Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1997 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,217 1,689,677 36,254 39,906 2.1 2.4
10 Agricultural production, crops 652 521,052 10,801 12,777 2.1 2.5
11 Agricultural production, livestock 659 427,730 6,453 7,797 1.5 1.8
12 Veterinary services 217 164,037 0 333 0.0 0.2
20 Landscape and horticultural services 554 461,404 17,448 17,448 3.8 3.8
30 Agricultural services, n.e.c. 135 115,453 1,551 1,551 1.3 1.3
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 202 92,310 6,800 9,744 7.4 10.6
31 Forestry 149 58,677 6,658 9,602 11.3 16.4
32 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 53 33,633 142 142 0.4 0.4
MINING 1,067 609,274 84,310 86,587 13.8 14.2
40 Metal mining 152 65,631 22,518 24,261 34.3 37.0
41 Coal mining 167 79,074 28,618 28,618 36.2 36.2
42 Oil and gas extraction 554 351,271 12,522 13,057 3.6 3.7
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, except fuel 194 113,298 20,652 20,652 18.2 18.2
60 CONSTRUCTION 8,168 6,201,273 1,222,972 1,287,269 19.7 20.8
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 10,510 8,073,687 1,170,688 1,249,617 14.5 15.5
100 Meat products 660 458,480 94,989 105,322 20.7 23.0
101 Dairy products 168 114,458 25,529 26,622 22.3 23.3
102 Canned, frozen and preserved fruits and vegetables 285 201,696 62,288 63,476 30.9 31.5
110 Grain mill products 199 150,113 32,714 35,171 21.8 23.4
111 Bakery products 263 208,755 67,113 70,619 32.1 33.8
112 Sugar and confectionery products 146 102,261 24,569 24,716 24.0 24.2
120 Beverage industries 251 196,542 50,865 54,946 25.9 28.0
121 Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred products 237 167,121 23,043 23,543 13.8 14.1
122 Not specified food industries 9 7,959 1,284 1,467 16.1 18.4
130 Tobacco manufactures 66 57,507 11,596 12,409 20.2 21.6
132 Knitting mills 131 100,885 5,687 5,687 5.6 5.6
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, except wool & knit goods 49 40,533 2,975 2,975 7.3 7.3
141 Carpets and rugs 88 82,011 3,056 3,056 3.7 3.7
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 443 365,160 21,393 22,205 5.9 6.1
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 55 41,171 4,857 5,189 11.8 12.6
151 Apparel and accessories, except knit 948 751,832 67,401 71,630 9.0 9.5
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 184 140,086 9,247 9,746 6.6 7.0
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 341 260,628 103,435 104,647 39.7 40.2
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 259 203,681 43,485 45,672 21.3 22.4
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 265 207,735 40,848 44,973 19.7 21.6
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 691 495,820 53,364 58,095 10.8 11.7
172 Printing, publishing, & allied ind., exc. newspapers 1,541 1,193,505 80,979 90,013 6.8 7.5
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 190 152,969 17,094 17,983 11.2 11.8
181 Drugs 520 410,587 28,093 32,546 6.8 7.9
182 Soaps and cosmetics 210 166,447 9,765 11,809 5.9 7.1
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 82 63,384 6,179 6,911 9.7 10.9
191 Agricultural chemicals 52 34,456 4,014 4,512 11.6 13.1
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 708 536,820 86,325 91,458 16.1 17.0
200 Petroleum refining 197 148,481 34,969 36,777 23.6 24.8
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 34 27,302 5,267 5,267 19.3 19.3
210 Tires and inner tubes 115 98,802 36,936 37,690 37.4 38.1
211 Other rubber products, & plastics footwear & belting 178 144,885 18,330 19,611 12.7 13.5
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 762 613,128 68,671 76,666 11.2 12.5
220 Leather tanning and finishing 20 15,844 7,032 7,032 44.4 44.4
