Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1985 (details in table note)
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, & MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 18,659 9,805,629 635,458 888,333 6.5 9.1
3 Legislators 32 11,488 0 496 0.0 4.3
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public admin. 28 14,149 1,457 2,176 10.3 15.4
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 944 447,793 63,523 85,454 14.2 19.1
6 Administrators, protective services 85 39,355 5,871 7,982 14.9 20.3
7 Financial managers 719 379,151 4,911 8,212 1.3 2.2
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 202 105,538 2,365 4,284 2.2 4.1
9 Purchasing managers 182 103,097 5,290 8,712 5.1 8.5
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 717 399,304 6,801 11,898 1.7 3.0
14 Administrators, education and related fields 921 462,702 92,904 127,020 20.1 27.5
15 Managers, medicine and health 208 100,490 9,090 12,107 9.0 12.0
16 Managers, properties and real estate 403 219,172 10,855 17,041 5.0 7.8
17 Postmasters and mail superintendents 87 35,555 15,532 18,251 43.7 51.3
18 Funeral directors 34 19,255 634 634 3.3 3.3
19 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 8,475 4,499,968 197,624 274,588 4.4 6.1
23 Accountants and auditors 2,092 1,110,587 66,562 101,549 6.0 9.1
24 Underwriters 121 65,695 304 1,493 0.5 2.3
25 Other financial officers 985 516,665 18,948 31,013 3.7 6.0
26 Management analysts 170 86,041 2,202 8,298 2.6 9.6
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 622 335,147 42,023 53,769 12.5 16.0
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 25 12,092 2,240 2,531 18.5 20.9
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 314 170,513 1,985 2,719 1.2 1.6
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 381 198,522 7,027 10,529 3.5 5.3
34 Business and promotion agents 47 23,511 1,998 1,998 8.5 8.5
35 Construction inspectors 86 39,978 9,155 10,639 22.9 26.6
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, exc. construction 320 159,745 47,834 61,718 29.9 38.6
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 459 250,116 18,323 23,222 7.3 9.3
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS 15,081 7,820,916 874,520 1,135,923 11.2 14.5
43 Architects 143 75,227 5,678 7,023 7.5 9.3
44 Aerospace engineers 138 87,138 6,928 12,649 8.0 14.5
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 33 17,479 0 622 0.0 3.6
46 Mining engineers 19 8,385 1,110 1,110 13.2 13.2
47 Petroleum engineers 55 27,062 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 113 57,949 4,304 5,605 7.4 9.7
49 Nuclear engineers 21 11,994 500 500 4.2 4.2
53 Civil engineers 387 204,404 26,931 41,336 13.2 20.2
54 Agricultural engineers 5 3,275 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 953 528,709 37,876 54,991 7.2 10.4
56 Industrial engineers 329 174,641 10,210 14,725 5.8 8.4
57 Mechanical engineers 481 262,167 15,797 23,066 6.0 8.8
58 Marine and naval architects engineers 32 17,832 4,396 4,396 24.6 24.6
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 384 204,766 7,905 11,581 3.9 5.7
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 36 19,023 2,821 3,642 14.8 19.1
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 594 327,826 13,351 22,362 4.1 6.8
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 307 163,536 10,673 14,721 6.5 9.0
66 Actuaries 24 13,500 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 60 29,650 3,128 4,953 10.5 16.7
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 9 5,117 0 0 0.0 0.0
69 Physicists and astronomers 46 22,219 1,433 1,704 6.5 7.7
73 Chemists, except biochemists 204 108,406 6,030 7,665 5.6 7.1
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 23 10,272 61 61 0.6 0.6
75 Geologists and geodesists 96 47,594 55 1,498 0.1 3.1
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 27 14,082 2,394 3,133 17.0 22.2
77 Agricultural and food scientists 46 19,387 4,170 4,392 21.5 22.7
78 Biological and life scientists 144 65,655 6,508 9,408 9.9 14.3
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 81 36,180 8,267 9,792 22.9 27.1
83 Medical scientists 47 24,394 1,562 1,562 6.4 6.4
84 Physicians 421 221,164 11,860 20,089 5.4 9.1
85 Dentists 31 15,631 1,771 3,099 11.3 19.8
86 Veterinarians 28 16,033 0 0 0.0 0.0
