Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1983 (details in table note)
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, & MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 16,794 8,545,500 690,259 915,712 8.1 10.7
3 Legislators 16 6,733 629 629 9.3 9.3
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public admin. 37 15,948 819 1,935 5.1 12.1
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 920 419,033 82,534 112,094 19.7 26.8
6 Administrators, protective services 117 54,862 7,539 9,975 13.7 18.2
7 Financial managers 640 332,249 3,893 6,801 1.2 2.0
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 213 105,071 4,217 6,178 4.0 5.9
9 Purchasing managers 151 81,490 2,821 4,535 3.5 5.6
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 687 377,561 7,889 13,285 2.1 3.5
14 Administrators, education and related fields 833 405,983 92,459 120,044 22.8 29.6
15 Managers, medicine and health 173 87,237 7,623 9,765 8.7 11.2
16 Managers, properties and real estate 354 185,230 9,595 11,852 5.2 6.4
17 Postmasters and mail superintendents 79 32,886 16,422 17,223 49.9 52.4
18 Funeral directors 45 24,561 2,536 2,536 10.3 10.4
19 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 7,473 3,810,584 222,731 293,633 5.8 7.7
23 Accountants and auditors 1,817 950,046 65,357 86,729 6.9 9.1
24 Underwriters 58 33,734 0 908 0.0 2.7
25 Other financial officers 935 474,075 16,364 25,750 3.5 5.4
26 Management analysts 139 73,148 2,506 5,337 3.4 7.3
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 578 298,235 42,514 53,811 14.3 18.0
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 28 11,358 0 737 0.0 6.5
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 318 160,520 6,419 9,131 4.0 5.7
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 355 191,898 11,056 17,667 5.8 9.2
34 Business and promotion agents 96 47,178 6,988 7,570 14.8 16.0
35 Construction inspectors 108 50,342 12,886 18,174 25.6 36.1
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, exc. construction 300 151,234 49,158 59,622 32.5 39.4
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 324 164,305 15,304 19,791 9.3 12.0
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS 14,334 7,298,006 920,492 1,259,152 12.6 17.3
43 Architects 126 62,099 2,403 3,132 3.9 5.0
44 Aerospace engineers 142 83,077 9,112 12,968 11.0 15.6
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 45 27,314 3,248 5,412 11.9 19.8
46 Mining engineers 22 6,791 700 787 10.3 11.6
47 Petroleum engineers 63 33,032 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 134 67,557 2,988 2,988 4.4 4.4
49 Nuclear engineers 30 16,079 1,052 3,035 6.5 18.9
53 Civil engineers 387 188,809 25,194 32,618 13.3 17.3
54 Agricultural engineers 10 5,670 0 620 0.0 10.9
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 784 431,728 30,503 52,616 7.1 12.2
56 Industrial engineers 371 205,420 14,533 18,876 7.1 9.2
57 Mechanical engineers 432 245,125 15,714 27,300 6.4 11.1
58 Marine and naval architects engineers 23 11,965 4,527 5,115 37.8 42.8
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 342 179,252 7,656 13,459 4.3 7.5
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 63 28,935 2,689 2,868 9.3 9.9
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 474 252,607 18,785 30,458 7.4 12.1
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 253 136,729 9,538 19,441 7.0 14.3
66 Actuaries 20 9,164 483 483 5.3 5.3
67 Statisticians 51 25,230 3,017 4,914 12.0 19.5
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 20 9,197 583 753 6.3 8.2
69 Physicists and astronomers 62 31,671 530 1,216 1.7 3.8
73 Chemists, except biochemists 187 100,317 8,143 10,526 8.1 10.5
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 23 10,599 712 780 6.7 7.4
75 Geologists and geodesists 118 52,944 2,001 2,702 3.8 5.1
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 18 8,090 42 552 0.5 6.8
77 Agricultural and food scientists 64 27,330 2,178 3,229 8.0 11.8
78 Biological and life scientists 123 56,933 5,995 10,238 10.5 18.0
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 89 31,132 4,524 4,726 14.5 15.2
83 Medical scientists 36 18,640 1,152 2,424 6.2 13.0
84 Physicians 455 243,505 14,949 25,470 6.1 10.5
85 Dentists 31 16,597 567 816 3.4 4.9
86 Veterinarians 28 12,899 389 389 3.0 3.0
87 Optometrists 5 2,057 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 3 1,478 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 6 2,138 688 688 32.2 32.2
95 Registered nurses 2,701 1,364,192 224,283 312,652 16.4 22.9
96 Pharmacists 249 126,377 11,587 12,905 9.2 10.2
97 Dietitians 137 68,749 6,899 7,686 10.0 11.2
98 Inhalation therapists 135 67,843 5,254 7,152 7.7 10.5
