Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 1999 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,333 1,735,452 42,542 48,446 2.5 2.8
10 Agricultural production, crops 647 518,618 12,830 15,333 2.5 3.0
11 Agricultural production, livestock 590 355,948 4,743 7,162 1.3 2.0
12 Veterinary services 255 185,144 334 334 0.2 0.2
20 Landscape and horticultural services 704 559,847 21,160 21,982 3.8 3.9
30 Agricultural services, n.e.c. 137 115,894 3,475 3,635 3.0 3.1
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 185 85,832 13,533 15,239 15.8 17.8
31 Forestry 135 59,925 8,549 9,951 14.3 16.6
32 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 50 25,907 4,984 5,288 19.2 20.4
MINING 963 534,490 58,393 62,351 10.9 11.7
40 Metal mining 96 36,331 11,927 12,527 32.8 34.5
41 Coal mining 198 88,658 25,565 25,657 28.8 28.9
42 Oil and gas extraction 485 304,369 8,743 11,279 2.9 3.7
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, except fuel 184 105,131 12,158 12,889 11.6 12.3
60 CONSTRUCTION 8,884 6,746,593 1,362,004 1,416,069 20.2 21.0
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 9,755 7,528,526 1,086,491 1,149,974 14.4 15.3
100 Meat products 655 476,227 92,012 97,830 19.3 20.5
101 Dairy products 180 137,520 37,328 38,304 27.1 27.9
102 Canned, frozen and preserved fruits and vegetables 251 167,972 52,688 54,813 31.4 32.6
110 Grain mill products 189 146,453 29,367 30,137 20.1 20.6
111 Bakery products 260 211,089 63,660 66,152 30.2 31.3
112 Sugar and confectionery products 145 99,004 26,019 26,086 26.3 26.3
120 Beverage industries 246 200,079 34,003 36,399 17.0 18.2
121 Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred products 229 168,400 26,308 26,426 15.6 15.7
122 Not specified food industries 6 5,165 298 942 5.8 18.2
130 Tobacco manufactures 50 47,146 11,818 11,818 25.1 25.1
132 Knitting mills 113 87,036 6,658 7,070 7.6 8.1
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, except wool & knit goods 60 45,486 2,092 2,423 4.6 5.3
141 Carpets and rugs 95 86,063 4,066 4,066 4.7 4.7
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 326 279,618 9,312 11,842 3.3 4.2
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 32 19,678 4,211 4,211 21.4 21.4
151 Apparel and accessories, except knit 701 562,229 46,914 51,896 8.3 9.2
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 165 127,097 11,205 11,825 8.8 9.3
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 313 236,457 99,009 99,009 41.9 41.9
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 268 208,602 32,092 34,102 15.4 16.3
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 240 199,888 38,562 41,117 19.3 20.6
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 746 520,752 64,529 72,676 12.4 14.0
172 Printing, publishing, & allied ind., exc. newspapers 1,450 1,132,875 71,763 78,058 6.3 6.9
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 163 129,792 13,362 14,214 10.3 11.0
181 Drugs 461 362,134 18,705 23,027 5.2 6.4
182 Soaps and cosmetics 213 168,618 16,853 18,891 10.0 11.2
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 72 60,369 5,514 6,366 9.1 10.5
191 Agricultural chemicals 69 49,421 4,040 4,040 8.2 8.2
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 603 447,534 67,609 73,168 15.1 16.3
200 Petroleum refining 202 152,615 32,974 33,626 21.6 22.0
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 45 32,924 8,572 8,572 26.0 26.0
210 Tires and inner tubes 126 114,971 45,847 47,829 39.9 41.6
211 Other rubber products, & plastics footwear & belting 201 154,383 33,244 34,787 21.5 22.5
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 768 609,559 65,043 66,845 10.7 11.0
220 Leather tanning and finishing 9 9,873 5,661 5,661 57.3 57.3
221 Footwear, except rubber and plastic 69 43,916 4,341 4,937 9.9 11.2
