Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Industry, 2000 (details in table note)
CIC Industry Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
AGRICULTURE 2,426 1,846,181 38,030 45,889 2.1 2.5
10 Agricultural production, crops 710 585,416 14,439 18,838 2.5 3.2
11 Agricultural production, livestock 627 385,722 3,437 5,088 0.9 1.3
12 Veterinary services 256 186,242 1,576 1,576 0.8 0.8
20 Landscape and horticultural services 681 558,294 15,391 17,200 2.8 3.1
30 Agricultural services, n.e.c. 152 130,506 3,186 3,186 2.4 2.4
FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 205 93,062 11,108 17,725 11.9 19.0
31 Forestry 139 60,664 9,566 14,541 15.8 24.0
32 Fishing, hunting, and trapping 66 32,398 1,542 3,184 4.8 9.8
MINING 923 499,881 55,018 57,794 11.0 11.6
40 Metal mining 109 45,614 14,907 16,233 32.7 35.6
41 Coal mining 156 70,011 16,567 17,902 23.7 25.6
42 Oil and gas extraction 502 300,779 10,221 10,336 3.4 3.4
50 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, except fuel 156 83,477 13,323 13,323 16.0 16.0
60 CONSTRUCTION 9,442 7,156,892 1,389,725 1,458,286 19.4 20.4
MANUFACTURING, NONDURABLE GOODS 9,672 7,497,482 1,046,498 1,110,985 14.0 14.8
100 Meat products 636 459,027 100,382 109,334 21.9 23.8
101 Dairy products 213 158,282 34,239 37,351 21.6 23.6
102 Canned, frozen and preserved fruits and vegetables 261 190,549 48,091 50,003 25.2 26.2
110 Grain mill products 199 154,445 23,732 24,383 15.4 15.8
111 Bakery products 300 230,960 60,467 63,265 26.2 27.4
112 Sugar and confectionery products 145 100,356 28,396 28,621 28.3 28.5
120 Beverage industries 238 198,541 43,860 47,168 22.1 23.8
121 Miscellaneous food preparations & kindred products 217 157,588 23,008 24,553 14.6 15.6
122 Not specified food industries 12 7,451 939 939 12.6 12.6
130 Tobacco manufactures 60 49,979 12,010 12,010 24.0 24.0
132 Knitting mills 107 83,180 4,706 4,916 5.7 5.9
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, except wool & knit goods 35 24,957 2,454 2,454 9.8 9.8
141 Carpets and rugs 77 74,408 4,181 4,181 5.6 5.6
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills 308 280,134 11,484 11,484 4.1 4.1
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products 45 37,761 4,280 5,101 11.3 13.5
151 Apparel and accessories, except knit 679 545,706 32,763 37,140 6.0 6.8
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products 170 134,903 11,121 11,429 8.2 8.5
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 293 225,322 93,449 95,579 41.5 42.4
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products 245 186,913 31,456 33,179 16.8 17.8
162 Paperboard containers and boxes 225 178,430 39,962 40,735 22.4 22.8
171 Newspaper publishing and printing 665 467,453 46,086 47,527 9.9 10.2
172 Printing, publishing, & allied ind., exc. newspapers 1,545 1,200,018 86,698 94,420 7.2 7.9
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins 221 177,107 20,307 24,681 11.5 13.9
181 Drugs 469 378,539 15,186 17,280 4.0 4.6
182 Soaps and cosmetics 222 174,497 16,091 17,190 9.2 9.9
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products 90 73,118 10,183 11,795 13.9 16.1
191 Agricultural chemicals 68 44,234 6,542 7,106 14.8 16.1
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals 552 401,691 49,422 53,848 12.3 13.4
200 Petroleum refining 174 129,148 31,460 34,244 24.4 26.5
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products 28 23,701 4,869 5,756 20.5 24.3
210 Tires and inner tubes 136 128,638 46,772 48,995 36.4 38.1
211 Other rubber products, & plastics footwear & belting 182 140,683 22,534 22,534 16.0 16.0
212 Miscellaneous plastics products 738 589,116 68,109 70,524 11.6 12.0
220 Leather tanning and finishing 12 10,180 5,296 5,296 52.0 52.0
