Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1996 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,355 1,709,839 32,112 37,213 1.9 2.2
10 Agricultural production, crops 727 552,999 10,482 12,465 1.9 2.3
11 Agricultural production, livestock 684 413,449 2,795 4,014 0.7 1.0
12 Veterinary services 244 172,997 2,409 3,434 1.4 2.0
20 Landscape and horticultural services 552 444,872 14,520 15,393 3.3 3.5
30 Agricultural services, n.e.c. 148 125,522 1,907 1,907 1.5 1.5
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 181 68,162 4,924 7,084 7.2 10.4
31 Forestry 135 50,089 3,988 5,809 8.0 11.6
32 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 46 18,073 936 1,275 5.2 7.1
MINING 977 539,644 75,817 80,936 14.0 15.0
40 Metal mining 135 60,245 14,639 17,181 24.3 28.5
41 Coal mining 191 97,416 41,282 42,068 42.4 43.2
42 Oil and gas extraction 464 282,828 4,381 6,171 1.5 2.2
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, except fuel 187 99,154 15,516 15,516 15.6 15.6
60 CONSTRUCTION 7,916 5,873,975 1,157,563 1,214,760 19.7 20.7
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 10,514 8,031,056 1,235,658 1,325,929 15.4 16.5
100 Meat products 635 454,721 96,386 101,654 21.2 22.4
101 Dairy products 178 124,837 26,135 26,278 20.9 21.0
102 Canned, frozen and preserved fruits and vegetables 293 211,359 63,234 66,620 29.9 31.5
110 Grain mill products 190 137,288 32,995 34,001 24.0 24.8
111 Bakery products 265 214,198 60,458 62,991 28.2 29.4
112 Sugar and confectionery products 153 94,940 23,715 23,851 25.0 25.1
120 Beverage industries 291 233,954 64,633 67,809 27.6 29.0
121 Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred products 263 195,134 31,944 33,318 16.4 17.1
122 Not specified food industries 14 9,251 2,671 2,887 28.9 31.2
130 Tobacco manufactures 63 53,268 8,466 10,331 15.9 19.4
132 Knitting mills 126 95,544 4,638 4,638 4.9 4.9
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, except wool & knit goods 55 43,631 670 670 1.5 1.5
141 Carpets and rugs 82 79,098 2,831 2,831 3.6 3.6
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 428 358,001 24,442 28,218 6.8 7.9
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 35 25,512 2,514 2,514 9.9 9.9
151 Apparel and accessories, except knit 978 770,107 75,645 83,759 9.8 10.9
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 185 141,512 11,965 12,946 8.5 9.1
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 370 276,976 127,445 131,937 46.0 47.6
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 258 195,613 52,720 56,297 27.0 28.8
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 243 196,543 51,346 53,595 26.1 27.3
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 624 442,535 45,961 48,939 10.4 11.1
172 Printing, publishing, & allied ind., exc. newspapers 1,627 1,252,952 87,729 96,993 7.0 7.7
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 202 161,185 18,878 21,018 11.7 13.0
181 Drugs 461 343,739 26,650 30,101 7.8 8.8
182 Soaps and cosmetics 212 163,306 14,991 19,564 9.2 12.0
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 87 67,818 11,215 12,091 16.5 17.8
191 Agricultural chemicals 46 36,025 3,342 4,418 9.3 12.3
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 693 514,338 74,630 83,725 14.5 16.3
200 Petroleum refining 174 128,678 30,339 33,608 23.6 26.1
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 37 28,890 6,790 8,504 23.5 29.4
210 Tires and inner tubes 107 92,258 32,867 34,251 35.6 37.1
211 Other rubber products, & plastics footwear & belting 217 168,059 27,956 29,490 16.6 17.5
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 748 596,347 62,264 65,391 10.4 11.0
220 Leather tanning and finishing 12 9,978 5,939 5,939 59.5 59.5
221 Footwear, except rubber and plastic 94 61,222 11,111 14,038 18.1 22.9