222 Leather products, except footwear 34 27,581 810 810 2.9 2.9
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 5,100 11,879,692 1,950,203 2,076,621 16.4 17.5
230 Logging 132 83,719 6,331 6,331 7.6 7.6
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 595 408,366 41,319 44,601 10.1 10.9
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 129 110,153 4,089 4,089 3.7 3.7
241 Miscellaneous wood products 190 141,486 13,343 13,343 9.4 9.4
242 Furniture and fixtures 778 628,508 43,597 45,858 6.9 7.3
250 Glass and glass products 233 192,381 51,868 53,921 27.0 28.0
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 271 212,154 36,035 40,544 17.0 19.1
252 Structural clay products 50 42,282 8,335 9,442 19.7 22.3
261 Pottery and related products 47 36,539 7,629 9,059 20.9 24.8
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone products 142 115,113 19,528 26,743 17.0 23.2
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 370 295,504 120,759 121,935 40.9 41.3
271 Iron and steel foundries 132 111,399 40,634 41,297 36.5 37.1
272 Primary aluminum industries 168 146,832 61,255 62,254 41.7 42.4
280 Other primary metal industries 227 184,943 38,327 39,558 20.7 21.4
281 Cutlery, handtools, and general hardware 152 113,077 17,711 20,732 15.7 18.3
282 Fabricated structural metal products 633 505,915 67,469 72,298 13.3 14.3
290 Screw machine products 82 60,846 4,558 5,183 7.5 8.5
291 Metal forgings and stampings 163 136,135 29,366 33,286 21.6 24.5
292 Ordnance 71 48,468 16,041 16,041 33.1 33.1
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 485 384,611 61,387 65,776 16.0 17.1
301 Not specified metal industries 6 5,425 738 738 13.6 13.6
310 Engines and turbines 78 61,363 13,411 13,411 21.9 21.9
311 Farm machinery and equipment 162 98,504 14,177 14,486 14.4 14.7
312 Construction and material handling machines 285 226,003 45,096 47,807 20.0 21.2
320 Metalworking machinery 364 291,595 27,485 30,208 9.4 10.4
321 Office and accounting machines 29 24,132 589 1,496 2.4 6.2
322 Computers and related equipment 686 561,357 11,546 15,394 2.1 2.7
331 Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c. 1,347 1,065,661 135,741 143,094 12.7 13.4
332 Not specified machinery 7 5,012 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Household appliances 125 111,226 25,416 27,008 22.9 24.3
341 Radio, TV, and communication equipment 496 399,658 40,563 45,534 10.1 11.4
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 1,758 1,356,106 139,496 153,434 10.3 11.3
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equip., & supplies 32 29,055 995 995 3.4 3.4
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,620 1,302,548 479,770 492,994 36.8 37.8
352 Aircraft and parts 601 489,852 139,250 154,420 28.4 31.5
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 249 180,280 36,911 40,330 20.5 22.4
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 32 28,321 12,240 12,240 43.2 43.2
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 285 241,639 28,941 34,323 12.0 14.2
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 82 62,949 10,991 10,991 17.5 17.5
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 252 195,717 11,215 13,176 5.7 6.7
372 Medical, dental, and optical instruments and supplies 514 415,327 17,755 19,395 4.3 4.7
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 133 107,234 5,337 5,337 5.0 5.0
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 12 9,537 2,822 2,822 29.6 29.6
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 207 145,623 6,426 7,091 4.4 4.9
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 538 373,128 30,727 33,001 8.2 8.8
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 150 134,009 22,984 24,602 17.2 18.4