221 Footwear, except rubber and plastic 57 36,995 3,977 3,977 10.8 10.8
222 Leather products, except footwear 48 43,471 1,986 1,986 4.6 4.6
MANUFACTURING, DURABLE GOODS 4,822 11,732,625 1,795,998 1,900,480 15.3 16.2
230 Logging 117 69,112 1,096 1,873 1.6 2.7
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork 530 380,539 42,656 45,559 11.2 12.0
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes 108 91,541 5,438 6,266 5.9 6.8
241 Miscellaneous wood products 171 126,615 8,015 9,131 6.3 7.2
242 Furniture and fixtures 756 617,145 54,297 57,547 8.8 9.3
250 Glass and glass products 233 190,559 41,041 41,041 21.5 21.5
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products 278 215,711 35,715 36,308 16.6 16.8
252 Structural clay products 38 30,957 2,609 2,609 8.4 8.4
261 Pottery and related products 54 40,237 12,994 12,994 32.3 32.3
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral & stone products 142 110,398 17,634 18,886 16.0 17.1
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills 400 317,447 124,583 128,026 39.2 40.3
271 Iron and steel foundries 124 104,603 41,752 41,752 39.9 39.9
272 Primary aluminum industries 159 139,519 45,810 48,730 32.8 34.9
280 Other primary metal industries 236 189,207 30,227 32,621 16.0 17.2
281 Cutlery, handtools, and general hardware 134 94,558 15,125 16,240 16.0 17.2
282 Fabricated structural metal products 660 522,828 67,835 71,937 13.0 13.8
290 Screw machine products 79 59,831 2,846 2,846 4.8 4.8
291 Metal forgings and stampings 166 134,291 37,989 40,119 28.3 29.9
292 Ordnance 62 44,156 8,617 8,617 19.5 19.5
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products 437 358,365 48,648 48,648 13.6 13.6
301 Not specified metal industries 3 2,304 0 0 0.0 0.0
310 Engines and turbines 74 65,685 16,536 16,536 25.2 25.2
311 Farm machinery and equipment 161 99,333 10,293 13,835 10.4 13.9
312 Construction and material handling machines 278 227,373 49,432 50,735 21.7 22.3
320 Metalworking machinery 376 300,281 29,632 32,315 9.9 10.8
321 Office and accounting machines 45 35,012 1,013 1,129 2.9 3.2
322 Computers and related equipment 624 524,299 2,759 3,583 0.5 0.7
331 Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c. 1,401 1,112,897 131,818 140,458 11.8 12.6
332 Not specified machinery 5 4,223 1,121 1,121 26.5 26.5
340 Household appliances 146 129,640 26,402 29,301 20.4 22.6
341 Radio, TV, and communication equipment 524 441,489 32,395 35,041 7.3 7.9
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. 1,690 1,297,002 110,080 121,080 8.5 9.3
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equip., & supplies 27 29,487 1,643 1,643 5.6 5.6
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment 1,615 1,310,186 469,912 481,325 35.9 36.7
352 Aircraft and parts 540 439,920 113,090 124,403 25.7 28.3
360 Ship and boat building and repairing 234 178,006 29,029 32,003 16.3 18.0
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment 33 25,672 6,298 6,298 24.5 24.5
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts 274 222,348 29,931 40,679 13.5 18.3
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment 107 85,700 13,252 13,252 15.5 15.5
371 Scientific and controlling instruments 262 205,716 8,537 8,537 4.1 4.1
372 Medical, dental, and optical instruments and supplies 518 415,423 11,904 14,145 2.9 3.4
380 Photographic equipment and supplies 123 95,673 4,597 4,597 4.8 4.8
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices 15 18,376 3,693 3,693 20.1 20.1
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods 183 139,472 12,074 12,737 8.7 9.1
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 520 359,168 21,916 25,707 6.1 7.2
