Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1998 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,321 1,751,762 27,436 31,720 1.6 1.8
10 Agricultural production, crops 691 547,932 16,905 16,905 3.1 3.1
11 Agricultural production, livestock 657 418,167 1,723 2,828 0.4 0.7
12 Veterinary services 234 171,708 1,366 2,006 0.8 1.2
20 Landscape and horticultural services 606 512,943 7,441 9,981 1.5 1.9
30 Agricultural services, n.e.c. 133 101,012 0 0 0.0 0.0
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 164 77,974 8,259 10,146 10.6 13.0
31 Forestry 114 50,341 6,547 8,434 13.0 16.8
32 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 50 27,633 1,712 1,712 6.2 6.2
MINING 1,053 590,681 72,901 80,330 12.3 13.6
40 Metal mining 122 50,830 14,635 15,635 28.8 30.8
41 Coal mining 184 80,710 26,220 27,095 32.5 33.6
42 Oil and gas extraction 569 349,051 10,505 13,950 3.0 4.0
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, except fuel 178 110,089 21,540 23,649 19.6 21.5
60 CONSTRUCTION 8,432 6,412,499 1,212,288 1,266,904 18.9 19.8
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 10,096 7,775,074 1,139,887 1,220,485 14.7 15.7
100 Meat products 584 408,602 83,429 91,745 20.4 22.5
101 Dairy products 179 127,715 30,023 30,786 23.5 24.1
102 Canned, frozen and preserved fruits and vegetables 280 198,600 53,863 62,204 27.1 31.3
110 Grain mill products 204 161,448 31,471 33,724 19.5 20.9
111 Bakery products 271 217,717 66,017 67,118 30.3 30.8
112 Sugar and confectionery products 143 99,448 30,388 31,529 30.6 31.7
120 Beverage industries 236 188,727 38,758 39,405 20.5 20.9
121 Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred products 256 188,497 27,388 32,232 14.5 17.1
122 Not specified food industries 8 6,204 2,511 2,511 40.5 40.5
130 Tobacco manufactures 61 53,187 12,251 13,077 23.0 24.6
132 Knitting mills 116 85,143 3,605 3,605 4.2 4.2
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, except wool & knit goods 53 45,133 2,564 2,564 5.7 5.7
141 Carpets and rugs 91 82,367 3,894 4,629 4.7 5.6
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 377 311,812 18,058 18,309 5.8 5.9
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 52 39,286 2,704 2,704 6.9 6.9
151 Apparel and accessories, except knit 799 644,008 49,583 56,955 7.7 8.8
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 181 138,379 8,128 9,084 5.9 6.6
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 321 248,420 112,306 113,422 45.2 45.7
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 273 221,302 39,152 41,310 17.7 18.7
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 254 203,852 50,108 50,108 24.6 24.6
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 705 477,421 62,731 72,047 13.1 15.1
172 Printing, publishing, & allied ind., exc. newspapers 1,462 1,129,468 78,634 85,723 7.0 7.6
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 201 159,605 24,213 27,484 15.2 17.2
181 Drugs 467 374,299 21,490 24,620 5.7 6.6
182 Soaps and cosmetics 207 161,600 13,923 13,923 8.6 8.6
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 76 63,882 5,193 5,193 8.1 8.1
191 Agricultural chemicals 66 45,603 9,069 9,069 19.9 19.9
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 651 497,137 79,964 83,025 16.1 16.7
200 Petroleum refining 192 143,712 27,782 33,278 19.3 23.2
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 39 35,563 5,002 5,002 14.1 14.1
210 Tires and inner tubes 116 105,867 34,131 34,782 32.2 32.9
211 Other rubber products, & plastics footwear & belting 190 135,993 21,409 22,375 15.7 16.5
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 834 671,731 71,759 76,599 10.7 11.4
220 Leather tanning and finishing 15 12,653 6,793 6,793 53.7 53.7
