1 3.8
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,022 654,615 16,185 24,432 2.5 3.7
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 765 487,159 7,472 10,902 1.5 2.2
891 Research, development, and testing services 927 556,297 14,850 29,086 2.7 5.2
892 Management and public relations services 757 470,798 8,480 11,134 1.8 2.4
893 Miscellaneous professional and related services 93 61,565 1,332 2,155 2.2 3.5
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 9,497 5,978,478 1,908,697 2,229,563 31.9 37.3
900 Executive and legislative offices 274 161,227 12,114 16,536 7.5 10.3
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,012 615,935 141,707 159,341 23.0 25.9
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,470 2,308,646 1,056,524 1,153,954 45.8 50.0
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 622 378,313 113,446 139,633 30.0 36.9
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,372 865,666 257,706 308,418 29.8 35.6
930 Administration of environ. quality & housing programs 503 267,135 53,532 67,767 20.0 25.4
931 Administration of economic programs 997 598,157 164,882 200,376 27.6 33.5
932 National security and international affairs 1,247 783,399 108,787 183,538 13.9 23.4
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1995. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1990 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.