392 Not specified manufacturing industries 160 130,318 13,714 14,580 10.5 11.2
TRANSPORTATION 7,607 5,764,658 1,922,984 2,032,118 33.4 35.3
400 Railroads 459 316,734 219,837 225,208 69.4 71.1
401 Bus service and urban transit 828 614,042 222,671 235,594 36.3 38.4
402 Taxicab service 116 86,814 6,876 7,134 7.9 8.2
410 Trucking service 2,859 2,196,065 411,533 434,687 18.7 19.8
411 Warehousing and storage 196 169,628 13,326 14,633 7.9 8.6
412 U.S. Postal Service 1,214 894,759 626,383 663,854 70.0 74.2
420 Water transportation 236 183,227 43,132 45,267 23.5 24.7
421 Air transportation 1,180 923,643 357,370 380,982 38.7 41.2
422 Pipe lines, except natural gas 24 16,098 3,104 3,204 19.3 19.9
432 Services incidental to transportation 495 363,646 18,753 21,555 5.2 5.9
COMMUNICATIONS 2,506 1,962,963 406,408 441,725 20.7 22.5
440 Radio and television broadcasting and cable 629 465,686 44,376 49,073 9.5 10.5
441 Telephone communications 1,840 1,469,651 361,367 391,987 24.6 26.7
442 Telegraph and misc. communications services 37 27,627 665 665 2.4 2.4
UTILITIES AND SANITARY SERVICES 2,010 1,435,377 426,304 446,150 29.7 31.1
450 Electric light and power 853 584,963 184,718 193,907 31.6 33.1
451 Gas and steam supply systems 201 138,029 39,618 40,718 28.7 29.5
452 Electric and gas, and other combinations 182 150,178 51,223 52,624 34.1 35.0
470 Water supply and irrigation 328 240,228 57,028 59,142 23.7 24.6
471 Sanitary services 434 311,758 92,807 98,849 29.8 31.7
472 Not specified utilities 12 10,221 910 910 8.9 8.9
WHOLESALE TRADE 6,297 4,779,549 245,539 269,595 5.1 5.6
500 Motor vehicles and equipment 312 242,789 11,870 11,870 4.9 4.9
501 Furniture and home furnishings 99 81,987 2,910 2,910 3.5 3.5
502 Lumber and construction materials 268 212,372 10,976 10,976 5.2 5.2
510 Professional and commercial equipment and supplies 624 505,187 10,458 12,193 2.1 2.4
511 Metals and minerals, except petroleum 125 95,089 11,805 11,805 12.4 12.4
512 Electrical goods 447 362,839 1,127 1,127 0.3 0.3
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies 337 250,607 6,667 8,785 2.7 3.5
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies 913 647,380 13,578 16,228 2.1 2.5
531 Scrap and waste materials 191 145,938 17,082 19,181 11.7 13.1
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods 176 131,641 1,581 1,581 1.2 1.2
540 Paper and paper products 160 124,675 5,941 6,261 4.8 5.0
541 Drugs, chemicals and allied products 312 235,866 3,959 7,143 1.7 3.0
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions 157 123,118 4,107 5,429 3.3 4.4
550 Groceries and related products 1,129 867,470 106,455 114,448 12.3 13.2
551 Farm-product raw materials 153 96,078 2,658 2,658 2.8 2.8
552 Petroleum products 154 106,893 3,320 3,320 3.1 3.1
560 Alcoholic beverages 149 110,273 10,671 10,671 9.7 9.7
561 Farm supplies 183 119,595 1,697 1,697 1.4 1.4
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods 370 285,815 15,509 18,145 5.4 6.3
571 Not specified wholesale trade 38 33,939 3,167 3,167 9.3 9.3
RETAIL TRADE 7,042 20,451,705 963,766 1,063,862 4.7 5.2
580 Lumber and building material retailing 841 662,316 15,476 20,109 2.3 3.0
581 Hardware stores 283 202,965 2,264 2,264 1.1 1.1
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores 164 119,420 2,120 2,120 1.8 1.8
590 Mobile home dealers 55 36,589 0 0 0.0 0.0
591 Department stores 2,895 2,223,788 90,073 102,969 4.1 4.6
592 Variety stores 186 144,177 746 1,786 0.5 1.2
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores 252 172,296 9,397 9,397 5.5 5.5
601 Grocery stores 3,878 2,876,734 556,592 586,704 19.3 20.4
602 Dairy products stores 32 27,854 3,340 3,556 12.0 12.8
610 Retail bakeries 234 167,168 9,569 12,401 5.7 7.4