221 Footwear, except rubber and plastic 107 71,632 12,765 13,868 17.8 19.4
222 Leather products, except footwear 56 41,016 4,533 5,309 11.1 12.9
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 15,304 11,959,857 2,099,649 2,213,170 17.6 18.5
230 Logging 164 104,152 9,859 9,859 9.5 9.5
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 554 384,175 49,849 50,117 13.0 13.0
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 99 81,967 2,527 3,907 3.1 4.8
241 Miscellaneous wood products 182 142,468 14,068 14,249 9.9 10.0
242 Furniture and fixtures 767 616,437 43,438 50,550 7.0 8.2
250 Glass and glass products 231 186,485 59,000 60,647 31.6 32.5
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 283 205,887 36,452 37,675 17.7 18.3
252 Structural clay products 50 44,578 4,548 6,695 10.2 15.0
261 Pottery and related products 47 41,158 15,138 15,138 36.8 36.8
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone products 145 111,393 19,185 19,185 17.2 17.2
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 404 332,464 150,143 154,833 45.2 46.6
271 Iron and steel foundries 113 94,627 26,797 29,127 28.3 30.8
272 Primary aluminum industries 180 156,451 66,033 66,033 42.2 42.2
280 Other primary metal industries 222 165,238 40,789 42,536 24.7 25.7
281 Cutlery, handtools, and general hardware 194 151,751 24,128 26,023 15.9 17.1
282 Fabricated structural metal products 654 496,805 76,992 79,457 15.5 16.0
290 Screw machine products 110 85,948 10,861 12,127 12.6 14.1
291 Metal forgings and stampings 157 128,508 36,928 37,553 28.7 29.2
292 Ordnance 67 44,586 10,333 11,506 23.2 25.8
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 478 386,187 80,441 82,444 20.8 21.3
301 Not specified metal industries 13 12,375 3,287 3,287 26.6 26.6
310 Engines and turbines 74 60,900 27,276 29,063 44.8 47.7
311 Farm machinery and equipment 167 100,380 14,342 14,995 14.3 14.9
312 Construction and material handling machines 316 239,814 43,982 48,048 18.3 20.0
320 Metalworking machinery 425 336,514 33,864 37,329 10.1 11.1
321 Office and accounting machines 53 41,468 2,450 2,450 5.9 5.9
322 Computers and related equipment 699 548,075 9,584 11,395 1.7 2.1
331 Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c. 1,418 1,121,543 155,126 160,686 13.8 14.3
332 Not specified machinery 6 4,410 687 687 15.6 15.6
340 Household appliances 106 87,575 23,021 24,895 26.3 28.4
341 Radio, TV, and communication equipment 560 461,097 53,980 61,350 11.7 13.3
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 1,729 1,327,105 132,552 143,422 10.0 10.8
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equip., & supplies 44 37,803 2,852 2,852 7.5 7.5
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,592 1,264,773 508,367 520,288 40.2 41.1
352 Aircraft and parts 512 422,744 121,149 139,811 28.7 33.1
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 226 172,715 35,865 38,742 20.8 22.4
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 41 33,109 13,033 13,518 39.4 40.8
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 354 300,821 43,918 47,282 14.6 15.7
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 106 80,167 6,445 6,445 8.0 8.0
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 261 208,221 15,819 16,472 7.6 7.9
372 Medical, dental, and optical instruments and supplies 482 368,604 21,021 21,984 5.7 6.0
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 153 122,159 7,801 11,172 6.4 9.1
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 10 7,641 1,337 1,337 17.5 17.5
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 209 163,455 8,210 9,190 5.0 5.6
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 540 383,445 25,184 25,184 6.6 6.6
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 107 91,678 10,990 11,627 12.0 12.7
