Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1984 (details in table note)
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, & MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 17,738 9,313,316 590,300 842,051 6.3 9.0
3 Legislators 25 8,544 624 1,140 7.3 13.3
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public admin. 37 17,332 1,022 3,307 5.9 19.1
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 921 432,659 65,637 96,829 15.2 22.4
6 Administrators, protective services 84 44,435 7,793 9,364 17.5 21.1
7 Financial managers 648 349,660 5,326 8,583 1.5 2.5
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 205 105,356 2,374 4,153 2.3 3.9
9 Purchasing managers 148 85,123 845 2,328 1.0 2.7
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 620 341,930 4,788 11,852 1.4 3.5
14 Administrators, education and related fields 833 411,627 71,241 103,466 17.3 25.1
15 Managers, medicine and health 184 93,209 9,786 13,195 10.5 14.2
16 Managers, properties and real estate 399 214,400 11,001 13,738 5.1 6.4
17 Postmasters and mail superintendents 85 31,338 12,706 15,508 40.5 49.5
18 Funeral directors 38 21,303 637 637 3.0 3.0
19 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 8,021 4,235,965 181,189 253,807 4.3 6.0
23 Accountants and auditors 2,066 1,114,540 66,909 91,447 6.0 8.2
24 Underwriters 94 51,692 0 0 0.0 0.0
25 Other financial officers 972 515,048 16,605 29,872 3.2 5.8
26 Management analysts 121 59,274 1,666 5,698 2.8 9.6
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 591 316,883 28,964 40,747 9.1 12.9
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 26 11,107 602 912 5.4 8.2
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 310 168,781 3,207 5,637 1.9 3.3
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 396 219,374 15,298 22,753 7.0 10.4
34 Business and promotion agents 88 43,083 5,267 5,908 12.2 13.7
35 Construction inspectors 107 58,705 15,950 19,120 27.2 32.6
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, exc. construction 323 158,136 43,274 58,785 27.4 37.2
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 396 203,812 17,589 23,266 8.6 11.4
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS 14,632 7,600,367 945,382 1,242,072 12.4 16.3
43 Architects 122 57,581 2,940 3,651 5.1 6.3
44 Aerospace engineers 121 74,593 10,507 14,323 14.1 19.2
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 44 23,437 2,967 4,325 12.7 18.5
46 Mining engineers 14 4,772 140 140 2.9 2.9
47 Petroleum engineers 62 31,608 0 420 0.0 1.3
48 Chemical engineers 109 56,256 1,412 1,525 2.5 2.7
49 Nuclear engineers 31 16,686 417 417 2.5 2.5
53 Civil engineers 430 211,445 29,945 36,455 14.2 17.2
54 Agricultural engineers 14 7,522 0 649 0.0 8.6
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 866 477,513 34,124 52,188 7.1 10.9
56 Industrial engineers 360 196,237 15,437 23,564 7.9 12.0
57 Mechanical engineers 437 251,843 14,747 24,711 5.9 9.8
58 Marine and naval architects engineers 39 19,774 7,320 7,945 37.0 40.2
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 341 191,989 12,559 15,408 6.5 8.0
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 43 21,222 3,058 3,058 14.4 14.4
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 519 294,642 16,389 27,166 5.6 9.2
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 267 142,073 8,329 19,843 5.9 14.0
66 Actuaries 24 13,811 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 55 29,235 3,953 5,358 13.5 18.3
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 18 8,397 543 543 6.5 6.5
69 Physicists and astronomers 60 29,415 780 3,257 2.7 11.1
73 Chemists, except biochemists 192 98,855 8,868 10,381 9.0 10.5
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 24 12,901 536 536 4.2 4.2
75 Geologists and geodesists 96 43,838 1,434 3,159 3.3 7.2
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 25 12,339 1,235 1,861 10.0 15.1
77 Agricultural and food scientists 45 19,347 2,017 2,997 10.4 15.5
78 Biological and life scientists 136 58,917 7,458 11,520 12.7 19.6
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 85 31,050 4,650 5,933 15.0 19.1
83 Medical scientists 55 30,426 3,499 4,182 11.5 13.7
84 Physicians 439 238,065 19,915 28,544 8.4 12.0
85 Dentists 33 17,548 2,174 2,174 12.4 12.4
86 Veterinarians 28 14,719 516 1,041 3.5 7.1
87 Optometrists 7 3,637 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 6 4,008 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 6 3,760 765 765 20.4 20.4
95 Registered nurses 2,709 1,379,645 229,232 295,211 16.6 21.4
96 Pharmacists 241 131,411 10,472 14,146 8.0 10.8
97 Dietitians 127 61,377 3,909 6,759 6.4 11.1
98 Inhalation therapists 124 61,756 7,370 11,118 11.9 18.0