611 Food stores, n.e.c. 235 183,208 7,215 8,648 3.9 4.7
612 Motor vehicle dealers 1,531 1,166,213 40,163 46,458 3.4 4.0
620 Auto and home supply stores 565 423,232 10,550 13,884 2.5 3.3
621 Gasoline service stations 463 336,924 4,788 5,407 1.4 1.6
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers 166 117,062 0 0 0.0 0.0
623 Apparel and accessory stores, except shoe 959 715,443 7,311 8,902 1.0 1.2
630 Shoe stores 161 129,374 423 423 0.3 0.3
631 Furniture and home furnishings stores 695 531,074 9,181 10,108 1.7 1.9
632 Household appliance stores 79 53,776 1,725 2,010 3.2 3.7
633 Radio, TV, and computer stores 577 455,515 5,607 7,365 1.2 1.6
640 Music stores 160 132,516 795 795 0.6 0.6
641 Eating and drinking places 8,450 6,433,194 92,386 110,048 1.4 1.7
642 Drug stores 832 645,250 52,981 59,158 8.2 9.2
650 Liquor stores 154 127,913 5,136 6,463 4.0 5.1
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores 456 346,036 2,331 4,168 0.7 1.2
652 Book and stationery stores 410 303,122 6,169 6,856 2.0 2.3
660 Jewelry stores 194 145,772 1,898 3,191 1.3 2.2
661 Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops 240 182,526 2,050 2,050 1.1 1.1
662 Sewing, needlework and piece goods stores 54 41,871 0 0 0.0 0.0
663 Catalog and mail order houses 171 123,670 4,016 4,356 3.2 3.5
670 Vending machine operators 69 53,207 4,446 4,446 8.4 8.4
671 Direct selling establishments 159 106,980 1,050 1,050 1.0 1.0
672 Fuel dealers 134 89,518 5,314 5,314 5.9 5.9
681 Retail florists 219 153,862 1,685 1,685 1.1 1.1
682 Miscellaneous retail stores 938 693,364 4,110 5,946 0.6 0.9
691 Not specified retail trade 151 127,777 2,859 3,824 2.2 3.0
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 343 7,686,437 173,541 212,216 2.3 2.8
700 Banking 2,644 1,906,089 13,612 21,868 0.7 1.1
701 Savings institutions, including credit unions 407 274,079 4,322 7,632 1.6 2.8
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. 998 754,438 3,449 6,714 0.5 0.9
710 Security, commodity brokerage, & invest. companies 1,185 910,666 11,702 13,892 1.3 1.5
711 Insurance 2,861 2,130,287 48,649 59,829 2.3 2.8
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance offices 2,248 1,710,880 91,808 102,281 5.4 6.0
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES 9,980 7,934,154 236,930 298,801 3.0 3.8
721 Advertising 298 233,302 2,772 5,036 1.2 2.2
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings 870 649,510 56,653 63,678 8.7 9.8
731 Personnel supply services 1,284 1,064,223 18,888 34,823 1.8 3.3
732 Computer and data processing services 2,687 2,225,419 24,166 37,832 1.1 1.7
740 Detective and protective services 703 547,520 32,627 38,972 6.0 7.1
741 Business services, n.e.c. 2,017 1,540,675 35,705 42,580 2.3 2.8
742 Automotive rental and leasing, without drivers 254 204,049 11,336 12,496 5.6 6.1
750 Automotive parking and carwashes 232 189,878 10,844 12,117 5.7 6.4
751 Automotive repair and related services 1,080 847,388 18,700 22,731 2.2 2.7
752 Electrical repair shops 108 81,481 4,139 4,139 5.1 5.1
760 Miscellaneous repair services 447 350,708 21,099 24,397 6.0 7.0
PERSONAL SERVICES 5,212 3,676,547 201,262 215,424 5.5 5.9
761 Private Households 1,149 869,632 6,402 7,780 0.7 0.9
762 Hotels and Motels 2,235 1,414,761 159,344 165,678 11.3 11.7
770 Lodging places, except hotels and motels 158 111,044 1,314 1,314 1.2 1.2
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services 484 375,900 23,111 24,868 6.1 6.6
772 Beauty shops 704 526,446 5,192 6,677 1.0 1.3
780 Barber shops 59 48,988 2,690 2,690 5.5 5.5
781 Funeral service and crematories 120 90,549 1,200 1,200 1.3 1.3
782 Shoe repair shops 5 4,907 0 0 0.0 0.0
790 Dressmaking shops 3 2,726 0 0 0.0 0.0