221 Footwear, except rubber and plastic 87 53,517 8,412 9,111 15.7 17.0
222 Leather products, except footwear 49 37,173 3,182 4,439 8.6 11.9
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 15,289 12,046,840 1,997,540 2,107,523 16.6 17.5
230 Logging 132 86,328 8,686 8,686 10.1 10.1
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 591 420,189 59,233 60,445 14.1 14.4
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 101 86,465 1,981 1,981 2.3 2.3
241 Miscellaneous wood products 196 162,349 8,723 9,543 5.4 5.9
242 Furniture and fixtures 769 631,140 45,147 49,356 7.2 7.8
250 Glass and glass products 221 190,297 63,955 64,305 33.6 33.8
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 286 222,893 43,361 47,906 19.5 21.5
252 Structural clay products 52 42,827 7,527 7,527 17.6 17.6
261 Pottery and related products 44 35,184 7,394 7,394 21.0 21.0
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone products 123 94,805 14,298 14,435 15.1 15.2
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 347 291,750 126,991 129,321 43.5 44.3
271 Iron and steel foundries 114 97,839 30,653 32,604 31.3 33.3
272 Primary aluminum industries 170 146,365 59,173 59,941 40.4 41.0
280 Other primary metal industries 236 186,174 27,736 28,690 14.9 15.4
281 Cutlery, handtools, and general hardware 171 139,195 23,029 24,022 16.5 17.3
282 Fabricated structural metal products 667 518,854 80,170 84,089 15.5 16.2
290 Screw machine products 112 86,353 6,414 8,279 7.4 9.6
291 Metal forgings and stampings 173 136,713 37,164 40,405 27.2 29.6
292 Ordnance 78 49,798 15,523 18,428 31.2 37.0
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 462 386,773 48,834 51,853 12.6 13.4
301 Not specified metal industries 17 13,382 0 0 0.0 0.0
310 Engines and turbines 92 76,660 28,018 28,787 36.5 37.6
311 Farm machinery and equipment 183 112,306 17,886 21,241 15.9 18.9
312 Construction and material handling machines 326 257,477 49,258 52,111 19.1 20.2
320 Metalworking machinery 396 315,559 34,951 38,202 11.1 12.1
321 Office and accounting machines 47 36,904 710 710 1.9 1.9
322 Computers and related equipment 606 478,055 13,510 16,139 2.8 3.4
331 Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c. 1,385 1,103,747 145,008 150,760 13.1 13.7
332 Not specified machinery 7 5,081 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Household appliances 119 108,285 35,028 35,736 32.3 33.0
341 Radio, TV, and communication equipment 502 407,423 38,451 40,429 9.4 9.9
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 1,783 1,370,430 140,203 153,197 10.2 11.2
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equip., & supplies 42 31,177 0 0 0.0 0.0
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,593 1,282,467 466,233 472,580 36.4 36.8
352 Aircraft and parts 611 501,327 135,469 148,592 27.0 29.6
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 249 180,694 35,491 38,101 19.6 21.1
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 38 36,567 15,736 15,736 43.0 43.0
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 327 274,402 29,267 33,670 10.7 12.3
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 87 65,231 14,227 15,199 21.8 23.3
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 321 248,124 17,092 17,808 6.9 7.2
372 Medical, dental, and optical instruments and supplies 537 417,575 12,175 16,747 2.9 4.0
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 138 107,222 6,651 7,776 6.2 7.3
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 14 11,578 2,465 2,465 21.3 21.3
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 196 140,435 10,437 12,832 7.4 9.1
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 504 348,619 23,015 28,514 6.6 8.2
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 124 103,822 10,267 10,981 9.9 10.6