99 Occupational therapists 57 28,746 7,463 9,607 26.0 33.4
103 Physical therapists 88 44,310 6,522 8,219 14.7 18.5
104 Speech therapists 90 47,557 24,811 29,621 52.2 62.3
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 84 41,478 11,633 15,697 28.0 37.8
106 Physicians' assistants 98 49,810 13,977 15,579 28.1 31.3
163 Counselors, educational and vocational 371 181,941 68,178 84,230 37.5 46.3
164 Librarians 397 190,932 66,250 77,828 34.7 40.8
165 Archivists and curators 39 18,340 147 1,133 0.8 6.2
166 Economists 185 88,554 1,141 6,456 1.3 7.3
167 Psychologists 211 107,781 22,631 29,276 21.0 27.2
168 Sociologists 3 1,103 871 871 79.0 79.0
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 25 8,647 1,389 1,531 16.1 17.7
173 Urban planners 24 12,089 685 1,867 5.7 15.4
174 Social workers 808 406,568 102,732 139,619 25.3 34.4
175 Recreation workers 133 62,700 6,901 7,412 11.0 11.8
176 Clergy 512 252,981 3,009 9,596 1.2 3.8
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 110 60,504 0 0 0.0 0.0
178 Lawyers 597 307,273 19,085 24,436 6.2 8.0
179 Judges 84 39,193 3,173 4,014 8.1 10.2
183 Authors 28 13,361 1,862 1,862 13.9 13.9
184 Technical writers 88 49,595 2,768 4,020 5.6 8.1
185 Designers 544 275,449 16,664 22,880 6.0 8.3
186 Musicians and composers 157 77,110 20,772 22,047 26.9 28.6
187 Actors and directors 80 41,492 12,443 13,621 30.0 32.8
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist print-makers 157 85,005 7,221 12,156 8.5 14.3
189 Photographers 134 67,993 9,573 11,700 14.1 17.2
193 Dancers 17 7,571 0 237 0.0 3.1
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 76 37,689 4,443 6,401 11.8 17.0
195 Editors and reporters 411 193,183 22,625 27,975 11.7 14.5
197 Public relations specialists 293 152,892 9,821 15,018 6.4 9.8
198 Announcers 83 31,835 4,571 4,667 14.4 14.7
199 Athletes 88 45,054 4,517 7,584 10.0 16.8
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,254 616,659 123,130 173,316 20.0 28.1
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 14 6,279 629 629 10.0 10.0
114 Biological science teachers 54 26,442 7,052 9,075 26.7 34.3
115 Chemistry teachers 40 18,701 2,279 2,875 12.2 15.4
116 Physics teachers 13 8,415 0 584 0.0 6.9
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 1 121 0 121 0.0 100.0
118 Psychology teachers 36 15,947 2,387 3,161 15.0 19.8
119 Economics teachers 42 24,076 4,569 7,584 19.0 31.5
123 History teachers 29 14,544 1,962 3,742 13.5 25.7
124 Political science teachers 21 10,604 2,882 3,722 27.2 35.1
125 Sociology teachers 17 9,060 2,698 3,857 29.8 42.6
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 12 7,873 1,781 1,781 22.6 22.6
127 Engineering teachers 64 31,855 9,095 12,163 28.6 38.2
128 Mathematical science teachers 83 44,372 11,842 14,375 26.7 32.4
129 Computer science teachers 27 12,784 2,946 3,700 23.0 28.9
133 Medical science teachers 21 11,725 2,321 2,902 19.8 24.8
134 Health specialties teachers 91 44,828 11,296 14,622 25.2 32.6
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 57 26,630 5,752 9,639 21.6 36.2
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 10 4,316 557 854 12.9 19.8
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 86 42,575 8,736 13,108 20.5 30.8
138 Physical education teachers 28 15,233 1,688 3,613 11.1 23.7
139 Education teachers 18 8,200 1,902 2,424 23.2 29.6
143 English teachers 103 49,179 10,363 17,173 21.1 34.9
144 Foreign language teachers 50 27,205 5,361 6,651 19.7 24.4
145 Law teachers 11 5,752 668 906 11.6 15.8
146 Social work teachers 9 3,393 728 728 21.4 21.4
147 Theology teachers 20 9,789 1,796 2,792 18.3 28.5
148 Trade and industrial teachers 14 6,333 3,259 3,259 51.5 51.5
149 Home economics teachers 8 3,520 1,276 1,276 36.2 36.2
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 9 4,188 845 845 20.2 20.2
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 266 122,721 16,459 25,156 13.4 20.5
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,610 3,196,529 1,620,095 1,959,216 50.7 61.3
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 583 285,044 74,894 93,178 26.3 32.7
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,778 1,349,164 778,304 932,236 57.7 69.1
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,503 1,203,853 690,945 835,222 57.4 69.4
158 Teachers, special education 164 84,515 46,495 55,487 55.0 65.8
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 582 273,954 29,457 43,093 10.8 15.8
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 5,794 3,000,551 398,566 514,542 13.3 17.2
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 489 254,862 24,957 33,363 9.8 13.1
204 Dental hygienists 130 65,915 4,852 4,852 7.4 7.4
205 Health record technologists and technicians 94 46,161 6,311 8,443 13.7 18.3