87 Optometrists 8 3,501 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 2 888 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 7 2,020 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 2,791 1,421,280 222,138 285,128 15.6 20.1
96 Pharmacists 259 143,211 14,566 16,142 10.2 11.3
97 Dietitians 164 87,351 7,491 8,631 8.6 9.9
98 Inhalation therapists 127 72,487 3,399 5,128 4.7 7.1
99 Occupational therapists 38 20,277 1,934 1,934 9.5 9.5
103 Physical therapists 106 53,320 1,978 3,602 3.7 6.8
104 Speech therapists 112 56,058 21,160 26,900 37.7 48.0
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 79 41,347 7,726 9,980 18.7 24.1
106 Physicians' assistants 98 51,660 13,334 15,293 25.8 29.6
163 Counselors, educational and vocational 359 173,001 63,930 79,992 37.0 46.2
164 Librarians 407 208,372 46,979 54,496 22.5 26.2
165 Archivists and curators 27 13,792 563 1,206 4.1 8.7
166 Economists 164 85,603 1,499 7,420 1.8 8.7
167 Psychologists 208 107,140 22,323 28,561 20.8 26.7
168 Sociologists 2 891 0 831 0.0 93.3
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 32 13,080 1,123 2,025 8.6 15.5
173 Urban planners 23 13,653 629 1,428 4.6 10.5
174 Social workers 830 424,895 107,973 126,228 25.4 29.7
175 Recreation workers 150 75,739 2,224 3,318 2.9 4.4
176 Clergy 508 256,944 4,060 7,238 1.6 2.8
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 130 65,328 0 1,905 0.0 2.9
178 Lawyers 693 339,726 18,462 23,124 5.4 6.8
179 Judges 59 26,902 2,631 3,704 9.8 13.8
183 Authors 34 15,960 886 886 5.6 5.6
184 Technical writers 77 40,542 3,032 4,315 7.5 10.6
185 Designers 672 355,910 17,073 24,977 4.8 7.0
186 Musicians and composers 152 78,185 17,928 17,928 22.9 22.9
187 Actors and directors 111 57,528 10,753 12,482 18.7 21.7
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist print-makers 198 104,248 7,866 9,475 7.5 9.1
189 Photographers 123 69,198 7,768 9,160 11.2 13.2
193 Dancers 30 14,219 1,100 1,811 7.7 12.7
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 84 43,277 5,909 7,355 13.7 17.0
195 Editors and reporters 436 206,030 24,908 28,090 12.1 13.6
197 Public relations specialists 261 134,271 8,428 9,808 6.3 7.3
198 Announcers 106 51,501 3,574 4,226 6.9 8.2
199 Athletes 97 50,883 3,456 5,511 6.8 10.8
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,328 653,711 119,590 164,503 18.3 25.2
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 11 4,913 2,040 2,147 41.5 43.7
114 Biological science teachers 53 28,252 3,583 5,772 12.7 20.4
115 Chemistry teachers 32 16,825 1,549 1,549 9.2 9.2
116 Physics teachers 29 13,861 927 2,142 6.7 15.5
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 2 1,075 0 0 0.0 0.0
118 Psychology teachers 41 19,773 6,783 7,345 34.3 37.1
119 Economics teachers 29 14,088 1,388 3,104 9.9 22.0
123 History teachers 31 15,412 2,545 2,545 16.5 16.5
124 Political science teachers 19 11,396 1,235 2,571 10.8 22.6
125 Sociology teachers 19 8,523 1,811 3,161 21.2 37.1
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 12 4,611 1,376 1,376 29.8 29.8
127 Engineering teachers 44 21,223 3,647 4,921 17.2 23.2
128 Mathematical science teachers 96 49,991 9,996 14,153 20.0 28.3
129 Computer science teachers 42 17,235 2,268 2,837 13.2 16.5
133 Medical science teachers 29 17,000 1,722 2,967 10.1 17.5
134 Health specialties teachers 82 42,367 10,106 12,426 23.9 29.3
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 45 20,890 5,736 6,907 27.5 33.1
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 13 5,659 1,846 1,846 32.6 32.6
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 89 40,610 9,846 12,849 24.2 31.6
138 Physical education teachers 25 13,829 1,310 1,883 9.5 13.6
139 Education teachers 27 13,630 3,747 5,081 27.5 37.3
143 English teachers 101 51,628 8,427 15,966 16.3 30.9
144 Foreign language teachers 51 27,533 5,431 7,386 19.7 26.8
145 Law teachers 13 7,160 681 681 9.5 9.5
146 Social work teachers 1 775 0 0 0.0 0.0
147 Theology teachers 20 10,291 603 888 5.9 8.6
148 Trade and industrial teachers 3 1,474 906 906 61.5 61.5
149 Home economics teachers 6 2,496 0 0 0.0 0.0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 12 5,531 555 1,019 10.0 18.4
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 351 165,659 29,528 40,073 17.8 24.2
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,807 3,407,448 1,677,637 1,976,746 49.2 58.0