TRANSPORTATION 7,220 5,485,427 1,913,075 2,018,028 34.9 36.8
400 Railroads 426 295,584 209,284 210,984 70.8 71.4
401 Bus service and urban transit 742 555,138 182,274 189,538 32.8 34.1
402 Taxicab service 128 102,112 7,504 9,964 7.3 9.8
410 Trucking service 2,615 2,041,186 423,754 440,014 20.8 21.6
411 Warehousing and storage 205 163,672 17,973 21,147 11.0 12.9
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,228 908,842 657,156 705,851 72.3 77.7
420 Water transportation 247 195,298 56,986 57,713 29.2 29.6
421 Air transportation 1,131 857,554 327,503 343,790 38.2 40.1
422 Pipe lines, except natural gas 20 12,246 356 1,374 2.9 11.2
432 Services incidental to transportation 478 353,795 30,285 37,653 8.6 10.6
COMMUNICATIONS 2,302 1,785,108 407,135 428,965 22.8 24.0
440 Radio and television broadcasting and cable 619 461,893 45,757 49,034 9.9 10.6
441 Telephone communications 1,653 1,302,830 360,390 378,943 27.7 29.1
442 Telegraph and misc. communications services 30 20,385 988 988 4.8 4.8
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,047 1,496,867 474,518 504,133 31.7 33.7
450 Electric light and power 874 612,541 210,786 220,684 34.4 36.0
451 Gas and steam supply systems 256 177,448 48,608 51,405 27.4 29.0
452 Electric and gas, and other combinations 179 155,125 67,017 72,466 43.2 46.7
470 Water supply and irrigation 321 243,918 62,866 69,090 25.8 28.3
471 Sanitary services 395 289,262 80,158 85,019 27.7 29.4
472 Not specified utilities 22 18,573 5,083 5,471 27.4 29.5
WHOLESALE TRADE 5,856 4,439,184 260,288 275,716 5.9 6.2
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 262 195,558 4,124 4,124 2.1 2.1
501 Furniture and home furnishings 96 78,101 2,668 2,668 3.4 3.4
502 Lumber and construction materials 240 191,098 13,243 14,578 6.9 7.6
510 Professional and commercial equipment and supplies 540 427,751 5,703 6,454 1.3 1.5
511 Metals and minerals, except petroleum 100 73,575 10,711 11,785 14.6 16.0
512 Electrical goods 375 307,252 8,187 8,187 2.7 2.7
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 353 263,251 9,967 9,967 3.8 3.8
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 809 587,653 18,264 21,758 3.1 3.7
531 Scrap and waste materials 196 148,694 9,112 11,075 6.1 7.4
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 178 131,098 2,717 2,717 2.1 2.1
540 Paper and paper products 160 123,677 9,033 9,513 7.3 7.7
541 Drugs, chemicals and allied products 263 202,522 6,869 8,608 3.4 4.3
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 151 122,028 6,057 6,057 5.0 5.0
550 Groceries and related products 1,107 854,534 112,662 116,630 13.2 13.6
551 Farm-product raw materials 138 79,388 2,044 2,044 2.6 2.6
552 Petroleum products 178 128,721 6,112 6,739 4.7 5.2
560 Alcoholic beverages 151 117,213 20,087 20,087 17.1 17.1
561 Farm supplies 202 132,569 2,621 2,621 2.0 2.0
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 326 253,125 10,106 10,106 4.0 4.0
571 Not specified wholesale trade 31 21,378 0 0 0.0 0.0
RETAIL TRADE 26,728 19,915,191 1,034,870 1,129,035 5.2 5.7
580 Lumber and building material retailing 759 559,003 16,882 20,591 3.0 3.7
581 Hardware stores 279 200,787 7,445 7,445 3.7 3.7
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 135 91,292 0 0 0.0 0.0
590 Mobile home dealers 59 41,445 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 2,924 2,181,641 80,350 94,136 3.7 4.3
592 Variety stores 164 123,291 2,584 2,584 2.1 2.1
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 231 160,824 13,760 15,053 8.6 9.4
601 Grocery stores 4,063 2,972,205 659,287 686,022 22.2 23.1
602 Dairy products stores 50 41,703 1,178 4,610 2.8 11.1
610 Retail bakeries 248 180,606 7,723 7,723 4.3 4.3
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 223 165,314 6,142 6,968 3.7 4.2