TRANSPORTATION 7,113 5,344,415 1,897,983 2,033,549 35.5 38.0
400 Railroads 431 295,890 208,948 213,768 70.6 72.2
401 Bus service and urban transit 713 534,833 196,836 204,712 36.8 38.3
402 Taxicab service 103 76,346 8,150 9,132 10.7 12.0
410 Trucking service 2,631 2,024,239 436,068 465,281 21.5 23.0
411 Warehousing and storage 175 146,504 11,021 14,262 7.5 9.7
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,206 887,209 634,046 700,999 71.5 79.0
420 Water transportation 233 176,274 55,402 59,025 31.4 33.5
421 Air transportation 1,123 846,071 319,678 333,015 37.8 39.4
422 Pipe lines, except natural gas 28 13,791 2,985 2,985 21.6 21.6
432 Services incidental to transportation 470 343,257 24,849 30,370 7.2 8.8
COMMUNICATIONS 2,247 1,714,301 366,659 395,751 21.4 23.1
440 Radio and television broadcasting and cable 647 473,690 35,901 43,126 7.6 9.1
441 Telephone communications 1,574 1,222,946 328,215 349,324 26.8 28.6
442 Telegraph and misc. communications services 26 17,665 2,543 3,301 14.4 18.7
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,009 1,465,687 471,497 492,146 32.2 33.6
450 Electric light and power 870 604,722 203,263 211,190 33.6 34.9
451 Gas and steam supply systems 249 173,386 49,334 55,028 28.5 31.7
452 Electric and gas, and other combinations 175 146,507 72,862 72,862 49.7 49.7
470 Water supply and irrigation 313 235,436 66,859 67,691 28.4 28.8
471 Sanitary services 394 299,446 77,431 83,628 25.9 27.9
472 Not specified utilities 8 6,189 1,747 1,747 28.2 28.2
WHOLESALE TRADE 5,674 4,308,146 252,923 286,043 5.9 6.6
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 250 187,861 13,315 14,469 7.1 7.7
501 Furniture and home furnishings 93 74,264 1,492 2,876 2.0 3.9
502 Lumber and construction materials 231 173,804 9,102 10,053 5.2 5.8
510 Professional and commercial equipment and supplies 435 342,500 4,820 6,746 1.4 2.0
511 Metals and minerals, except petroleum 97 76,923 9,178 10,399 11.9 13.5
512 Electrical goods 353 275,679 7,606 8,900 2.8 3.2
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 346 256,912 11,324 12,956 4.4 5.0
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 820 597,653 19,826 23,972 3.3 4.0
531 Scrap and waste materials 249 200,565 14,219 16,318 7.1 8.1
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 143 102,941 3,983 5,863 3.9 5.7
540 Paper and paper products 144 112,233 3,349 4,292 3.0 3.8
541 Drugs, chemicals and allied products 259 196,398 8,560 9,332 4.4 4.8
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 128 101,129 4,458 4,458 4.4 4.4
550 Groceries and related products 1,092 852,867 108,234 116,985 12.7 13.7
551 Farm-product raw materials 129 76,857 501 501 0.7 0.7
552 Petroleum products 160 111,448 8,859 8,859 7.9 7.9
560 Alcoholic beverages 145 109,818 9,555 9,811 8.7 8.9
561 Farm supplies 195 134,565 2,830 4,677 2.1 3.5
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 371 293,551 11,712 13,845 4.0 4.7
571 Not specified wholesale trade 34 30,177 0 730 0.0 2.4
RETAIL TRADE 26,286 19,464,586 1,076,509 1,200,759 5.5 6.2
580 Lumber and building material retailing 737 534,602 13,397 18,842 2.5 3.5
581 Hardware stores 286 202,374 4,947 5,572 2.4 2.8
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 151 109,441 1,255 2,565 1.1 2.3
590 Mobile home dealers 38 25,995 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 2,916 2,151,978 83,201 97,519 3.9 4.5
592 Variety stores 175 122,356 1,565 1,565 1.3 1.3
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 247 162,825 8,347 10,075 5.1 6.2
601 Grocery stores 4,032 2,978,239 682,840 719,269 22.9 24.2
602 Dairy products stores 34 26,388 710 710 2.7 2.7
610 Retail bakeries 250 185,587 12,849 13,945 6.9 7.5
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 250 192,703 11,123 12,950 5.8 6.7