222 Leather products, except footwear 68 52,237 10,144 10,718 19.4 20.5
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 15,003 11,705,813 2,176,154 2,303,493 18.6 19.7
230 Logging 183 109,164 9,861 11,275 9.0 10.3
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 569 380,742 56,091 56,340 14.7 14.8
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 93 75,552 1,194 1,194 1.6 1.6
241 Miscellaneous wood products 162 125,784 18,070 18,797 14.4 14.9
242 Furniture and fixtures 767 615,440 55,832 60,488 9.1 9.8
250 Glass and glass products 244 200,579 66,816 68,845 33.3 34.3
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 267 203,728 29,940 31,970 14.7 15.7
252 Structural clay products 42 37,690 3,956 5,089 10.5 13.5
261 Pottery and related products 38 33,418 13,865 13,865 41.5 41.5
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone products 123 93,470 20,514 21,161 21.9 22.6
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 421 340,417 170,568 173,038 50.1 50.8
271 Iron and steel foundries 108 85,652 33,874 36,207 39.5 42.3
272 Primary aluminum industries 184 158,500 65,024 66,439 41.0 41.9
280 Other primary metal industries 218 170,530 43,925 44,318 25.8 26.0
281 Cutlery, handtools, and general hardware 190 144,970 23,039 28,222 15.9 19.5
282 Fabricated structural metal products 601 469,086 79,202 85,974 16.9 18.3
290 Screw machine products 87 66,927 5,598 6,273 8.4 9.4
291 Metal forgings and stampings 160 126,792 38,205 38,892 30.1 30.7
292 Ordnance 75 43,837 4,141 4,141 9.4 9.4
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 469 373,359 73,143 78,325 19.6 21.0
301 Not specified metal industries 15 11,226 2,334 2,334 20.8 20.8
310 Engines and turbines 67 54,858 15,545 16,326 28.3 29.8
311 Farm machinery and equipment 165 108,045 17,650 19,074 16.3 17.7
312 Construction and material handling machines 275 212,443 33,010 35,925 15.5 16.9
320 Metalworking machinery 369 287,354 16,748 20,168 5.8 7.0
321 Office and accounting machines 53 44,251 2,586 3,497 5.8 7.9
322 Computers and related equipment 637 528,755 14,421 15,128 2.7 2.9
331 Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c. 1,454 1,139,961 151,121 161,270 13.3 14.1
332 Not specified machinery 8 6,109 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Household appliances 135 120,225 35,151 36,529 29.2 30.4
341 Radio, TV, and communication equipment 516 427,080 50,041 53,037 11.7 12.4
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 1,646 1,269,388 150,793 163,595 11.9 12.9
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equip., & supplies 41 37,697 822 2,160 2.2 5.7
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,606 1,296,514 581,117 593,081 44.8 45.7
352 Aircraft and parts 489 392,650 107,278 118,646 27.3 30.2
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 253 180,719 43,637 48,550 24.1 26.9
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 41 30,729 9,331 11,037 30.4 35.9
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 364 314,480 47,086 56,878 15.0 18.1
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 97 76,374 7,132 9,516 9.3 12.5
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 292 226,231 14,056 16,283 6.2 7.2
372 Medical, dental, and optical instruments and supplies 479 365,780 15,412 17,764 4.2 4.9
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 174 136,638 5,492 6,876 4.0 5.0
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 9 6,791 0 0 0.0 0.0
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 189 131,885 6,416 6,416 4.9 4.9
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 548 379,049 27,502 29,935 7.3 7.9
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 80 64,942 8,614 8,614 13.3 13.3