TRANSPORTATION 7,448 5,622,962 1,902,858 2,026,032 33.8 36.0
400 Railroads 420 297,660 197,479 202,574 66.3 68.1
401 Bus service and urban transit 803 587,708 194,908 200,877 33.2 34.2
402 Taxicab service 132 99,184 8,389 10,366 8.5 10.5
410 Trucking service 2,704 2,084,122 434,235 457,238 20.8 21.9
411 Warehousing and storage 192 164,977 15,378 17,956 9.3 10.9
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,229 891,029 623,381 686,407 70.0 77.0
420 Water transportation 282 215,337 66,385 67,278 30.8 31.2
421 Air transportation 1,173 904,455 339,445 355,900 37.5 39.3
422 Pipe lines, except natural gas 16 11,642 4,196 4,196 36.0 36.0
432 Services incidental to transportation 497 366,847 19,062 23,240 5.2 6.3
COMMUNICATIONS 2,392 1,870,855 437,221 462,468 23.4 24.7
440 Radio and television broadcasting and cable 599 455,047 55,642 58,477 12.2 12.9
441 Telephone communications 1,774 1,402,200 381,454 403,865 27.2 28.8
442 Telegraph and misc. communications services 19 13,608 125 125 0.9 0.9
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,027 1,450,173 454,959 478,276 31.4 33.0
450 Electric light and power 826 566,892 202,384 212,849 35.7 37.5
451 Gas and steam supply systems 260 174,160 41,614 44,468 23.9 25.5
452 Electric and gas, and other combinations 188 155,690 57,275 60,286 36.8 38.7
470 Water supply and irrigation 344 269,403 79,008 81,842 29.3 30.4
471 Sanitary services 395 271,035 72,662 76,816 26.8 28.3
472 Not specified utilities 14 12,994 2,016 2,016 15.5 15.5
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,019 4,586,358 250,490 282,872 5.5 6.2
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 279 215,051 17,237 19,984 8.0 9.3
501 Furniture and home furnishings 120 95,240 4,997 5,799 5.2 6.1
502 Lumber and construction materials 266 207,341 10,741 11,325 5.2 5.5
510 Professional and commercial equipment and supplies 584 474,975 5,818 6,929 1.2 1.5
511 Metals and minerals, except petroleum 107 83,062 16,575 16,575 20.0 20.0
512 Electrical goods 412 319,605 9,517 11,933 3.0 3.7
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 322 255,903 9,650 9,650 3.8 3.8
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 836 609,683 13,508 17,783 2.2 2.9
531 Scrap and waste materials 147 110,695 5,924 5,924 5.4 5.4
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 173 132,143 3,860 3,860 2.9 2.9
540 Paper and paper products 158 126,697 6,477 6,477 5.1 5.1
541 Drugs, chemicals and allied products 288 223,181 4,575 6,305 2.0 2.8
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 145 114,666 8,179 8,959 7.1 7.8
550 Groceries and related products 1,118 858,950 104,155 118,822 12.1 13.8
551 Farm-product raw materials 142 76,610 1,075 1,075 1.4 1.4
552 Petroleum products 184 129,584 6,365 7,622 4.9 5.9
560 Alcoholic beverages 149 111,317 11,034 11,034 9.9 9.9
561 Farm supplies 202 137,835 1,571 1,571 1.1 1.1
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 355 276,038 6,881 8,894 2.5 3.2
571 Not specified wholesale trade 32 27,781 2,353 2,353 8.5 8.5
RETAIL TRADE 6,905 20,185,315 1,040,490 1,138,198 5.2 5.6
580 Lumber and building material retailing 798 592,356 16,673 20,484 2.8 3.5
581 Hardware stores 274 193,629 2,551 3,258 1.3 1.7
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 149 105,199 0 0 0.0 0.0
590 Mobile home dealers 60 40,310 570 570 1.4 1.4
591 Department stores 2,970 2,235,601 85,142 93,863 3.8 4.2
592 Variety stores 180 142,659 4,383 4,383 3.1 3.1
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 239 159,798 4,791 6,977 3.0 4.4
601 Grocery stores 3,922 2,922,503 635,364 666,864 21.7 22.8
602 Dairy products stores 38 26,212 0 0 0.0 0.0
610 Retail bakeries 270 190,088 7,770 10,635 4.1 5.6
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 232 178,642 7,875 7,875 4.4 4.4