791 Miscellaneous personal services 295 231,593 2,008 5,216 0.9 2.3
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES 2,915 2,181,283 205,171 229,238 9.4 10.5
800 Theaters and motion pictures 631 477,761 90,560 97,220 19.0 20.3
801 Video tape rental 128 103,273 0 0 0.0 0.0
802 Bowling centers 65 49,814 0 0 0.0 0.0
810 Miscellaneous entertainment & recreation services 2,091 1,550,436 114,611 132,018 7.4 8.5
831 HOSPITALS 6,936 5,003,508 689,416 795,177 13.8 15.9
MEDICAL SERVICES, EXCEPT HOSPITALS 8,064 5,962,811 428,718 490,517 7.2 8.2
812 Offices and clinics of physicians 1,942 1,430,828 39,721 45,234 2.8 3.2
820 Offices and clinics of dentists 726 535,232 6,131 8,004 1.1 1.5
821 Offices and clinics of chiropractors 117 87,752 0 0 0.0 0.0
822 Offices and clinics of optometrists 65 51,359 1,801 3,207 3.5 6.2
830 Offices and clinics of health practitioners, n.e.c. 67 49,323 1,693 1,693 3.4 3.4
832 Nursing and personal care facilities 2,425 1,741,386 176,339 195,059 10.1 11.2
840 Health services, n.e.c. 2,722 2,066,932 203,034 237,319 9.8 11.5
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES 15,129 10,878,365 3,748,209 4,291,328 34.5 39.4
842 Elementary and secondary schools 10,394 7,556,886 3,314,309 3,766,976 43.9 49.8
850 Colleges and universities 4,130 2,885,124 391,257 477,168 13.6 16.5
851 Vocational schools 121 90,501 6,728 9,457 7.4 10.4
852 Libraries 260 184,864 27,179 28,694 14.7 15.5
860 Educational services, n.e.c. 224 160,989 8,736 9,032 5.4 5.6
SOCIAL SERVICES 3,984 2,959,371 214,798 259,620 7.3 8.8
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services 302 216,638 17,930 20,092 8.3 9.3
862 Child day care services 1,312 1,014,327 24,237 36,554 2.4 3.6
863 Family child care homes 32 23,681 0 0 0.0 0.0
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing 690 504,636 31,399 37,254 6.2 7.4
871 Social services, n.e.c. 1,648 1,200,090 141,233 165,720 11.8 13.8
OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 7,156 5,304,645 145,467 171,879 2.7 3.2
841 Legal services 1,459 1,097,642 11,534 16,555 1.1 1.5
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos 173 117,162 13,938 14,075 11.9 12.0
873 Labor unions 84 59,336 47,198 47,559 79.5 80.2
880 Religious organizations 1,296 958,070 6,689 9,100 0.7 0.9
881 Membership organizations, n.e.c. 538 358,057 7,433 7,811 2.1 2.2
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services 1,114 853,724 20,129 27,504 2.4 3.2
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services 722 552,098 3,640 5,447 0.7 1.0
891 Research, development, and testing services 782 567,949 27,473 29,776 4.8 5.2
892 Management and public relations services 882 668,435 7,188 13,809 1.1 2.1
893 Miscellaneous professional and related services 106 72,174 244 244 0.3 0.3
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 8,455 5,978,129 1,913,282 2,135,328 32.0 35.7
900 Executive and legislative offices 246 154,029 12,594 14,986 8.2 9.7
901 General government, n.e.c. 1,024 700,893 173,296 197,018 24.7 28.1
910 Justice, public order, and safety 3,351 2,525,842 1,124,871 1,209,490 44.5 47.9
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy 497 336,751 101,447 116,349 30.1 34.6
922 Administration of human resources programs 1,144 774,894 213,853 250,970 27.6 32.4
930 Administration of environ. quality & housing programs 403 244,390 54,080 61,853 22.1 25.3
931 Administration of economic programs 937 630,392 162,496 187,421 25.8 29.7
932 National security and international affairs 853 610,938 70,646 97,242 11.6 15.9
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2000. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: CIC=1990 Census industry code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.