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 635 332,394 61,292 77,789 18.4 23.4
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,714 1,348,971 763,611 899,949 56.6 66.7
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,430 1,202,940 697,301 813,046 58.0 67.6
158 Teachers, special education 412 208,717 128,137 148,527 61.4 71.2
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 616 314,427 27,295 37,435 8.7 11.9
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 6,121 3,182,677 374,813 472,768 11.8 14.9
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 554 295,890 22,728 33,304 7.7 11.3
204 Dental hygienists 111 54,889 586 1,977 1.1 3.6
205 Health record technologists and technicians 95 53,428 6,764 9,342 12.7 17.5
206 Radiologic technicians 224 116,067 7,693 10,677 6.6 9.2
207 Licensed practical nurses 770 392,279 49,884 62,610 12.7 16.0
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 351 185,856 21,441 27,962 11.5 15.0
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 565 297,430 55,279 66,052 18.6 22.2
214 Industrial engineering technicians 10 5,714 1,257 1,994 22.0 34.9
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 29 15,179 1,083 1,788 7.1 11.8
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 417 214,555 27,096 33,041 12.6 15.4
217 Drafting occupations 525 291,494 24,277 32,260 8.3 11.1
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 137 62,393 8,248 8,305 13.2 13.3
223 Biological technicians 111 51,619 6,929 7,653 13.4 14.8
224 Chemical technicians 177 97,785 15,801 18,581 16.2 19.0
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 139 69,115 8,220 10,356 11.9 15.0
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 142 73,554 32,396 35,258 44.0 47.9
227 Air traffic controllers 75 34,243 5,317 7,728 15.5 22.6
228 Broadcast equipment operators 46 21,112 10,581 11,626 50.1 55.1
229 Computer programmers 976 530,660 33,922 47,184 6.4 8.9
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 8 4,432 0 0 0.0 0.0
234 Legal assistants 278 134,813 8,390 10,070 6.2 7.5
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 381 180,169 26,921 34,998 14.9 19.4
SALES OCCUPATIONS 19,263 10,186,006 612,985 692,766 6.0 6.8
243 Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 3,997 2,107,422 127,532 139,578 6.1 6.6
253 Insurance sales occupations 715 384,818 18,878 23,211 4.9 6.0
254 Real estate sales occupations 641 352,806 10,329 15,536 2.9 4.4
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 380 209,793 1,790 1,790 0.9 0.9
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 276 143,702 10,495 12,742 7.3 8.9
257 Sales occupations, other business services 788 429,381 15,756 18,985 3.7 4.4
258 Sales engineers 49 24,981 1,162 1,162 4.7 4.7
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,392 1,310,181 27,269 40,826 2.1 3.1
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 439 234,937 529 2,451 0.2 1.0
264 Sales workers, apparel 864 452,010 15,647 17,100 3.5 3.8
265 Sales workers, shoes 193 107,454 4,060 4,060 3.8 3.8
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 252 133,103 1,413 1,413 1.1 1.1
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 292 147,632 3,557 4,576 2.4 3.1
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 380 195,484 3,818 5,378 2.0 2.8
269 Sales workers, parts 307 146,585 6,286 7,503 4.3 5.1
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,490 1,278,950 51,258 61,187 4.0 4.8
275 Sales counter clerks 242 128,318 3,061 3,981 2.4 3.1
276 Cashiers 4,001 2,097,855 306,229 325,779 14.6 15.5
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 337 180,716 2,343 2,343 1.3 1.3
278 News vendors 156 81,219 431 1,507 0.5 1.9
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 44 24,128 1,139 1,139 4.7 4.7
284 Auctioneers 2 1,093 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 26 13,438 0 518 0.0 3.9
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INC. CLERICAL 32,101 16,713,748 2,255,036 2,762,373 13.5 16.5
303 Supervisors, general office 802 413,269 45,988 60,578 11.1 14.7
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 82 46,130 3,925 3,925 8.5 8.5
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 167 95,596 4,778 8,766 5.0 9.2