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,538 1,144,999 28,331 31,523 2.5 2.8
620 Auto and home supply stores 590 432,015 12,543 13,941 2.9 3.2
621 Gasoline service stations 453 326,892 5,465 6,093 1.7 1.9
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 186 132,283 1,524 1,524 1.2 1.2
623 Apparel and accessory stores, except shoe 911 717,694 12,640 15,229 1.8 2.1
630 Shoe stores 162 131,612 1,842 1,842 1.4 1.4
631 Furniture and home furnishings stores 667 508,401 10,201 11,777 2.0 2.3
632 Household appliance stores 99 75,486 3,412 3,412 4.5 4.5
633 Radio, TV, and computer stores 582 471,614 6,468 9,058 1.4 1.9
640 Music stores 132 109,368 1,091 1,091 1.0 1.0
641 Eating and drinking places 8,310 6,279,174 101,064 127,778 1.6 2.0
642 Drug stores 811 629,163 37,922 42,178 6.0 6.7
650 Liquor stores 137 104,297 3,589 3,853 3.4 3.7
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 468 336,992 3,782 3,876 1.1 1.2
652 Book and stationery stores 379 291,080 5,116 6,693 1.8 2.3
660 Jewelry stores 204 149,717 3,770 4,562 2.5 3.0
661 Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops 261 182,840 3,369 3,369 1.8 1.8
662 Sewing, needlework and piece goods stores 57 40,813 916 1,036 2.2 2.5
663 Catalog and mail order houses 227 163,046 6,674 6,674 4.1 4.1
670 Vending machine operators 73 60,466 4,800 5,723 7.9 9.5
671 Direct selling establishments 203 142,036 2,958 3,308 2.1 2.3
672 Fuel dealers 132 88,706 1,428 1,428 1.6 1.6
681 Retail florists 191 134,207 2,053 2,053 1.5 1.5
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 869 634,425 11,827 11,827 1.9 1.9
691 Not specified retail trade 131 110,992 2,583 3,439 2.3 3.1
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 388 7,780,188 200,998 244,299 2.6 3.1
700 Banking 2,613 1,880,612 17,140 27,724 0.9 1.5
701 Savings institutions, including credit unions 407 267,882 10,164 13,231 3.8 4.9
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 999 763,991 5,662 11,808 0.7 1.5
710 Security, commodity brokerage, & invest. companies 1,091 846,590 12,012 19,583 1.4 2.3
711 Insurance 3,042 2,303,992 58,425 64,011 2.5 2.8
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance offices 2,236 1,717,120 97,596 107,941 5.7 6.3
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 9,276 7,288,195 246,120 292,718 3.4 4.0
721 Advertising 320 251,035 4,577 7,376 1.8 2.9
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 791 617,162 49,843 54,190 8.1 8.8
731 Personnel supply services 1,250 1,015,035 22,910 35,436 2.3 3.5
732 Computer and data processing services 2,220 1,801,716 21,676 26,943 1.2 1.5
740 Detective and protective services 673 541,996 37,069 41,602 6.8 7.7
741 Business services, n.e.c. 1,959 1,476,097 39,798 49,787 2.7 3.4
742 Automotive rental and leasing, without drivers 229 178,926 10,537 12,743 5.9 7.1
750 Automotive parking and carwashes 244 200,807 12,518 12,518 6.2 6.2
751 Automotive repair and related services 1,044 790,949 22,680 25,826 2.9 3.3
752 Electrical repair shops 118 82,884 5,347 6,270 6.5 7.6
760 Miscellaneous repair services 428 331,587 19,165 20,025 5.8 6.0
PERSONAL SERVICES 5,136 3,673,513 182,026 204,618 5.0 5.6
761 Private Households 1,224 938,078 8,048 9,150 0.9 1.0
762 Hotels and Motels 2,085 1,336,500 144,237 157,780 10.8 11.8
770 Lodging places, except hotels and motels 158 122,713 651 2,984 0.5 2.4
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 502 380,709 21,235 24,951 5.6 6.6
772 Beauty shops 732 558,671 4,023 5,922 0.7 1.1
780 Barber shops 33 26,105 0 0 0.0 0.0
781 Funeral service and crematories 106 82,928 1,021 1,021 1.2 1.2
782 Shoe repair shops 8 5,468 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 5 6,029 943 943 15.6 15.6
791 Miscellaneous personal services 283 216,312 1,867 1,867 0.9 0.9