206 Radiologic technicians 197 97,731 12,267 15,222 12.6 15.6
207 Licensed practical nurses 893 455,738 71,330 88,026 15.7 19.3
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 372 199,367 21,814 30,758 10.9 15.5
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 494 262,383 56,296 67,867 21.5 25.9
214 Industrial engineering technicians 16 8,921 1,516 2,197 17.0 24.6
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 29 14,889 1,807 2,297 12.1 15.4
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 415 229,476 32,005 42,991 13.9 18.7
217 Drafting occupations 499 263,541 29,822 44,961 11.3 17.1
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 103 47,896 10,638 13,671 22.2 29.0
223 Biological technicians 103 49,500 5,384 7,506 10.9 15.2
224 Chemical technicians 154 75,307 10,285 12,882 13.7 17.1
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 140 67,380 10,421 11,937 15.5 17.7
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 125 61,430 28,602 29,851 46.6 48.6
227 Air traffic controllers 57 28,461 5,646 7,753 19.8 27.2
228 Broadcast equipment operators 66 28,308 7,573 7,696 26.8 27.2
229 Computer programmers 759 408,499 23,294 36,947 5.7 9.0
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 7 3,797 628 1,162 16.5 30.6
234 Legal assistants 243 121,936 5,546 7,255 4.5 5.9
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 409 209,054 27,573 36,905 13.2 17.7
SALES OCCUPATIONS 18,004 9,234,254 615,676 738,594 6.7 8.0
243 Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 3,462 1,774,091 114,621 141,553 6.5 8.0
253 Insurance sales occupations 728 382,088 15,740 22,359 4.1 5.9
254 Real estate sales occupations 574 287,595 3,480 6,954 1.2 2.4
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 296 163,295 1,288 1,928 0.8 1.2
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 219 109,048 7,625 9,537 7.0 8.7
257 Sales occupations, other business services 634 338,256 19,392 23,105 5.7 6.8
258 Sales engineers 58 32,041 600 1,236 1.9 3.9
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,231 1,182,385 28,342 41,168 2.4 3.5
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 404 200,169 1,796 2,465 0.9 1.2
264 Sales workers, apparel 871 437,144 15,320 19,172 3.5 4.4
265 Sales workers, shoes 203 110,621 3,721 4,259 3.4 3.9
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 216 110,512 1,945 2,651 1.8 2.4
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 211 109,193 2,350 2,564 2.2 2.3
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 355 172,650 3,127 5,300 1.8 3.1
269 Sales workers, parts 287 143,858 7,269 11,683 5.1 8.1
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,647 1,337,101 50,985 63,383 3.8 4.7
275 Sales counter clerks 240 120,966 6,805 7,434 5.6 6.1
276 Cashiers 3,819 1,949,673 322,961 359,562 16.6 18.4
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 311 155,818 3,453 4,103 2.2 2.6
278 News vendors 160 78,242 1,702 4,236 2.2 5.4
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 45 22,262 3,153 3,153 14.2 14.2
284 Auctioneers 8 2,711 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 25 14,535 0 788 0.0 5.4
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INC. CLERICAL 31,089 15,789,498 2,363,028 2,945,429 15.0 18.7
303 Supervisors, general office 750 377,897 43,884 64,524 11.6 17.1
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 75 39,207 3,074 5,411 7.8 13.8
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 186 102,790 6,780 8,415 6.6 8.2
306 Chief communications operators 10 4,638 714 807 15.4 17.4
307 Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 282 149,727 33,761 40,321 22.5 26.9
308 Computer operators 1,095 582,058 82,105 102,715 14.1 17.6
309 Peripheral equipment operators 19 9,285 1,431 1,431 15.4 15.4
313 Secretaries 7,525 3,776,551 272,268 389,858 7.2 10.3
314 Stenographers 110 53,252 15,225 21,822 28.6 41.0
315 Typists 1,724 879,970 122,697 157,994 13.9 18.0
316 Interviewers 341 184,668 11,197 15,916 6.1 8.6
317 Hotel clerks 142 55,673 3,470 4,349 6.2 7.8
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 196 99,379 24,432 28,782 24.6 29.0
319 Receptionists 1,173 581,929 32,126 36,550 5.5 6.3
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 368 198,224 23,439 26,864 11.8 13.6
325 Classified-ad clerks 12 5,931 1,895 2,265 32.0 38.2
326 Correspondence clerks 33 17,582 1,180 2,293 6.7 13.0
327 Order clerks 329 170,080 53,933 66,825 31.7 39.3
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 112 55,124 9,846 14,528 17.9 26.4
329 Library clerks 298 150,020 17,351 26,208 11.6 17.5
335 File clerks 559 293,253 38,244 51,319 13.0 17.5
336 Records clerks 305 155,743 32,248 40,171 20.7 25.8