99 Occupational therapists 39 20,677 5,213 6,482 25.2 31.3
103 Physical therapists 116 58,408 2,810 5,994 4.8 10.3
104 Speech therapists 107 51,509 22,620 29,298 43.9 56.9
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 81 39,770 7,770 10,634 19.5 26.7
106 Physicians' assistants 86 45,281 10,795 13,439 23.8 29.7
163 Counselors, educational and vocational 388 188,811 70,772 86,102 37.5 45.7
164 Librarians 418 207,463 57,649 75,340 27.8 36.3
165 Archivists and curators 32 13,763 821 2,344 6.0 17.0
166 Economists 202 109,619 3,737 5,839 3.4 5.3
167 Psychologists 199 102,839 27,309 30,682 26.6 29.8
168 Sociologists 1 454 454 454 100.0 100.0
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 31 10,558 406 846 3.8 8.0
173 Urban planners 27 16,382 1,560 3,764 9.5 23.0
174 Social workers 810 420,773 111,084 134,706 26.4 32.0
175 Recreation workers 134 65,192 4,647 7,719 7.1 11.8
176 Clergy 514 256,090 2,911 3,000 1.1 1.2
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 119 62,043 768 1,528 1.2 2.5
178 Lawyers 633 331,426 13,819 20,203 4.2 6.1
179 Judges 64 28,722 2,672 3,884 9.3 13.5
183 Authors 25 13,751 442 907 3.2 6.6
184 Technical writers 92 49,667 4,029 6,319 8.1 12.7
185 Designers 585 321,322 20,104 22,217 6.3 6.9
186 Musicians and composers 170 88,257 25,484 27,373 28.9 31.0
187 Actors and directors 110 56,457 12,755 15,816 22.6 28.0
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist print-makers 175 93,090 11,989 13,413 12.9 14.4
189 Photographers 132 74,966 11,554 13,354 15.4 17.8
193 Dancers 20 10,658 1,447 1,447 13.6 13.6
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 63 30,325 2,499 3,642 8.2 12.0
195 Editors and reporters 422 203,616 20,518 26,439 10.1 13.0
197 Public relations specialists 274 138,537 8,561 12,304 6.2 8.9
198 Announcers 108 51,791 3,407 3,786 6.6 7.3
199 Athletes 101 54,500 5,159 7,524 9.5 13.8
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,248 612,617 105,318 143,690 17.2 23.5
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 14 7,102 653 1,677 9.2 23.6
114 Biological science teachers 54 26,498 5,103 6,702 19.3 25.3
115 Chemistry teachers 27 12,654 0 1,210 0.0 9.6
116 Physics teachers 21 8,212 1,567 2,249 19.1 27.4
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 3 1,312 0 104 0.0 8.0
118 Psychology teachers 39 18,523 4,920 6,146 26.6 33.2
119 Economics teachers 36 18,350 1,854 3,743 10.1 20.4
123 History teachers 39 18,827 2,523 2,523 13.4 13.4
124 Political science teachers 14 5,921 864 1,533 14.6 25.9
125 Sociology teachers 19 9,315 3,389 3,389 36.4 36.4
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 10 4,222 1,059 1,059 25.1 25.1
127 Engineering teachers 72 36,509 7,654 11,013 21.0 30.2
128 Mathematical science teachers 85 43,436 7,191 10,184 16.6 23.4
129 Computer science teachers 25 11,078 2,146 2,794 19.4 25.2
133 Medical science teachers 15 8,735 0 628 0.0 7.2
134 Health specialties teachers 90 43,957 6,436 10,980 14.6 25.0
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 62 29,015 4,440 6,289 15.3 21.7
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 13 4,841 663 1,069 13.7 22.1
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 81 40,383 7,329 10,306 18.1 25.5
138 Physical education teachers 22 8,935 2,459 2,938 27.5 32.9
139 Education teachers 16 5,194 503 970 9.7 18.7
143 English teachers 80 41,803 7,348 9,458 17.6 22.6
144 Foreign language teachers 30 17,437 1,511 2,895 8.7 16.6
145 Law teachers 13 5,953 807 807 13.6 13.6
146 Social work teachers 4 1,554 453 453 29.2 29.2
147 Theology teachers 24 12,052 1,287 1,871 10.7 15.5
148 Trade and industrial teachers 7 3,508 1,318 1,318 37.6 37.6
149 Home economics teachers 11 4,918 154 1,524 3.1 31.0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 15 6,691 1,394 1,394 20.8 20.8
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 307 155,682 30,294 36,466 19.5 23.4
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,632 3,290,739 1,637,938 1,967,441 49.8 59.8
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 614 325,799 74,777 96,978 23.0 29.8
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,668 1,317,090 748,044 885,409 56.8 67.3
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,461 1,215,289 698,599 836,773 57.5 68.9
158 Teachers, special education 365 175,809 90,589 116,625 51.5 66.3
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 524 256,752 25,929 31,655 10.1 12.3
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 5,877 3,089,189 375,642 481,906 12.2 15.6
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 525 280,246 25,226 34,911 9.0 12.5
204 Dental hygienists 116 57,996 2,105 2,105 3.6 3.6
205 Health record technologists and technicians 79 39,214 5,435 6,519 13.9 16.6