306 Chief communications operators 5 2,902 1,014 1,014 35.0 35.0
307 Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 282 154,131 35,283 41,372 22.9 26.8
308 Computer operators 1,405 762,282 81,610 111,270 10.7 14.6
309 Peripheral equipment operators 12 5,904 0 0 0.0 0.0
313 Secretaries 7,675 3,915,602 295,034 401,382 7.5 10.3
314 Stenographers 85 46,451 9,184 11,812 19.8 25.4
315 Typists 1,657 873,372 99,941 129,439 11.4 14.8
316 Interviewers 329 171,502 9,219 10,633 5.4 6.2
317 Hotel clerks 149 64,700 2,973 3,407 4.6 5.3
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 214 111,155 30,062 35,132 27.0 31.6
319 Receptionists 1,215 643,622 20,690 30,610 3.2 4.8
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 381 205,707 18,032 20,212 8.8 9.8
325 Classified-ad clerks 20 11,520 86 86 0.7 0.7
326 Correspondence clerks 27 14,022 126 126 0.9 0.9
327 Order clerks 370 195,527 65,767 75,175 33.6 38.4
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 111 62,262 7,762 11,317 12.5 18.2
329 Library clerks 293 138,670 14,307 19,854 10.3 14.3
335 File clerks 525 288,570 34,730 41,194 12.0 14.3
336 Records clerks 245 129,652 24,297 29,963 18.7 23.1
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 3,439 1,742,120 87,618 114,170 5.0 6.6
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 338 175,603 31,400 34,668 17.9 19.7
339 Billing clerks 286 153,042 17,368 19,678 11.3 12.9
343 Cost and rate clerks 157 85,047 9,548 9,926 11.2 11.7
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 92 46,041 3,928 3,928 8.5 8.5
345 Duplicating machine operators 46 27,517 2,921 3,261 10.6 11.8
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 11 5,961 123 123 2.1 2.1
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 61 35,184 1,561 2,762 4.4 7.9
348 Telephone operators 429 217,270 76,483 86,682 35.2 39.9
349 Telegraphers 10 4,946 2,607 2,607 52.7 52.7
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 3 1,293 505 505 39.1 39.1
354 Postal clerks, exc. mail carriers 504 254,638 198,600 223,689 78.0 87.8
355 Mail carriers, postal service 496 251,625 201,251 219,944 80.0 87.4
356 Mail clerks, exc. postal service 315 164,034 24,193 28,915 14.7 17.6
357 Messengers 218 115,806 7,743 8,979 6.7 7.8
359 Dispatchers 365 184,993 46,121 53,355 24.9 28.8
363 Production coordinators 316 175,771 29,686 35,911 16.9 20.4
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 924 507,998 120,075 133,883 23.6 26.4
365 Stock and inventory clerks 1,000 550,163 114,091 129,046 20.7 23.5
366 Meter readers 80 42,525 16,405 18,260 38.6 42.9
368 Weighers, measurers, and checkers 150 77,435 19,811 21,205 25.6 27.4
369 Samplers 2 282 0 0 0.0 0.0
373 Expediters 210 111,112 16,296 20,692 14.7 18.6
374 Material recording, scheduling, & distributing clerks, n.e.c. 64 31,391 4,058 4,577 12.9 14.6
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 419 219,813 11,834 16,809 5.4 7.6
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 649 340,413 29,630 40,239 8.7 11.8
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 125 64,242 15,260 20,190 23.8 31.4
378 Bill and account collectors 160 84,932 5,214 8,182 6.1 9.6
379 General office clerks 1,291 667,835 94,964 112,238 14.2 16.8
383 Bank tellers 939 482,849 8,914 13,296 1.8 2.8
384 Proofreaders 63 30,845 1,291 1,291 4.2 4.2
385 Data-entry keyers 651 354,385 28,920 39,268 8.2 11.1
386 Statistical clerks 183 93,828 14,936 18,608 15.9 19.8
387 Teachers aides 751 382,469 104,202 141,336 27.2 37.0
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,303 677,791 102,672 126,882 15.1 18.7
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD 1,895 985,977 634 634 0.1 0.1
403 Launderers and ironers 5 2,618 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 33 19,716 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 72 38,319 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 765 377,872 0 0 0.0 0.0
407 Private household cleaners and servants 1,020 547,452 634 634 0.1 0.1
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PROTECTIVE SERVICE 3,140 1,702,156 667,420 730,033 39.2 42.9
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 42 25,385 17,167 18,470 67.6 72.8
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 133 70,471 30,080 35,239 42.7 50.0
415 Supervisors, guards 63 33,972 3,671 4,074 10.8 12.0