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 3,402 1,654,654 116,018 149,789 7.0 9.1
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 358 188,040 26,898 38,377 14.3 20.4
339 Billing clerks 273 137,671 20,606 25,825 15.0 18.8
343 Cost and rate clerks 184 95,642 14,627 16,946 15.3 17.7
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 102 54,818 4,823 5,543 8.8 10.1
345 Duplicating machine operators 36 19,862 2,525 3,744 12.7 18.8
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 16 7,713 4,044 4,044 52.4 52.4
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 68 35,444 2,476 3,017 7.0 8.5
348 Telephone operators 485 240,866 102,012 111,132 42.4 46.1
349 Telegraphers 15 4,435 2,986 3,418 67.3 77.1
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 11 5,744 0 0 0.0 0.0
354 Postal clerks, exc. mail carriers 517 249,766 186,926 217,650 74.8 87.1
355 Mail carriers, postal service 536 265,834 221,803 237,769 83.4 89.7
356 Mail clerks, exc. postal service 336 169,387 23,059 31,475 13.6 18.6
357 Messengers 228 120,397 12,388 14,035 10.3 11.7
359 Dispatchers 305 153,370 46,515 49,582 30.3 32.3
363 Production coordinators 331 182,334 32,995 41,783 18.1 22.9
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 787 427,938 138,639 149,181 32.4 34.9
365 Stock and inventory clerks 1,009 527,701 113,571 136,782 21.5 25.9
366 Meter readers 94 46,304 25,858 29,125 55.8 62.9
368 Weighers, measurers, and checkers 166 85,165 22,958 23,935 27.0 28.1
369 Samplers 2 1,038 0 0 0.0 0.0
373 Expediters 208 108,006 19,034 22,130 17.6 20.6
374 Material recording, scheduling, & distributing clerks, n.e.c. 58 32,667 5,237 7,976 16.0 24.4
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 360 195,471 8,337 12,883 4.3 6.6
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 579 307,612 33,560 43,500 10.9 14.1
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 140 67,399 15,814 20,762 23.5 30.8
378 Bill and account collectors 194 102,348 9,147 11,651 8.9 11.4
379 General office clerks 1,231 626,763 108,294 136,074 17.3 21.7
383 Bank tellers 957 480,557 10,577 16,822 2.2 3.5
384 Proofreaders 49 26,806 1,500 1,500 5.6 5.6
385 Data-entry keyers 587 310,809 31,255 43,756 10.1 14.1
386 Statistical clerks 168 89,757 20,099 23,318 22.4 26.0
387 Teachers aides 714 353,436 90,889 128,007 25.7 36.2
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 939 470,766 56,256 74,529 11.9 15.8
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD 1,983 964,385 1,440 2,010 0.1 0.2
403 Launderers and ironers 4 1,660 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 38 16,030 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 73 41,064 591 591 1.4 1.4
406 Child care workers, private household 876 408,540 849 1,419 0.2 0.3
407 Private household cleaners and servants 992 497,092 0 0 0.0 0.0
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PROTECTIVE SERVICE 3,181 1,673,647 653,013 745,682 39.0 44.6
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 58 31,573 23,808 26,139 75.4 82.8
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 110 58,628 31,514 35,777 53.8 61.0
415 Supervisors, guards 56 29,294 3,544 4,339 12.1 14.8
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 37 16,171 8,362 8,841 51.7 54.7
417 Firefighting occupations 349 173,483 135,832 141,815 78.3 81.7
418 Police and detectives, public service 791 421,033 229,632 262,313 54.5 62.3
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 185 89,222 36,512 42,982 40.9 48.2
424 Correctional institution officers 270 145,289 63,884 76,089 44.0 52.4
425 Crossing guards 86 47,825 8,076 10,955 16.9 22.9
426 Guards and police, exc. public service 1,094 591,207 106,521 128,916 18.0 21.8
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 145 69,923 5,330 7,515 7.6 10.7
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXC. PROTECTIVE & HOUSEHOLD 20,831 10,237,309 1,316,279 1,557,811 12.9 15.2
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 496 245,163 20,099 24,650 8.2 10.1
434 Bartenders 656 298,432 23,150 25,689 7.8 8.6
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,708 1,318,681 66,087 75,228 5.0 5.7
436 Cooks, except short order 2,667 1,278,702 92,386 114,368 7.2 8.9
437 Short-order cooks 200 99,913 3,294 4,136 3.3 4.2
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 641 324,848 9,241 10,073 2.8 3.1
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 259 129,592 17,665 20,498 13.6 15.8
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 699 360,019 40,999 47,343 11.4 13.2
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,343 652,064 78,066 94,165 12.0 14.5
445 Dental assistants 302 156,894 1,705 2,905 1.1 1.9