206 Radiologic technicians 206 111,147 12,211 16,526 11.0 14.9
207 Licensed practical nurses 790 412,100 61,101 77,349 14.8 18.8
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 373 198,757 24,171 31,751 12.2 16.0
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 503 260,372 41,695 51,029 16.0 19.6
214 Industrial engineering technicians 19 9,824 3,060 4,256 31.1 43.3
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 20 11,402 1,273 1,273 11.2 11.2
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 381 197,972 31,925 41,586 16.1 21.0
217 Drafting occupations 538 298,445 29,691 36,494 9.9 12.2
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 120 59,061 7,841 9,286 13.3 15.7
223 Biological technicians 108 50,660 5,197 5,808 10.3 11.5
224 Chemical technicians 139 71,132 10,744 12,036 15.1 16.9
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 134 67,832 7,225 10,699 10.7 15.8
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 133 68,262 26,557 27,415 38.9 40.2
227 Air traffic controllers 60 27,671 5,973 9,821 21.6 35.5
228 Broadcast equipment operators 54 26,542 6,939 9,083 26.1 34.2
229 Computer programmers 922 494,771 31,621 50,043 6.4 10.1
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 5 2,797 512 512 18.3 18.3
234 Legal assistants 250 128,188 6,398 8,002 5.0 6.2
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 402 214,796 28,741 35,403 13.4 16.5
SALES OCCUPATIONS 18,797 9,915,957 625,474 738,448 6.3 7.4
243 Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 3,707 1,989,513 121,348 146,099 6.1 7.3
253 Insurance sales occupations 726 387,742 11,032 19,725 2.8 5.1
254 Real estate sales occupations 625 331,095 8,777 12,669 2.7 3.8
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 331 182,708 1,962 3,082 1.1 1.7
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 220 115,955 4,453 5,347 3.8 4.6
257 Sales occupations, other business services 715 390,978 18,122 23,979 4.6 6.1
258 Sales engineers 48 28,915 566 1,126 2.0 3.9
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,313 1,259,335 34,106 48,523 2.7 3.9
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 413 218,491 1,492 2,938 0.7 1.3
264 Sales workers, apparel 815 410,256 9,737 12,865 2.4 3.1
265 Sales workers, shoes 225 121,339 6,055 6,055 5.0 5.0
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 242 132,063 1,144 2,989 0.9 2.3
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 271 147,855 3,319 5,320 2.2 3.6
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 382 190,501 4,306 6,645 2.3 3.5
269 Sales workers, parts 295 143,699 10,930 11,243 7.6 7.8
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,599 1,333,477 49,560 61,795 3.7 4.6
275 Sales counter clerks 221 117,906 3,746 3,981 3.2 3.4
276 Cashiers 4,075 2,127,082 327,388 354,662 15.4 16.7
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 316 158,049 1,656 2,502 1.0 1.6
278 News vendors 187 90,477 3,729 4,400 4.1 4.9
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 44 21,974 2,048 2,048 9.3 9.3
284 Auctioneers 4 1,342 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 23 15,203 0 454 0.0 3.0
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INC. CLERICAL 31,096 16,129,749 2,256,370 2,806,099 14.0 17.4
303 Supervisors, general office 729 371,467 38,369 49,811 10.3 13.4
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 67 35,689 1,203 3,057 3.4 8.6
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 140 76,276 4,596 7,353 6.0 9.6
306 Chief communications operators 12 5,944 1,659 2,040 27.9 34.3
307 Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 265 147,548 41,453 48,082 28.1 32.6
308 Computer operators 1,329 718,473 86,303 106,761 12.0 14.9
309 Peripheral equipment operators 6 2,629 213 213 8.1 8.1
313 Secretaries 7,478 3,802,246 286,028 391,844 7.5 10.3
314 Stenographers 92 48,822 12,967 15,681 26.6 32.1
315 Typists 1,688 866,547 113,420 149,679 13.1 17.3
316 Interviewers 344 179,123 14,252 20,747 8.0 11.6
317 Hotel clerks 176 81,869 2,735 2,926 3.3 3.6
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 191 95,758 22,983 25,576 24.0 26.7
319 Receptionists 1,284 657,227 26,286 37,757 4.0 5.7
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 355 191,723 19,133 25,189 10.0 13.1
325 Classified-ad clerks 13 6,904 1,382 1,727 20.0 25.0
326 Correspondence clerks 32 17,085 2,502 3,723 14.6 21.8
327 Order clerks 341 178,019 58,396 73,270 32.8 41.2
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 133 67,416 4,378 7,400 6.5 11.0
329 Library clerks 244 125,286 18,580 22,982 14.8 18.3
335 File clerks 576 305,082 31,672 45,496 10.4 14.9
336 Records clerks 276 139,191 30,078 32,961 21.6 23.7