TRANSPORTATION 6,865 5,129,631 1,854,521 1,982,040 36.2 38.6
400 Railroads 432 281,877 207,552 212,338 73.6 75.3
401 Bus service and urban transit 701 528,029 192,194 205,591 36.4 38.9
402 Taxicab service 93 68,689 8,737 8,737 12.7 12.7
410 Trucking service 2,506 1,906,915 444,619 471,452 23.3 24.7
411 Warehousing and storage 197 158,156 24,422 25,547 15.4 16.2
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,153 852,810 621,459 682,255 72.9 80.0
420 Water transportation 216 170,761 49,926 50,989 29.2 29.9
421 Air transportation 1,058 800,211 286,785 304,229 35.8 38.0
422 Pipe lines, except natural gas 22 10,396 2,489 2,489 23.9 23.9
432 Services incidental to transportation 487 351,787 16,339 18,413 4.6 5.2
COMMUNICATIONS 2,085 1,577,976 371,414 407,798 23.5 25.8
440 Radio and television broadcasting and cable 579 424,734 46,303 53,986 10.9 12.7
441 Telephone communications 1,477 1,126,450 322,808 351,507 28.7 31.2
442 Telegraph and misc. communications services 29 26,792 2,304 2,304 8.6 8.6
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,034 1,472,930 466,359 499,109 31.7 33.9
450 Electric light and power 876 617,519 193,185 209,220 31.3 33.9
451 Gas and steam supply systems 261 176,751 53,400 58,158 30.2 32.9
452 Electric and gas, and other combinations 176 140,240 69,969 70,653 49.9 50.4
470 Water supply and irrigation 305 224,501 64,919 70,174 28.9 31.3
471 Sanitary services 394 295,448 81,380 87,399 27.5 29.6
472 Not specified utilities 22 18,470 3,505 3,505 19.0 19.0
WHOLESALE TRADE 5,824 4,371,927 272,686 294,002 6.2 6.7
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 250 187,690 13,962 15,524 7.4 8.3
501 Furniture and home furnishings 106 85,064 3,249 3,249 3.8 3.8
502 Lumber and construction materials 253 185,278 9,619 11,139 5.2 6.0
510 Professional and commercial equipment and supplies 473 370,575 6,228 7,131 1.7 1.9
511 Metals and minerals, except petroleum 85 65,450 7,088 7,088 10.8 10.8
512 Electrical goods 367 289,306 10,830 12,258 3.7 4.2
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 308 230,995 15,303 16,761 6.6 7.3
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 790 570,583 19,079 19,847 3.3 3.5
531 Scrap and waste materials 253 190,329 15,280 17,475 8.0 9.2
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 125 94,104 5,740 6,467 6.1 6.9
540 Paper and paper products 173 134,415 5,611 5,611 4.2 4.2
541 Drugs, chemicals and allied products 244 187,297 7,676 8,735 4.1 4.7
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 153 121,648 9,770 10,421 8.0 8.6
550 Groceries and related products 1,161 877,095 105,312 110,522 12.0 12.6
551 Farm-product raw materials 134 71,741 1,181 1,442 1.6 2.0
552 Petroleum products 168 121,030 5,737 7,391 4.7 6.1
560 Alcoholic beverages 159 121,002 19,464 19,464 16.1 16.1
561 Farm supplies 217 139,107 2,364 3,436 1.7 2.5
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 370 297,211 9,193 10,041 3.1 3.4
571 Not specified wholesale trade 35 32,007 0 0 0.0 0.0
RETAIL TRADE 26,180 19,378,943 1,070,515 1,195,394 5.5 6.2
580 Lumber and building material retailing 735 525,422 14,899 18,641 2.8 3.5
581 Hardware stores 295 200,943 2,637 2,770 1.3 1.4
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 158 118,883 1,107 1,107 0.9 0.9
590 Mobile home dealers 38 23,604 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 2,992 2,260,094 88,134 103,326 3.9 4.6
592 Variety stores 141 104,877 298 1,215 0.3 1.2
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 238 167,276 9,318 10,273 5.6 6.1
601 Grocery stores 3,982 2,895,448 668,371 703,556 23.1 24.3
602 Dairy products stores 41 26,699 1,446 1,446 5.4 5.4
610 Retail bakeries 229 163,205 13,074 13,800 8.0 8.5
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 209 159,965 2,885 2,885 1.8 1.8