446 Health aides, except nursing 610 314,663 43,565 56,901 13.8 18.1
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,455 1,249,812 239,644 287,835 19.2 23.0
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 255 117,873 18,333 24,523 15.6 20.8
449 Maids and housemen 1,104 506,191 89,385 103,668 17.7 20.5
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,944 1,970,872 443,849 518,083 22.5 26.3
454 Elevator operators 29 13,644 6,729 6,729 49.3 49.3
455 Pest control occupations 58 29,956 1,711 2,915 5.7 9.7
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 91 45,832 1,339 1,921 2.9 4.2
457 Barbers 50 25,223 3,536 3,536 14.0 14.0
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 663 345,251 7,670 10,492 2.2 3.0
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 333 130,457 4,586 6,170 3.5 4.7
463 Guides 65 26,737 3,416 4,602 12.8 17.2
464 Ushers 48 24,837 4,006 4,006 16.1 16.1
465 Public transportation attendants 117 60,509 49,516 50,129 81.8 82.8
466 Baggage porters and bellhops 49 18,909 6,689 6,808 35.4 36.0
467 Welfare service aides 164 82,936 10,437 13,620 12.6 16.4
468 Child care workers, except private household 579 287,734 14,037 19,464 4.9 6.8
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 246 121,567 15,140 17,355 12.5 14.3
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 3,648 1,774,818 97,900 121,775 5.5 6.9
473 Farmers, except horticultural 23 9,638 467 467 4.8 4.8
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 78 40,774 0 0 0.0 0.0
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 6 2,661 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 70 36,978 1,933 3,762 5.2 10.2
479 Farm workers 1,881 885,971 29,586 31,506 3.3 3.6
483 Marine life cultivation workers 3 1,428 0 0 0.0 0.0
484 Nursery workers 36 18,029 320 320 1.8 1.8
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 132 70,258 3,256 6,309 4.6 9.0
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 976 510,439 48,813 63,104 9.6 12.4
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 151 77,045 2,468 3,416 3.2 4.4
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 23 11,247 1,868 1,868 16.6 16.6
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 1 640 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 13 6,490 538 595 8.3 9.2
495 Forestry workers, except logging 54 20,308 1,159 1,159 5.7 5.7
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 155 64,924 6,512 7,192 10.0 11.1
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 9 4,846 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 37 13,141 980 2,078 7.5 15.8
499 Hunters and trappers 0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 14,205 7,262,540 2,255,674 2,472,612 31.1 34.1
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 500 250,589 41,096 53,944 16.4 21.5
505 Automobile mechanics 1,172 613,494 82,670 92,335 13.5 15.1
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 5 2,911 729 1,412 25.1 48.5
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 575 273,861 96,440 103,833 35.2 37.9
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 179 88,867 49,604 54,612 55.8 61.5
509 Small engine repairers 106 52,482 6,391 7,631 12.2 14.5
514 Automobile body and related repairers 269 133,971 13,612 14,622 10.2 10.9
515 Aircraft mechanics, exc. engine 25 14,838 10,027 10,991 67.6 74.1
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 333 151,770 75,909 77,837 50.0 51.3
517 Farm equipment mechanics 98 42,119 2,401 2,401 5.7 5.7
518 Industry machinery repairers 955 505,009 216,905 234,186 43.0 46.4
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 71 31,421 15,714 16,441 50.0 52.3
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 240 128,072 25,287 29,327 19.7 22.9
525 Data processing equipment repairers 183 100,197 10,504 13,301 10.5 13.3
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 71 35,548 6,324 7,659 17.8 21.5
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 121 60,883 43,678 48,131 71.7 79.1
529 Telephone Installers and repairers 468 243,045 192,386 203,547 79.2 83.7
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 113 61,289 31,316 34,466 51.1 56.2
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 314 161,215 41,734 48,068 25.9 29.8
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 50 25,508 6,522 6,522 25.6 25.6
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 16 9,557 516 516 5.4 5.4
538 Office machine repairers 118 63,598 4,148 6,232 6.5 9.8
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 61 29,225 10,841 13,891 37.1 47.5
543 Elevator installers and repairers 43 22,317 17,289 17,817 77.5 79.8
544 Millwrights 182 94,099 68,283 69,553 72.6 73.9