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 3,393 1,712,005 85,427 111,373 5.0 6.5
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 324 168,692 25,949 32,097 15.4 19.0
339 Billing clerks 272 145,470 21,704 25,873 14.9 17.8
343 Cost and rate clerks 151 78,701 13,456 14,696 17.1 18.7
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 69 34,564 5,307 5,307 15.4 15.4
345 Duplicating machine operators 38 21,196 3,248 4,753 15.3 22.4
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 14 7,837 2,076 2,076 26.5 26.5
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 79 42,065 2,223 2,807 5.3 6.7
348 Telephone operators 438 222,745 89,503 99,426 40.2 44.6
349 Telegraphers 9 4,695 946 946 20.1 20.1
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 8 3,353 0 0 0.0 0.0
354 Postal clerks, exc. mail carriers 493 263,160 207,579 234,575 78.9 89.1
355 Mail carriers, postal service 480 247,258 193,981 214,411 78.5 87.0
356 Mail clerks, exc. postal service 326 178,387 27,210 36,375 15.3 20.4
357 Messengers 217 119,046 7,698 9,953 6.5 8.4
359 Dispatchers 331 164,840 34,018 38,971 20.6 23.6
363 Production coordinators 343 186,646 26,053 37,346 14.0 20.0
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 796 435,926 106,907 119,507 24.5 27.4
365 Stock and inventory clerks 1,004 536,584 116,678 134,232 21.7 25.0
366 Meter readers 86 45,857 20,528 24,669 44.8 53.8
368 Weighers, measurers, and checkers 134 65,244 18,557 20,455 28.4 31.4
369 Samplers 1 669 669 669 100.0 100.0
373 Expediters 244 126,793 19,342 21,836 15.3 17.2
374 Material recording, scheduling, & distributing clerks, n.e.c. 55 31,650 4,398 4,398 13.9 13.9
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 363 202,162 8,715 12,443 4.3 6.2
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 572 306,485 29,360 42,403 9.6 13.8
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 134 70,132 17,442 22,711 24.9 32.4
378 Bill and account collectors 161 84,508 11,253 14,234 13.3 16.8
379 General office clerks 1,170 620,712 101,302 118,940 16.3 19.2
383 Bank tellers 947 488,612 11,102 17,811 2.3 3.6
384 Proofreaders 55 30,422 3,773 4,511 12.4 14.8
385 Data-entry keyers 635 357,134 41,981 57,967 11.8 16.2
386 Statistical clerks 184 92,277 16,096 24,195 17.4 26.2
387 Teachers aides 698 348,905 91,550 126,373 26.2 36.2
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,101 564,692 71,751 93,484 12.7 16.6
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD 2,007 1,008,830 5,791 6,341 0.6 0.6
403 Launderers and ironers 7 2,616 518 518 19.8 19.8
404 Cooks, private household 41 24,961 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 62 33,691 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 811 389,452 1,566 2,116 0.4 0.5
407 Private household cleaners and servants 1,086 558,111 3,707 3,707 0.7 0.7
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PROTECTIVE SERVICE 3,078 1,658,651 641,183 729,139 38.7 44.0
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 66 33,698 24,565 25,281 72.9 75.0
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 136 68,197 29,032 35,775 42.6 52.5
415 Supervisors, guards 64 35,621 3,159 3,159 8.9 8.9
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 39 19,929 9,031 9,162 45.3 46.0
417 Firefighting occupations 305 161,159 126,801 134,787 78.7 83.6
418 Police and detectives, public service 765 419,125 244,178 280,393 58.3 66.9
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 168 83,589 28,523 33,479 34.1 40.1
424 Correctional institution officers 283 164,872 73,165 81,696 44.4 49.6
425 Crossing guards 69 33,547 4,886 6,111 14.6 18.2
426 Guards and police, exc. public service 1,076 589,417 95,273 115,295 16.2 19.6
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 107 49,497 2,569 4,001 5.2 8.1
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXC. PROTECTIVE & HOUSEHOLD 20,829 10,398,450 1,324,545 1,507,107 12.7 14.5
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 490 245,439 19,904 23,668 8.1 9.6
434 Bartenders 644 307,034 22,517 24,741 7.3 8.1
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,745 1,362,253 73,024 79,400 5.4 5.8
436 Cooks, except short order 2,719 1,341,309 112,044 134,832 8.4 10.1
437 Short-order cooks 194 87,291 5,171 5,734 5.9 6.6
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 695 365,970 8,090 8,879 2.2 2.4
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 275 146,454 11,447 12,559 7.8 8.6
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 709 351,772 33,981 42,392 9.7 12.1
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,324 633,668 68,248 83,344 10.8 13.2
445 Dental assistants 320 167,812 2,483 4,880 1.5 2.9