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,550 1,119,407 41,252 46,348 3.7 4.1
620 Auto and home supply stores 542 416,606 6,936 8,718 1.7 2.1
621 Gasoline service stations 506 340,616 5,866 6,594 1.7 1.9
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 122 86,369 0 0 0.0 0.0
623 Apparel and accessory stores, except shoe 950 702,790 17,837 22,494 2.5 3.2
630 Shoe stores 191 150,508 1,177 2,198 0.8 1.5
631 Furniture and home furnishings stores 650 496,485 10,199 12,277 2.1 2.5
632 Household appliance stores 93 75,131 1,425 1,425 1.9 1.9
633 Radio, TV, and computer stores 503 402,835 5,764 6,536 1.4 1.6
640 Music stores 131 101,689 3,533 3,533 3.5 3.5
641 Eating and drinking places 8,107 6,111,094 91,871 125,311 1.5 2.1
642 Drug stores 683 508,215 28,886 35,177 5.7 6.9
650 Liquor stores 139 106,346 6,184 8,938 5.8 8.4
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 397 281,697 4,416 4,953 1.6 1.8
652 Book and stationery stores 369 261,687 4,161 4,807 1.6 1.8
660 Jewelry stores 181 122,838 756 756 0.6 0.6
661 Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops 221 148,113 2,063 2,063 1.4 1.4
662 Sewing, needlework and piece goods stores 61 38,882 0 873 0.0 2.2
663 Catalog and mail order houses 203 147,132 5,100 5,100 3.5 3.5
670 Vending machine operators 76 59,250 5,465 5,465 9.2 9.2
671 Direct selling establishments 209 151,453 1,297 3,902 0.9 2.6
672 Fuel dealers 190 114,217 8,659 8,659 7.6 7.6
681 Retail florists 197 142,664 1,164 1,485 0.8 1.0
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 782 587,845 12,094 15,541 2.1 2.6
691 Not specified retail trade 69 58,658 2,240 3,219 3.8 5.5
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 9,641 7,071,365 230,041 284,085 3.3 4.0
700 Banking 2,583 1,832,464 33,518 45,441 1.8 2.5
701 Savings institutions, including credit unions 373 258,824 7,477 9,521 2.9 3.7
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 764 540,980 6,475 15,028 1.2 2.8
710 Security, commodity brokerage, & invest. companies 877 655,412 9,240 12,399 1.4 1.9
711 Insurance 2,903 2,160,309 66,441 80,260 3.1 3.7
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance offices 2,141 1,623,375 106,891 121,436 6.6 7.5
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 8,013 6,189,825 197,131 248,045 3.2 4.0
721 Advertising 281 219,218 3,988 6,072 1.8 2.8
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 824 636,678 53,418 62,476 8.4 9.8
731 Personnel supply services 1,020 808,071 17,098 24,740 2.1 3.1
732 Computer and data processing services 1,384 1,103,584 11,876 21,365 1.1 1.9
740 Detective and protective services 632 502,734 28,428 35,446 5.7 7.1
741 Business services, n.e.c. 1,768 1,311,270 25,026 33,136 1.9 2.5
742 Automotive rental and leasing, without drivers 191 145,356 8,490 9,257 5.8 6.4
750 Automotive parking and carwashes 216 170,364 6,471 6,471 3.8 3.8
751 Automotive repair and related services 1,095 830,622 12,378 16,448 1.5 2.0
752 Electrical repair shops 116 90,584 7,924 7,924 8.7 8.7
760 Miscellaneous repair services 486 371,344 22,033 24,709 5.9 6.7
PERSONAL SERVICES 4,985 3,530,638 209,941 236,376 5.9 6.7
761 Private Households 1,268 946,159 10,123 11,503 1.1 1.2
762 Hotels and Motels 2,004 1,315,788 157,136 173,263 11.9 13.2
770 Lodging places, except hotels and motels 144 105,189 1,271 1,271 1.2 1.2
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 482 366,802 33,809 40,849 9.2 11.1
772 Beauty shops 695 504,170 3,922 5,444 0.8 1.1
780 Barber shops 43 32,801 655 655 2.0 2.0
781 Funeral service and crematories 100 71,941 476 476 0.7 0.7
782 Shoe repair shops 7 6,673 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 1 555 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 241 180,560 2,549 2,915 1.4 1.6