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 611 304,152 95,841 101,667 31.5 33.4
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 318 161,643 52,648 56,672 32.6 35.1
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 120 46,929 1,589 2,592 3.4 5.5
614 Drillers, oil well 130 56,145 3,676 5,343 6.5 9.5
615 Explosives workers 19 6,665 3,175 3,175 47.6 47.6
616 Mining machine operators 90 31,658 20,473 21,682 64.7 68.6
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 101 39,265 15,751 17,470 40.1 44.5
633 Supervisors, production occupations 2,331 1,200,111 145,769 189,662 12.1 15.8
634 Tool and die makers 243 136,383 61,935 65,908 45.4 48.3
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 11 7,088 1,515 2,260 21.4 31.9
636 Precision assemblers, metal 10 6,101 4,255 4,255 69.7 69.7
637 Machinists 830 454,371 200,683 212,603 44.2 46.8
639 Machinist apprentices 11 5,153 2,562 2,562 49.7 49.7
643 Boilermakers 69 35,793 24,104 24,189 67.3 67.6
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 32 15,650 7,448 7,448 47.6 47.6
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 12 7,163 2,605 3,156 36.4 44.1
646 Lay-out workers 31 15,401 9,352 9,352 60.7 60.7
647 Precious stones and metals workers (jewelers) 52 22,655 2,924 3,514 12.9 15.5
649 Engravers, metal 20 10,271 1,957 2,535 19.1 24.7
653 Sheet metal workers 234 127,717 69,601 74,036 54.5 58.0
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 7 3,624 2,045 2,626 56.4 72.4
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 2 1,241 1,241 1,241 100.0 100.0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 6 3,382 0 0 0.0 0.0
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 49 26,048 7,102 7,756 27.3 29.8
658 Furniture and wood finishers 38 21,218 5,446 5,446 25.7 25.7
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 1 196 0 0 0.0 0.0
666 Dressmakers 117 59,192 10,406 10,406 17.6 17.6
667 Tailors 70 38,147 10,793 10,793 28.3 28.3
668 Upholsterers 61 35,417 2,939 3,601 8.3 10.4
669 Shoe repairers 38 17,593 1,672 1,672 9.5 9.5
673 Apparel and fabric patternmakers 1 193 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 4 2,885 0 806 0.0 27.9
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 24 10,899 2,837 2,837 26.0 26.0
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 39 22,683 6,541 7,124 28.8 31.4
677 Optical goods workers 88 43,334 4,876 4,876 11.3 11.3
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 67 33,892 3,867 3,867 11.4 11.4
679 Bookbinders 60 32,110 7,820 8,604 24.4 26.8
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 437 242,024 73,897 78,965 30.5 32.6
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 40 21,591 4,402 5,155 20.4 23.9
686 Butchers and meat cutters 538 259,055 106,907 115,599 41.3 44.6
687 Bakers 179 92,845 27,514 28,616 29.6 30.8
688 Food batchmakers 50 24,334 4,677 4,677 19.2 19.2
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 228 122,709 54,391 56,911 44.3 46.4
693 Adjusters and calibrators 20 11,340 5,319 6,005 46.9 53.0
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 72 33,926 13,635 15,263 40.2 45.0
695 Power plant operators 105 52,567 29,644 33,002 56.4 62.8
696 Stationary engineers 232 123,709 54,364 57,306 43.9 46.5
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 89 40,185 15,146 20,103 37.7 50.0
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 6,473 3,279,380 1,209,839 1,287,616 36.9 39.3
553 Supervisors; brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 9 4,732 757 1,280 16.0 27.0
554 Supervisors; carpenters and related workers 45 21,558 9,245 9,834 42.9 45.6
555 Supervisors; electricians and power transmission installers 70 33,601 15,465 18,372 46.0 54.7
556 Supervisors; painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 10 5,270 2,906 2,906 55.1 55.1
557 Supervisors; plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 27 14,484 6,880 7,257 47.5 50.1
558 Supervisors; n.e.c. 582 295,684 86,972 93,864 29.4 31.7
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 200 101,073 44,677 47,666 44.2 47.2
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 6 2,798 1,262 1,262 45.1 45.1
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 48 30,377 10,788 11,045 35.5 36.4
566 Carpet installers 93 51,097 8,760 9,385 17.1 18.4
567 Carpenters 1,580 784,458 215,312 230,579 27.4 29.5
569 Carpenter apprentices 18 9,805 3,848 5,066 39.2 51.7
573 Drywall installers 128 62,848 20,013 21,823 31.8 34.7
575 Electricians 1,049 531,547 289,108 304,671 54.4 57.4
576 Electrician apprentices 45 22,584 5,876 7,015 26.0 31.1
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 222 103,380 64,262 68,097 62.2 65.9