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,997 2,286,712 209,538 237,589 9.2 10.4
800 Theaters and motion pictures 638 500,718 76,434 83,600 15.3 16.7
801 Video tape rental 140 116,075 0 1,523 0.0 1.3
802 Bowling centers 56 44,531 1,796 1,796 4.0 4.0
810 Miscellaneous entertainment & recreation services 2,163 1,625,388 131,308 150,670 8.1 9.3
831 HOSPITALS 7,019 5,110,007 665,842 763,799 13.0 14.9
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 8,012 5,882,141 364,576 419,965 6.2 7.1
812 Offices and clinics of physicians 1,887 1,401,269 34,117 47,946 2.4 3.4
820 Offices and clinics of dentists 763 553,436 14,860 16,665 2.7 3.0
821 Offices and clinics of chiropractors 108 86,854 224 224 0.3 0.3
822 Offices and clinics of optometrists 66 53,771 0 0 0.0 0.0
830 Offices and clinics of health practitioners, n.e.c. 60 44,013 136 1,001 0.3 2.3
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,522 1,835,348 175,831 192,384 9.6 10.5
840 Health services, n.e.c. 2,606 1,907,452 139,408 161,745 7.3 8.5
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 5,221 10,820,152 3,787,366 4,294,416 35.0 39.7
842 Elementary and secondary schools 453 7,497,628 3,345,427 3,746,677 44.6 50.0
850 Colleges and universities 4,190 2,908,688 398,065 487,898 13.7 16.8
851 Vocational schools 120 83,165 7,980 10,857 9.6 13.1
852 Libraries 248 182,007 28,650 38,425 15.7 21.1
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 210 148,664 7,244 10,559 4.9 7.1
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,843 2,792,529 227,904 257,460 8.2 9.2
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 285 204,839 14,349 15,269 7.0 7.5
862 Child day care services 1,284 973,131 30,753 38,598 3.2 4.0
863 Family child care homes 20 15,010 0 0 0.0 0.0
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 690 502,599 35,062 38,526 7.0 7.7
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,564 1,096,949 147,741 165,067 13.5 15.0
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 7,041 5,137,500 133,473 164,761 2.6 3.2
841 Legal services 1,440 1,048,614 11,091 12,798 1.1 1.2
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 173 115,379 8,517 11,208 7.4 9.7
873 Labor unions 95 66,220 41,057 41,057 62.0 62.0
880 Religious organizations 1,298 942,609 5,705 10,489 0.6 1.1
881 Membership organizations, n.e.c. 484 337,053 8,728 12,158 2.6 3.6
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,058 806,572 22,083 29,271 2.7 3.6
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 735 548,227 5,369 7,975 1.0 1.5
891 Research, development, and testing services 858 604,877 21,134 27,534 3.5 4.6
892 Management and public relations services 820 615,096 9,183 11,667 1.5 1.9
893 Miscellaneous professional and related services 80 52,854 604 604 1.1 1.1
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 8,434 5,966,311 1,859,667 2,146,107 31.2 36.0
900 Executive and legislative offices 254 152,693 10,684 14,475 7.0 9.5
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,027 700,633 171,299 201,617 24.4 28.8
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,335 2,523,366 1,087,094 1,173,839 43.1 46.5
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 501 345,128 87,864 114,638 25.5 33.2
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,175 805,305 218,528 267,599 27.1 33.2
930 Administration of environ. quality & housing programs 426 244,052 54,437 63,928 22.3 26.2
931 Administration of economic programs 867 570,036 150,382 179,810 26.4 31.5
932 National security and international affairs 849 625,098 79,379 130,200 12.7 20.8
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1999. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1990 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.