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,683 2,013,850 182,300 207,138 9.1 10.3
800 Theaters and motion pictures 595 447,007 65,925 73,592 14.7 16.5
801 Video tape rental 150 107,834 1,127 1,127 1.0 1.0
802 Bowling centers 69 50,674 2,718 2,718 5.4 5.4
810 Miscellaneous entertainment & recreation services 1,869 1,408,334 112,530 129,701 8.0 9.2
831 HOSPITALS 7,055 5,033,170 695,711 814,087 13.8 16.2
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 7,672 5,502,760 408,950 478,308 7.4 8.7
812 Offices and clinics of physicians 1,756 1,260,085 37,472 48,281 3.0 3.8
820 Offices and clinics of dentists 684 484,499 11,313 14,843 2.3 3.1
821 Offices and clinics of chiropractors 87 60,092 362 1,647 0.6 2.7
822 Offices and clinics of optometrists 77 56,341 694 1,011 1.2 1.8
830 Offices and clinics of health practitioners, n.e.c. 50 35,500 1,025 1,025 2.9 2.9
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,494 1,756,271 190,519 215,080 10.8 12.2
840 Health services, n.e.c. 2,524 1,849,973 167,564 196,421 9.1 10.6
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 14,084 9,869,209 3,466,161 4,025,631 35.1 40.8
842 Elementary and secondary schools 9,585 6,724,392 3,039,798 3,482,174 45.2 51.8
850 Colleges and universities 3,947 2,754,925 376,215 484,030 13.7 17.6
851 Vocational schools 115 84,043 11,824 14,485 14.1 17.2
852 Libraries 248 173,957 29,195 33,174 16.8 19.1
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 189 131,892 9,128 11,768 6.9 8.9
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,536 2,512,319 191,063 231,324 7.6 9.2
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 285 196,040 12,059 13,245 6.2 6.8
862 Child day care services 1,109 789,852 15,679 28,067 2.0 3.6
863 Family child care homes 22 14,683 0 0 0.0 0.0
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 612 462,584 29,228 33,118 6.3 7.2
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,508 1,049,160 134,098 156,893 12.8 15.0
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 6,305 4,586,521 109,166 131,748 2.4 2.9
841 Legal services 1,347 985,966 12,045 15,662 1.2 1.6
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 157 107,629 4,731 6,440 4.4 6.0
873 Labor unions 92 56,918 40,028 41,073 70.3 72.2
880 Religious organizations 1,242 906,924 8,887 10,526 1.0 1.2
881 Membership organizations, n.e.c. 497 342,577 3,620 5,336 1.1 1.6
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 900 674,711 16,814 20,722 2.5 3.1
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 651 495,507 2,315 4,564 0.5 0.9
891 Research, development, and testing services 702 493,697 17,175 22,748 3.5 4.6
892 Management and public relations services 626 459,709 2,895 4,021 0.6 0.9
893 Miscellaneous professional and related services 91 62,883 656 656 1.0 1.0
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 8,280 5,790,182 1,861,171 2,153,616 32.1 37.2
900 Executive and legislative offices 255 148,195 22,589 23,912 15.2 16.1
901 General government, n.e.c. 906 610,592 136,344 162,642 22.3 26.6
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,090 2,298,091 1,032,856 1,110,683 44.9 48.3
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 514 364,444 100,666 123,652 27.6 33.9
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,199 824,655 249,647 309,546 30.3 37.5
930 Administration of environ. quality & housing programs 428 251,610 52,995 68,970 21.1 27.4
931 Administration of economic programs 885 586,797 161,303 199,516 27.5 34.0
932 National security and international affairs 1,003 705,798 104,771 154,695 14.8 21.9
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1996. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1990 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.