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,522 1,155,681 32,260 36,328 2.8 3.1
620 Auto and home supply stores 607 443,576 9,796 10,526 2.2 2.4
621 Gasoline service stations 497 360,337 5,517 6,148 1.5 1.7
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 131 88,574 0 0 0.0 0.0
623 Apparel and accessory stores, except shoe 910 700,552 13,772 15,231 2.0 2.2
630 Shoe stores 172 134,064 2,012 2,012 1.5 1.5
631 Furniture and home furnishings stores 645 486,479 8,094 9,499 1.7 2.0
632 Household appliance stores 97 73,697 0 0 0.0 0.0
633 Radio, TV, and computer stores 596 463,302 4,608 6,800 1.0 1.5
640 Music stores 156 123,323 796 1,877 0.6 1.5
641 Eating and drinking places 8,325 6,291,202 82,628 103,753 1.3 1.6
642 Drug stores 780 602,747 28,883 35,145 4.8 5.8
650 Liquor stores 134 96,480 2,239 3,673 2.3 3.8
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 456 328,985 6,662 7,538 2.0 2.3
652 Book and stationery stores 357 269,857 4,591 4,591 1.7 1.7
660 Jewelry stores 174 125,458 1,674 1,674 1.3 1.3
661 Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops 257 174,887 0 0 0.0 0.0
662 Sewing, needlework and piece goods stores 59 42,862 0 0 0.0 0.0
663 Catalog and mail order houses 193 128,199 6,362 6,781 5.0 5.3
670 Vending machine operators 58 45,463 4,301 4,301 9.5 9.5
671 Direct selling establishments 192 141,465 2,001 2,001 1.4 1.4
672 Fuel dealers 163 101,766 8,370 9,275 8.2 9.1
681 Retail florists 153 108,022 2,883 3,223 2.7 3.0
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 853 631,270 8,499 9,957 1.3 1.6
691 Not specified retail trade 106 78,833 3,569 3,569 4.5 4.5
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 10,283 7,623,073 205,303 256,443 2.7 3.4
700 Banking 2,626 1,856,815 19,283 27,400 1.0 1.5
701 Savings institutions, including credit unions 385 260,642 7,838 9,421 3.0 3.6
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 925 683,887 2,343 7,279 0.3 1.1
710 Security, commodity brokerage, & invest. companies 1,004 777,934 10,670 15,006 1.4 1.9
711 Insurance 3,088 2,318,109 60,725 76,441 2.6 3.3
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance offices 2,255 1,725,686 104,443 120,896 6.1 7.0
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 8,778 6,843,054 206,165 259,857 3.0 3.8
721 Advertising 321 246,130 5,468 6,941 2.2 2.8
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 765 577,810 45,924 50,909 7.9 8.8
731 Personnel supply services 1,186 963,773 14,940 26,479 1.6 2.7
732 Computer and data processing services 1,917 1,527,830 13,506 25,777 0.9 1.7
740 Detective and protective services 641 526,239 35,380 43,455 6.7 8.3
741 Business services, n.e.c. 1,948 1,483,042 47,700 53,104 3.2 3.6
742 Automotive rental and leasing, without drivers 218 159,555 9,122 10,187 5.7 6.4
750 Automotive parking and carwashes 224 180,380 5,700 5,700 3.2 3.2
751 Automotive repair and related services 971 747,478 15,189 20,669 2.0 2.8
752 Electrical repair shops 140 100,461 1,276 2,667 1.3 2.7
760 Miscellaneous repair services 447 330,355 11,961 13,969 3.6 4.2
PERSONAL SERVICES 5,132 3,691,437 201,447 218,904 5.5 5.9
761 Private Households 1,277 970,089 11,890 11,890 1.2 1.2
762 Hotels and Motels 2,067 1,369,099 144,136 156,182 10.5 11.4
770 Lodging places, except hotels and motels 150 114,630 0 865 0.0 0.8
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 519 390,274 36,679 38,710 9.4 9.9
772 Beauty shops 706 527,122 4,241 6,756 0.8 1.3
780 Barber shops 28 19,871 703 703 3.5 3.5
781 Funeral service and crematories 100 75,359 1,443 1,443 1.9 1.9
782 Shoe repair shops 7 5,699 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 4 3,027 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 274 216,266 2,355 2,355 1.1 1.1