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 587 307,806 57,831 62,667 18.8 20.4
583 Paperhangers 23 11,988 1,359 1,359 11.3 11.3
584 Plasterers 49 28,325 8,872 9,104 31.3 32.1
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 721 365,636 179,209 184,852 49.0 50.6
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 29 13,871 4,971 4,971 35.8 35.8
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 121 55,777 17,607 19,245 31.6 34.5
589 Glaziers 64 34,930 14,178 14,178 40.6 40.6
593 Insulation workers 87 48,935 21,245 23,011 43.4 47.0
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 14 6,184 3,188 3,188 51.6 51.6
595 Roofers 169 98,633 18,481 18,481 18.7 18.7
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 49 24,727 8,676 9,041 35.1 36.6
597 Structural metal workers 113 56,480 39,808 41,329 70.5 73.2
598 Drillers, earth 27 11,332 2,529 2,529 22.3 22.3
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 288 139,461 45,754 53,540 32.8 38.4
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 14,180 7,536,748 2,783,597 2,972,966 36.9 39.4
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 57 30,030 17,654 19,362 58.8 64.5
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 134 78,543 28,606 30,563 36.4 38.9
705 Milling and planing machine operators 35 18,894 7,632 8,219 40.4 43.5
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 205 118,041 65,034 68,383 55.1 57.9
707 Rolling machine operators 37 20,119 14,990 15,590 74.5 77.5
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 53 34,627 16,723 17,375 48.3 50.2
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 263 148,881 73,782 77,557 49.6 52.1
713 Forging machine operators 31 16,107 12,779 12,779 79.3 79.3
714 Numerical control machine operators 3 1,826 674 674 36.9 36.9
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 74 40,852 19,449 22,177 47.6 54.3
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 51 30,392 10,308 10,876 33.9 35.8
719 Molding and casting machine operators 184 98,975 33,327 34,643 33.7 35.0
723 Metal plating machine operators 74 39,754 8,258 8,258 20.8 20.8
724 Heat treating equipment operators 30 15,669 9,049 9,593 57.7 61.2
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 27 14,211 5,947 6,183 41.8 43.5
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 28 11,112 1,472 1,554 13.2 14.0
727 Sawing machine operators 186 82,751 14,081 14,459 17.0 17.5
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 12 5,371 628 628 11.7 11.7
729 Nail and tacking machine operators 13 7,853 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 42 23,435 1,644 2,025 7.0 8.6
734 Printing machine operators 540 287,054 87,308 95,631 30.4 33.3
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 73 40,607 16,403 18,003 40.4 44.3
736 Typesetters and compositors 133 68,289 9,881 11,774 14.5 17.2
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 76 35,925 9,353 10,521 26.0 29.3
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 166 98,725 11,119 17,483 11.3 17.7
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 76 41,511 5,359 5,990 12.9 14.4
743 Textile cutting machine operators 12 4,841 2,014 2,014 41.6 41.6
744 Textile sewing machine operators 1,430 787,551 220,139 238,224 28.0 30.2
745 Shoe machine operators 211 80,919 24,512 25,400 30.3 31.4
747 Pressing machine operators 277 145,968 45,750 47,625 31.3 32.6
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 336 153,781 24,001 25,302 15.6 16.5
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 132 75,727 13,439 14,264 17.7 18.8
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 71 41,046 14,612 18,195 35.6 44.3
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 736 387,038 148,440 158,332 38.4 40.9
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 55 28,721 11,683 11,683 40.7 40.7
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 201 114,143 41,368 45,611 36.2 40.0
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 129 64,434 36,233 38,993 56.2 60.5
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 42 24,915 10,725 10,994 43.0 44.1
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 329 186,283 59,005 61,256 31.7 32.9
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 9 4,854 3,519 4,247 72.5 87.5
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 22 10,252 3,464 3,464 33.8 33.8
765 Folding machine operators 41 22,559 8,807 9,844 39.0 43.6
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, exc. food 212 104,574 64,979 69,035 62.1 66.0
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 91 42,914 13,789 14,998 32.1 34.9
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 346 188,551 74,355 77,900 39.4 41.3