446 Health aides, except nursing 684 347,273 57,127 66,201 16.5 19.1
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,389 1,215,017 219,926 255,850 18.1 21.1
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 233 118,027 18,370 23,140 15.6 19.6
449 Maids and housemen 1,100 523,898 97,042 107,389 18.5 20.5
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,839 1,926,139 450,935 492,130 23.4 25.6
454 Elevator operators 30 14,368 8,473 9,040 59.0 62.9
455 Pest control occupations 56 30,418 1,437 2,050 4.7 6.7
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 83 40,216 1,451 1,644 3.6 4.1
457 Barbers 57 33,574 3,902 3,902 11.6 11.6
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 722 382,728 5,843 7,981 1.5 2.1
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 292 121,526 6,326 9,003 5.2 7.4
463 Guides 51 25,201 3,338 3,687 13.2 14.6
464 Ushers 31 16,471 3,664 3,664 22.2 22.2
465 Public transportation attendants 120 66,023 46,848 48,656 71.0 73.7
466 Baggage porters and bellhops 40 16,780 3,306 3,988 19.7 23.8
467 Welfare service aides 158 77,789 7,493 9,343 9.6 12.0
468 Child care workers, except private household 604 328,063 19,430 24,973 5.9 7.6
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 225 105,936 12,725 14,038 12.0 13.3
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 3,505 1,775,379 98,457 113,606 5.5 6.4
473 Farmers, except horticultural 25 12,190 0 0 0.0 0.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 2 859 0 0 0.0 0.0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 83 42,267 0 0 0.0 0.0
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 17 8,902 2,042 2,042 22.9 22.9
477 Supervisors, farm workers 78 47,478 2,266 3,156 4.8 6.6
479 Farm workers 1,767 880,815 18,967 22,958 2.2 2.6
483 Marine life cultivation workers 1 118 118 118 100.0 100.0
484 Nursery workers 45 23,615 1,323 1,323 5.6 5.6
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 132 77,262 2,707 5,624 3.5 7.3
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 984 517,839 55,448 60,772 10.7 11.7
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 121 62,446 3,812 3,812 6.1 6.1
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 25 11,953 0 444 0.0 3.7
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 3 1,409 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 13 4,117 931 1,119 22.6 27.2
495 Forestry workers, except logging 29 8,647 599 1,320 6.9 15.3
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 130 55,244 8,702 9,268 15.8 16.8
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 3 1,121 0 110 0.0 9.8
498 Fishers 44 18,305 1,543 1,543 8.4 8.4
499 Hunters and trappers 3 791 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 14,529 7,696,044 2,214,355 2,430,122 28.8 31.6
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 475 245,210 30,870 42,539 12.6 17.3
505 Automobile mechanics 1,277 677,401 76,058 81,924 11.2 12.1
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 9 4,995 0 0 0.0 0.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 634 330,309 118,468 127,099 35.9 38.5
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 164 85,813 34,202 42,728 39.9 49.8
509 Small engine repairers 98 49,185 5,304 6,669 10.8 13.6
514 Automobile body and related repairers 255 138,483 9,506 10,189 6.9 7.4
515 Aircraft mechanics, exc. engine 17 7,811 4,845 5,539 62.0 70.9
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 323 152,654 80,249 81,631 52.6 53.5
517 Farm equipment mechanics 88 39,124 1,984 1,984 5.1 5.1
518 Industry machinery repairers 952 531,315 219,074 237,044 41.2 44.6
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 68 29,277 13,415 14,046 45.8 48.0
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 251 134,399 24,673 31,072 18.4 23.1
525 Data processing equipment repairers 186 101,309 13,070 14,764 12.9 14.6
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 72 38,593 8,086 8,539 21.0 22.1
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 111 57,782 47,617 50,022 82.4 86.6
529 Telephone Installers and repairers 429 238,019 182,940 195,204 76.9 82.0
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 112 64,671 28,714 31,190 44.4 48.2
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 345 189,725 49,941 55,091 26.3 29.0
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 39 19,395 2,808 2,808 14.5 14.5
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 24 14,639 2,225 2,225 15.2 15.2
538 Office machine repairers 105 57,019 4,463 5,888 7.8 10.3
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 48 25,763 11,594 12,194 45.0 47.3
543 Elevator installers and repairers 40 21,387 13,818 14,353 64.6 67.1
544 Millwrights 176 88,774 62,175 64,496 70.0 72.7