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,893 2,141,341 170,847 193,416 8.0 9.0
800 Theaters and motion pictures 608 460,585 55,917 62,065 12.1 13.5
801 Video tape rental 155 124,980 1,208 1,208 1.0 1.0
802 Bowling centers 75 57,761 0 780 0.0 1.4
810 Miscellaneous entertainment & recreation services 2,055 1,498,015 113,722 129,362 7.6 8.6
831 HOSPITALS 7,124 5,151,174 662,793 768,359 12.9 14.9
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 7,874 5,670,392 379,965 429,455 6.7 7.6
812 Offices and clinics of physicians 1,815 1,306,840 40,335 48,721 3.1 3.7
820 Offices and clinics of dentists 745 536,605 15,126 15,423 2.8 2.9
821 Offices and clinics of chiropractors 100 72,431 157 157 0.2 0.2
822 Offices and clinics of optometrists 79 56,966 685 685 1.2 1.2
830 Offices and clinics of health practitioners, n.e.c. 65 46,614 1,631 2,303 3.5 4.9
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,485 1,754,764 168,716 188,789 9.6 10.8
840 Health services, n.e.c. 2,585 1,896,172 153,314 173,377 8.1 9.1
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 14,644 10,362,389 3,542,606 4,105,351 34.2 39.6
842 Elementary and secondary schools 9,997 7,121,311 3,142,794 3,602,609 44.1 50.6
850 Colleges and universities 4,051 2,812,095 353,168 448,665 12.6 16.0
851 Vocational schools 113 83,116 11,595 12,326 14.0 14.8
852 Libraries 276 196,218 29,027 34,569 14.8 17.6
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 207 149,650 6,021 7,183 4.0 4.8
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,739 2,671,847 197,473 225,751 7.4 8.4
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 297 209,847 10,764 10,764 5.1 5.1
862 Child day care services 1,211 898,115 29,948 35,672 3.3 4.0
863 Family child care homes 29 19,274 0 0 0.0 0.0
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 673 471,146 32,594 36,153 6.9 7.7
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,529 1,073,465 124,167 143,163 11.6 13.3
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 6,788 4,899,411 136,988 175,099 2.8 3.6
841 Legal services 1,408 1,013,495 16,060 21,146 1.6 2.1
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 166 118,578 9,611 12,437 8.1 10.5
873 Labor unions 84 55,352 41,562 42,214 75.1 76.3
880 Religious organizations 1,198 866,621 3,845 9,406 0.4 1.1
881 Membership organizations, n.e.c. 530 360,208 6,342 10,714 1.8 3.0
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,040 766,342 25,804 31,250 3.4 4.1
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 663 491,154 3,701 6,185 0.8 1.3
891 Research, development, and testing services 808 568,876 17,732 24,317 3.1 4.3
892 Management and public relations services 815 605,881 9,590 13,862 1.6 2.3
893 Miscellaneous professional and related services 76 52,904 2,742 3,569 5.2 6.7
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 8,227 5,899,188 1,959,629 2,212,712 33.2 37.5
900 Executive and legislative offices 247 146,823 9,569 13,025 6.5 8.9
901 General government, n.e.c. 979 689,812 155,648 185,182 22.6 26.8
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,171 2,434,240 1,157,338 1,219,143 47.5 50.1
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 511 365,530 105,085 124,876 28.7 34.2
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,168 805,323 228,487 279,654 28.4 34.7
930 Administration of environ. quality & housing programs 441 262,047 52,011 68,084 19.8 26.0
931 Administration of economic programs 887 597,926 160,430 192,302 26.8 32.2
932 National security and international affairs 823 597,486 91,061 130,446 15.2 21.8
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1998. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1990 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.