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 46 25,111 9,339 9,819 37.2 39.1
417 Firefighting occupations 354 190,278 139,411 147,846 73.3 77.7
418 Police and detectives, public service 762 418,187 249,458 269,013 59.7 64.3
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 145 79,655 23,940 26,609 30.1 33.4
424 Correctional institution officers 262 138,500 72,564 79,993 52.4 57.8
425 Crossing guards 88 43,829 9,752 10,858 22.2 24.8
426 Guards and police, exc. public service 1,120 612,703 106,505 121,949 17.4 19.9
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 125 64,065 5,534 6,164 8.6 9.6
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXC. PROTECTIVE & HOUSEHOLD 20,877 10,637,059 1,254,355 1,431,158 11.8 13.5
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 522 266,739 14,271 20,435 5.4 7.7
434 Bartenders 580 278,705 17,748 18,376 6.4 6.6
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,656 1,320,037 62,820 68,982 4.8 5.2
436 Cooks, except short order 2,896 1,485,516 89,634 111,296 6.0 7.5
437 Short-order cooks 208 105,811 3,490 3,490 3.3 3.3
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 654 334,600 5,309 8,078 1.6 2.4
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 278 144,029 10,628 11,927 7.4 8.3
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 654 347,351 32,167 34,301 9.3 9.9
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,283 638,617 72,374 90,926 11.3 14.2
445 Dental assistants 326 171,712 3,515 3,515 2.0 2.0
446 Health aides, except nursing 674 352,287 49,679 56,866 14.1 16.1
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,380 1,226,345 205,920 231,570 16.8 18.9
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 301 157,656 22,755 28,685 14.4 18.2
449 Maids and housemen 1,082 527,420 80,845 90,580 15.3 17.2
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,771 1,952,318 451,007 497,842 23.1 25.5
454 Elevator operators 26 14,651 9,051 9,051 61.8 61.8
455 Pest control occupations 56 31,639 731 942 2.3 3.0
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 69 32,097 451 451 1.4 1.4
457 Barbers 46 24,427 3,130 3,130 12.8 12.8
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 805 433,563 9,997 11,979 2.3 2.8
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 311 125,577 7,564 10,151 6.0 8.1
463 Guides 62 33,813 2,999 2,999 8.9 8.9
464 Ushers 39 19,310 3,331 3,331 17.3 17.3
465 Public transportation attendants 126 69,199 46,593 50,774 67.3 73.4
466 Baggage porters and bellhops 36 18,736 8,672 8,672 46.3 46.3
467 Welfare service aides 167 80,000 10,446 13,950 13.1 17.4
468 Child care workers, except private household 645 328,194 11,176 19,815 3.4 6.0
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 224 116,713 18,049 19,044 15.5 16.3
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 3,318 1,736,411 95,276 106,541 5.5 6.1
473 Farmers, except horticultural 22 10,523 1,155 1,155 11.0 11.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 93 48,216 0 365 0.0 0.8
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 18 9,553 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 60 36,278 333 333 0.9 0.9
479 Farm workers 1,578 809,260 13,133 13,133 1.6 1.6
483 Marine life cultivation workers 4 1,392 125 125 9.0 9.0
484 Nursery workers 60 33,147 1,240 1,240 3.7 3.7
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 156 86,674 10,504 11,204 12.1 12.9
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 993 534,954 52,588 61,137 9.8 11.4
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 129 64,429 5,398 6,305 8.4 9.8
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 28 15,083 1,152 1,152 7.6 7.6
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 2 1,091 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 7 2,962 982 1,725 33.2 58.3
495 Forestry workers, except logging 31 17,307 1,927 1,927 11.1 11.1
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 82 40,730 5,020 5,020 12.3 12.3
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 11 4,982 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 40 18,733 1,620 1,620 8.6 8.6
499 Hunters and trappers 4 1,097 99 99 9.0 9.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 14,814 7,884,254 2,162,291 2,358,204 27.4 29.9
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 513 270,368 37,357 45,999 13.8 17.0