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 682 364,804 96,087 108,902 26.3 29.9
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 261 133,997 48,497 50,904 36.2 38.0
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 123 51,141 2,612 4,298 5.1 8.4
614 Drillers, oil well 127 54,015 2,288 2,332 4.2 4.3
615 Explosives workers 23 8,697 2,692 2,692 31.0 31.0
616 Mining machine operators 96 36,174 22,930 23,899 63.4 66.1
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 102 37,002 13,235 13,679 35.8 37.0
633 Supervisors, production occupations 2,442 1,307,109 176,684 221,149 13.5 16.9
634 Tool and die makers 225 130,412 62,978 65,641 48.3 50.3
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 6 3,428 662 662 19.3 19.3
636 Precision assemblers, metal 14 8,942 3,881 3,881 43.4 43.4
637 Machinists 906 500,720 191,357 200,144 38.2 40.0
639 Machinist apprentices 12 7,096 0 672 0.0 9.5
643 Boilermakers 64 33,653 23,028 24,706 68.4 73.4
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 43 22,788 11,934 12,594 52.4 55.3
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 12 7,169 3,167 3,167 44.2 44.2
646 Lay-out workers 25 13,485 4,757 5,811 35.3 43.1
647 Precious stones and metals workers (jewelers) 47 23,079 792 792 3.4 3.4
649 Engravers, metal 21 11,939 1,246 1,246 10.4 10.4
653 Sheet metal workers 220 119,071 55,136 59,405 46.3 49.9
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 7 4,398 2,348 2,951 53.4 67.1
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 4 1,503 288 288 19.2 19.2
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 16 8,699 2,989 3,640 34.4 41.8
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 59 29,705 7,424 7,807 25.0 26.3
658 Furniture and wood finishers 51 30,703 1,287 1,287 4.2 4.2
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 2 1,254 1,254 1,254 100.0 100.0
666 Dressmakers 112 53,058 7,166 7,845 13.5 14.8
667 Tailors 64 33,071 6,727 7,556 20.3 22.8
668 Upholsterers 78 46,298 6,396 6,646 13.8 14.4
669 Shoe repairers 26 12,653 990 1,822 7.8 14.4
673 Apparel and fabric patternmakers 1 752 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 6 3,207 682 682 21.3 21.3
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 23 11,636 3,473 3,978 29.8 34.2
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 41 22,144 5,721 5,921 25.8 26.7
677 Optical goods workers 102 53,038 2,508 2,975 4.7 5.6
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 63 37,487 249 704 0.7 1.9
679 Bookbinders 65 37,449 12,267 13,064 32.8 34.9
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 632 351,536 94,291 101,934 26.8 29.0
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 36 21,914 6,498 6,498 29.7 29.7
686 Butchers and meat cutters 495 247,049 85,180 92,406 34.5 37.4
687 Bakers 167 87,609 26,191 27,397 29.9 31.3
688 Food batchmakers 69 37,042 10,418 10,418 28.1 28.1
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 205 111,785 47,524 52,350 42.5 46.8
693 Adjusters and calibrators 17 12,985 6,246 7,075 48.1 54.5
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 73 38,141 15,603 18,181 40.9 47.7
695 Power plant operators 103 51,919 31,276 33,981 60.2 65.5
696 Stationary engineers 196 100,436 46,813 50,923 46.6 50.7
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 67 30,801 12,483 14,720 40.5 47.8
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 6,683 3,491,658 1,150,646 1,211,169 33.0 34.7
553 Supervisors; brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 11 5,482 3,975 3,975 72.5 72.5
554 Supervisors; carpenters and related workers 39 15,702 6,243 6,428 39.8 40.9
555 Supervisors; electricians and power transmission installers 67 36,771 11,735 13,433 31.9 36.5
556 Supervisors; painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 8 4,254 1,766 1,766 41.5 41.5
557 Supervisors; plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 26 16,417 7,503 7,503 45.7 45.7
558 Supervisors; n.e.c. 610 320,826 89,207 94,173 27.8 29.4
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 205 110,221 40,999 42,010 37.2 38.1
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 4 2,816 666 666 23.7 23.7
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 46 24,800 7,237 7,864 29.2 31.7
566 Carpet installers 106 56,728 9,908 9,908 17.5 17.5
567 Carpenters 1,749 894,290 204,471 215,050 22.9 24.0
569 Carpenter apprentices 16 8,930 2,208 2,208 24.7 24.7
573 Drywall installers 162 88,280 20,004 20,703 22.7 23.5
575 Electricians 1,042 550,309 279,186 294,073 50.7 53.5
576 Electrician apprentices 45 24,879 12,170 14,071 48.9 56.6
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 217 104,487 61,385 65,476 58.7 62.7