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,535 1,128,676 35,434 37,588 3.1 3.3
620 Auto and home supply stores 529 382,795 8,940 10,746 2.3 2.8
621 Gasoline service stations 489 355,644 6,497 7,258 1.8 2.0
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 116 73,808 274 377 0.4 0.5
623 Apparel and accessory stores, except shoe 928 687,648 13,483 17,522 2.0 2.5
630 Shoe stores 175 137,017 0 0 0.0 0.0
631 Furniture and home furnishings stores 645 488,844 8,384 13,603 1.7 2.8
632 Household appliance stores 91 69,663 1,376 1,376 2.0 2.0
633 Radio, TV, and computer stores 534 409,577 3,250 4,048 0.8 1.0
640 Music stores 166 132,559 1,113 1,903 0.8 1.4
641 Eating and drinking places 8,109 6,123,345 92,546 122,840 1.5 2.0
642 Drug stores 696 499,948 27,849 32,047 5.6 6.4
650 Liquor stores 139 106,982 8,307 9,102 7.8 8.5
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 430 313,470 6,831 8,411 2.2 2.7
652 Book and stationery stores 360 251,972 4,459 4,937 1.8 2.0
660 Jewelry stores 163 121,263 1,767 1,767 1.5 1.5
661 Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops 225 158,238 0 821 0.0 0.5
662 Sewing, needlework and piece goods stores 66 48,558 0 2,229 0.0 4.6
663 Catalog and mail order houses 200 131,313 8,749 9,402 6.7 7.2
670 Vending machine operators 79 57,609 8,344 8,344 14.5 14.5
671 Direct selling establishments 212 153,091 225 225 0.1 0.1
672 Fuel dealers 164 104,988 2,260 2,260 2.2 2.2
681 Retail florists 174 129,298 1,269 1,269 1.0 1.0
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 851 636,302 13,043 16,628 2.0 2.6
691 Not specified retail trade 94 69,491 1,875 3,045 2.7 4.4
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 9,889 7,294,027 216,354 264,719 3.0 3.6
700 Banking 2,609 1,857,103 20,803 33,060 1.1 1.8
701 Savings institutions, including credit unions 405 279,566 12,427 13,603 4.4 4.9
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 762 558,257 4,443 10,005 0.8 1.8
710 Security, commodity brokerage, & invest. companies 1,016 769,666 7,054 13,799 0.9 1.8
711 Insurance 2,833 2,116,668 56,815 70,566 2.7 3.3
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance offices 2,264 1,712,766 114,813 123,686 6.7 7.2
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 8,613 6,689,916 208,291 267,408 3.1 4.0
721 Advertising 315 247,867 0 4,493 0.0 1.8
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 820 615,891 58,090 62,989 9.4 10.2
731 Personnel supply services 1,263 999,308 16,718 26,317 1.7 2.6
732 Computer and data processing services 1,643 1,309,165 10,535 18,966 0.8 1.4
740 Detective and protective services 625 494,664 32,664 44,133 6.6 8.9
741 Business services, n.e.c. 1,807 1,365,581 29,675 42,396 2.2 3.1
742 Automotive rental and leasing, without drivers 217 166,550 12,345 12,345 7.4 7.4
750 Automotive parking and carwashes 221 178,786 7,664 9,572 4.3 5.4
751 Automotive repair and related services 1,127 862,207 14,617 16,499 1.7 1.9
752 Electrical repair shops 112 90,154 2,008 3,784 2.2 4.2
760 Miscellaneous repair services 463 359,743 23,975 25,915 6.7 7.2
PERSONAL SERVICES 5,036 3,577,927 148,873 177,298 4.2 5.0
761 Private Households 1,218 925,416 4,376 5,125 0.5 0.6
762 Hotels and Motels 2,082 1,362,759 117,384 140,692 8.6 10.3
770 Lodging places, except hotels and motels 130 95,496 750 750 0.8 0.8
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 495 366,010 20,958 24,158 5.7 6.6
772 Beauty shops 716 529,243 2,339 3,374 0.4 0.6
780 Barber shops 40 32,054 0 0 0.0 0.0
781 Funeral service and crematories 100 73,384 3,066 3,066 4.2 4.2
782 Shoe repair shops 10 6,960 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 5 3,865 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 240 182,740 0 133 0.0 0.1