773 Motion picture projectionists 19 10,816 5,181 5,181 47.9 47.9
774 Photographic process machine operators 161 83,418 5,361 6,005 6.4 7.2
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,594 853,673 388,006 407,643 45.5 47.8
779 Machine operators, not specified 565 291,734 126,818 137,140 43.5 47.0
783 Welders and cutters 1,002 517,850 230,466 247,307 44.5 47.8
784 Solderers and brazers 71 37,431 8,962 9,639 23.9 25.8
785 Assemblers 1,660 906,919 385,585 403,740 42.5 44.5
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 44 19,314 5,291 6,677 27.4 34.6
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 37 18,690 8,029 8,137 43.0 43.5
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 57 26,848 7,751 8,141 28.9 30.3
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 28 13,885 2,584 2,584 18.6 18.6
794 Hand grinding and polishing occupations 9 5,385 581 581 10.8 10.8
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 119 59,647 10,834 10,834 18.2 18.2
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 1,194 640,976 237,829 259,256 37.1 40.4
797 Production testers 103 55,096 16,943 19,652 30.8 35.7
798 Production samplers and weighers 20 9,156 2,620 2,896 28.6 31.6
799 Graders and sorters, exc. agricultural 212 107,284 38,463 39,871 35.9 37.2
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,708 3,821,706 1,469,969 1,577,218 38.5 41.3
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 60 31,808 7,978 7,978 25.1 25.1
804 Truck drivers, heavy 3,085 1,532,089 545,534 583,595 35.6 38.1
805 Truck drivers, light 776 397,007 80,995 88,383 20.4 22.3
806 Driver-sales workers 352 178,318 69,164 71,022 38.8 39.8
808 Bus drivers 718 359,366 145,325 168,116 40.4 46.8
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 216 108,772 15,527 18,129 14.3 16.7
813 Parking lot attendants 81 43,438 12,413 12,899 28.6 29.7
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 6 2,164 369 369 17.1 17.1
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 67 31,074 29,779 29,779 95.8 95.8
824 Locomotive operating occupations 140 61,202 54,991 57,365 89.9 93.7
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 115 50,578 47,956 49,183 94.8 97.2
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 17 8,452 7,683 7,683 90.9 90.9
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 61 29,580 9,278 10,559 31.4 35.7
829 Sailors and deckhands 33 17,266 7,913 10,563 45.8 61.2
833 Marine engineers 1 572 572 572 100.0 100.0
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 11 4,121 1,576 1,576 38.2 38.2
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 23 11,380 1,635 2,272 14.4 20.0
844 Operating engineers 297 141,312 65,598 71,727 46.4 50.8
845 Longshore equipment operators 4 2,967 2,967 2,967 100.0 100.0
848 Hoist and winch operators 75 26,812 3,057 3,881 11.4 14.5
849 Crane and tower operators 177 92,634 68,970 70,613 74.5 76.2
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 181 76,265 26,428 27,970 34.7 36.7
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 224 100,757 25,828 29,324 25.6 29.1
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 680 368,130 175,181 182,069 47.6 49.5
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 308 145,643 63,250 68,623 43.4 47.3
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, & LABORERS 7,844 4,057,987 1,198,423 1,288,494 29.5 31.8
863 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, & laborers, n.e.c. 11 6,658 917 917 13.8 13.8
864 Helpers, mechanics and repairers 61 31,088 10,589 10,750 34.1 34.6
865 Helpers, construction trades 268 148,846 22,959 26,108 15.4 17.5
866 Helpers, surveyor 20 10,186 1,102 1,102 10.8 10.8
867 Helpers, extractive occupations 5 2,830 1,311 1,311 46.3 46.3
869 Construction laborers 1,170 591,144 181,987 197,172 30.8 33.4
873 Production helpers 138 73,812 31,763 35,046 43.0 47.5
875 Garbage collectors 113 62,574 21,639 23,173 34.6 37.0
876 Stevedores 50 27,342 24,130 24,265 88.3 88.7
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,559 809,783 213,850 232,939 26.4 28.8
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 160 83,197 35,787 37,781 43.0 45.4
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 926 488,169 190,795 201,808 39.1 41.4
885 Garage and service station related occupations 559 272,546 14,216 16,543 5.2 6.1
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 336 170,963 34,881 37,590 20.4 22.0
888 Hand packers and packagers 528 277,991 78,251 81,908 28.1 29.5
889 Laborers, except construction 1,940 1,000,858 334,247 360,079 33.4 36.0
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1983. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1980 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.