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 546 288,707 53,756 60,140 18.6 20.8
583 Paperhangers 21 10,124 2,575 2,843 25.4 28.1
584 Plasterers 49 28,262 9,579 9,797 33.9 34.7
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 697 361,742 165,495 172,099 45.7 47.6
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 33 17,339 3,687 3,687 21.3 21.3
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 138 74,175 21,323 21,662 28.7 29.2
589 Glaziers 61 29,629 7,784 7,784 26.3 26.3
593 Insulation workers 101 52,773 16,615 18,301 31.5 34.7
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 16 7,153 3,334 3,334 46.6 46.6
595 Roofers 237 135,417 27,202 27,202 20.1 20.1
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 53 29,222 11,764 13,319 40.3 45.6
597 Structural metal workers 101 54,014 30,332 32,583 56.2 60.3
598 Drillers, earth 24 11,006 2,253 2,253 20.5 20.5
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 253 126,902 36,284 36,857 28.6 29.0
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 14,383 7,797,767 2,760,934 2,926,787 35.4 37.5
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 52 28,922 15,465 17,289 53.5 59.8
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 149 86,493 28,138 29,448 32.5 34.0
705 Milling and planing machine operators 23 12,260 3,044 3,460 24.8 28.2
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 213 121,485 66,448 69,357 54.7 57.1
707 Rolling machine operators 29 16,721 11,181 11,836 66.9 70.8
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 56 28,728 16,076 16,361 56.0 56.9
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 249 137,293 57,936 62,472 42.2 45.5
713 Forging machine operators 37 20,083 11,738 11,738 58.4 58.4
714 Numerical control machine operators 5 2,475 233 233 9.4 9.4
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 57 31,856 16,555 17,195 52.0 54.0
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 46 24,507 10,960 11,102 44.7 45.3
719 Molding and casting machine operators 174 92,688 32,714 32,912 35.3 35.5
723 Metal plating machine operators 60 34,482 8,959 9,674 26.0 28.1
724 Heat treating equipment operators 29 17,323 8,319 8,964 48.0 51.7
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 24 12,804 5,611 6,258 43.8 48.9
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 23 10,348 425 481 4.1 4.6
727 Sawing machine operators 177 83,973 12,267 13,688 14.6 16.3
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 11 5,133 1,038 1,038 20.2 20.2
729 Nail and tacking machine operators 14 8,279 1,606 1,606 19.4 19.4
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 47 24,081 4,052 5,131 16.8 21.3
734 Printing machine operators 528 289,072 81,974 89,165 28.4 30.8
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 72 40,936 15,066 15,066 36.8 36.8
736 Typesetters and compositors 132 65,266 10,429 11,512 16.0 17.6
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 69 36,831 7,290 8,672 19.8 23.5
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 156 93,111 6,254 7,810 6.7 8.4
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 76 40,690 1,639 1,639 4.0 4.0
743 Textile cutting machine operators 19 10,799 2,498 2,498 23.1 23.1
744 Textile sewing machine operators 1,452 808,528 192,511 208,729 23.8 25.8
745 Shoe machine operators 148 56,537 14,363 14,884 25.4 26.3
747 Pressing machine operators 230 125,414 30,367 33,408 24.2 26.6
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 353 163,058 32,158 33,958 19.7 20.8
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 125 72,455 16,323 18,103 22.5 25.0
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 75 38,410 14,017 16,777 36.5 43.7
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 746 403,421 143,316 151,468 35.5 37.5
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 58 31,800 15,804 15,804 49.7 49.7
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 183 99,358 35,429 37,779 35.7 38.0
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 119 65,712 33,955 35,081 51.7 53.4
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 32 19,112 7,079 8,353 37.0 43.7
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 323 178,278 56,160 62,577 31.5 35.1
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 7 4,025 1,845 1,845 45.8 45.8
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 14 7,869 3,335 3,335 42.4 42.4
765 Folding machine operators 52 30,726 8,965 8,965 29.2 29.2
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, exc. food 214 112,659 61,460 65,968 54.6 58.6
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 110 58,843 22,358 23,748 38.0 40.4
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 319 171,863 61,001 62,753 35.5 36.5