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,772 2,098,558 166,707 191,351 7.9 9.1
800 Theaters and motion pictures 634 491,905 66,652 74,048 13.5 15.1
801 Video tape rental 156 117,977 0 0 0.0 0.0
802 Bowling centers 61 43,105 2,156 2,156 5.0 5.0
810 Miscellaneous entertainment & recreation services 1,921 1,445,572 97,899 115,146 6.8 8.0
831 HOSPITALS 7,161 5,134,540 675,067 790,889 13.1 15.4
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 7,909 5,696,638 354,842 422,257 6.2 7.4
812 Offices and clinics of physicians 1,826 1,305,011 28,974 40,277 2.2 3.1
820 Offices and clinics of dentists 740 534,925 10,291 11,143 1.9 2.1
821 Offices and clinics of chiropractors 78 56,250 0 0 0.0 0.0
822 Offices and clinics of optometrists 83 52,991 646 1,400 1.2 2.6
830 Offices and clinics of health practitioners, n.e.c. 58 42,678 679 2,107 1.6 4.9
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,460 1,721,552 166,305 190,438 9.7 11.1
840 Health services, n.e.c. 2,664 1,983,233 147,947 176,892 7.5 8.9
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 14,326 10,031,942 3,486,317 4,014,660 34.8 40.0
842 Elementary and secondary schools 9,771 6,874,184 3,070,116 3,515,769 44.7 51.1
850 Colleges and universities 3,999 2,768,527 364,626 438,565 13.2 15.8
851 Vocational schools 115 83,226 8,750 11,443 10.5 13.7
852 Libraries 269 184,401 35,895 40,229 19.5 21.8
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 172 121,605 6,930 8,654 5.7 7.1
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,662 2,591,565 211,378 239,648 8.2 9.2
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 289 202,115 14,913 16,896 7.4 8.4
862 Child day care services 1,158 827,634 17,114 25,954 2.1 3.1
863 Family child care homes 34 25,216 0 0 0.0 0.0
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 678 478,623 27,739 32,315 5.8 6.8
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,503 1,057,976 151,612 164,482 14.3 15.5
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 6,564 4,770,415 128,559 171,556 2.7 3.6
841 Legal services 1,398 1,026,777 17,959 25,772 1.7 2.5
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 135 86,068 8,345 13,983 9.7 16.2
873 Labor unions 85 54,617 42,289 43,333 77.4 79.3
880 Religious organizations 1,160 831,044 4,513 12,353 0.5 1.5
881 Membership organizations, n.e.c. 545 367,107 7,210 8,044 2.0 2.2
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,001 740,105 22,602 28,104 3.1 3.8
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 702 534,366 4,291 6,755 0.8 1.3
891 Research, development, and testing services 779 556,898 12,145 16,972 2.2 3.0
892 Management and public relations services 682 518,894 8,241 15,278 1.6 2.9
893 Miscellaneous professional and related services 77 54,540 963 963 1.8 1.8
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 8,226 5,724,306 1,827,292 2,088,679 31.9 36.5
900 Executive and legislative offices 274 154,280 17,169 20,630 11.1 13.4
901 General government, n.e.c. 976 658,244 141,738 161,842 21.5 24.6
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,108 2,303,682 1,079,442 1,152,241 46.9 50.0
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 497 352,597 86,008 101,310 24.4 28.7
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,191 838,483 230,790 269,665 27.5 32.2
930 Administration of environ. quality & housing programs 445 251,870 65,127 81,333 25.9 32.3
931 Administration of economic programs 827 528,629 132,275 172,752 25.0 32.7
932 National security and international affairs 908 636,521 74,742 128,905 11.7 20.3
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1997. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1990 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.