773 Motion picture projectionists 17 7,574 1,425 1,602 18.8 21.2
774 Photographic process machine operators 166 86,123 9,777 11,634 11.4 13.5
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,675 936,205 405,646 423,149 43.3 45.2
779 Machine operators, not specified 583 317,019 135,553 143,562 42.8 45.3
783 Welders and cutters 1,030 547,494 246,058 260,171 44.9 47.5
784 Solderers and brazers 74 39,447 7,137 7,429 18.1 18.8
785 Assemblers 1,897 1,043,760 446,231 464,284 42.8 44.5
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 38 16,131 4,523 4,729 28.0 29.3
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 22 11,835 3,497 3,497 29.5 29.5
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 66 33,715 9,081 9,081 26.9 26.9
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 34 18,153 1,669 1,669 9.2 9.2
794 Hand grinding and polishing occupations 11 6,302 1,156 1,156 18.3 18.3
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 76 43,219 10,296 10,296 23.8 23.8
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 1,286 694,842 243,588 263,290 35.1 37.9
797 Production testers 105 56,675 16,339 18,647 28.8 32.9
798 Production samplers and weighers 17 8,547 3,405 3,405 39.8 39.8
799 Graders and sorters, exc. agricultural 199 106,017 27,192 29,047 25.6 27.4
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 8,010 4,122,223 1,429,536 1,524,150 34.7 37.0
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 47 28,615 2,498 3,104 8.7 10.8
804 Truck drivers, heavy 3,220 1,651,406 521,429 552,468 31.6 33.5
805 Truck drivers, light 888 477,170 80,464 88,221 16.9 18.5
806 Driver-sales workers 366 209,258 73,566 75,700 35.2 36.3
808 Bus drivers 743 393,356 148,370 167,094 37.7 42.5
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 213 111,645 18,303 22,304 16.4 20.0
813 Parking lot attendants 72 38,686 6,297 8,388 16.3 21.7
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 6 2,343 784 947 33.5 40.4
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 90 36,724 28,886 29,515 78.7 80.4
824 Locomotive operating occupations 155 65,097 55,939 55,939 85.9 85.9
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 107 50,759 49,125 49,614 96.8 97.7
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 12 5,841 5,841 5,841 100.0 100.0
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 50 24,926 6,647 8,073 26.7 32.4
829 Sailors and deckhands 28 16,057 5,648 5,648 35.2 35.2
833 Marine engineers 1 474 0 0 0.0 0.0
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 12 7,383 6,263 6,263 84.8 84.8
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 17 7,189 1,534 2,133 21.3 29.7
844 Operating engineers 288 133,270 59,443 61,664 44.6 46.3
845 Longshore equipment operators 1 354 354 354 100.0 100.0
848 Hoist and winch operators 64 25,341 3,912 3,912 15.4 15.4
849 Crane and tower operators 182 96,757 64,765 68,714 66.9 71.0
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 141 63,626 18,229 19,844 28.7 31.2
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 229 104,358 23,007 25,433 22.0 24.4
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 747 408,381 182,498 192,927 44.7 47.2
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 331 163,208 65,733 70,049 40.3 42.9
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, & LABORERS 8,204 4,293,224 1,177,893 1,261,390 27.4 29.4
863 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, & laborers, n.e.c. 19 10,458 2,347 2,347 22.4 22.4
864 Helpers, mechanics and repairers 55 29,996 4,248 4,248 14.2 14.2
865 Helpers, construction trades 292 169,399 19,625 22,815 11.6 13.5
866 Helpers, surveyor 17 5,001 469 469 9.4 9.4
867 Helpers, extractive occupations 13 4,533 769 896 17.0 19.8
869 Construction laborers 1,296 668,487 171,626 179,114 25.7 26.8
873 Production helpers 158 80,615 26,518 31,454 32.9 39.0
875 Garbage collectors 85 42,275 14,654 16,186 34.7 38.3
876 Stevedores 36 20,224 16,539 17,129 81.8 84.7
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,601 844,132 208,279 225,478 24.7 26.7
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 167 88,123 21,801 24,870 24.7 28.2
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 989 527,678 204,821 215,659 38.8 40.9
885 Garage and service station related occupations 514 246,411 11,335 13,493 4.6 5.5
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 374 196,949 41,057 44,078 20.8 22.4
888 Hand packers and packagers 536 282,052 87,488 92,136 31.0 32.7
889 Laborers, except construction 2,052 1,076,892 346,319 371,020 32.2 34.5
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1984. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1980 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.