505 Automobile mechanics 1,279 696,961 74,937 83,048 10.8 11.9
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 6 3,125 0 0 0.0 0.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 603 312,989 100,406 110,067 32.1 35.2
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 168 85,700 35,781 42,757 41.8 49.9
509 Small engine repairers 122 61,077 2,649 2,649 4.3 4.3
514 Automobile body and related repairers 295 159,136 11,834 12,399 7.4 7.8
515 Aircraft mechanics, exc. engine 25 14,320 6,280 7,949 43.9 55.5
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 346 160,783 72,472 76,540 45.1 47.6
517 Farm equipment mechanics 76 35,163 2,126 2,824 6.0 8.0
518 Industry machinery repairers 993 528,944 205,963 216,764 38.9 41.0
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 72 38,459 15,323 17,113 39.8 44.5
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 258 139,136 30,015 34,570 21.6 24.8
525 Data processing equipment repairers 217 118,690 11,264 14,590 9.5 12.3
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 67 35,582 8,421 8,421 23.7 23.7
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 124 68,310 58,197 59,022 85.2 86.4
529 Telephone Installers and repairers 428 228,434 169,635 177,448 74.3 77.7
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 136 74,913 36,817 39,682 49.1 53.0
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 377 212,175 56,202 59,608 26.5 28.1
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 33 17,916 4,483 6,042 25.0 33.7
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 26 14,860 2,018 2,933 13.6 19.7
538 Office machine repairers 123 63,058 4,520 6,414 7.2 10.2
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 46 25,979 12,250 13,182 47.2 50.7
543 Elevator installers and repairers 39 22,027 18,477 19,190 83.9 87.1
544 Millwrights 159 85,738 57,921 58,473 67.6 68.2
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 723 398,346 96,850 110,965 24.3 27.9
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 301 162,918 46,751 51,716 28.7 31.7
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 123 53,759 1,407 2,932 2.6 5.5
614 Drillers, oil well 114 46,255 1,298 3,467 2.8 7.5
615 Explosives workers 17 7,144 2,731 2,731 38.2 38.2
616 Mining machine operators 90 37,061 25,499 25,749 68.8 69.5
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 90 40,601 13,010 13,441 32.0 33.1
633 Supervisors, production occupations 2,434 1,306,509 162,586 202,303 12.4 15.5
634 Tool and die makers 242 131,100 60,237 63,093 45.9 48.1
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 9 5,602 1,297 1,297 23.2 23.2
636 Precision assemblers, metal 13 7,754 1,381 1,381 17.8 17.8
637 Machinists 891 485,952 182,546 188,947 37.6 38.9
639 Machinist apprentices 8 3,653 185 473 5.1 12.9
643 Boilermakers 61 30,626 20,386 20,888 66.6 68.2
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 35 14,774 6,797 6,988 46.0 47.3
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 8 4,665 1,840 2,127 39.4 45.6
646 Lay-out workers 32 16,058 4,208 6,173 26.2 38.4
647 Precious stones and metals workers (jewelers) 68 31,104 865 865 2.8 2.8
649 Engravers, metal 30 18,992 1,279 1,279 6.7 6.7
653 Sheet metal workers 214 110,492 52,947 57,089 47.9 51.7
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 5 2,886 1,267 1,267 43.9 43.9
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 5 2,354 1,717 1,717 72.9 72.9
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 13 8,044 5,525 5,525 68.7 68.7
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 73 40,476 9,103 10,031 22.5 24.8
658 Furniture and wood finishers 57 28,286 2,155 2,155 7.6 7.6
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 3 734 121 121 16.5 16.5
666 Dressmakers 118 61,357 5,763 6,000 9.4 9.8
667 Tailors 64 37,043 10,758 10,758 29.0 29.0
668 Upholsterers 82 45,998 6,571 7,305 14.3 15.9
669 Shoe repairers 15 5,619 618 618 11.0 11.0
673 Apparel and fabric patternmakers 2 1,293 622 622 48.1 48.1
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 7 2,756 855 855 31.0 31.0
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 16 9,319 3,053 3,053 32.8 32.8
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 34 18,745 7,393 8,201 39.4 43.8
677 Optical goods workers 92 47,281 4,404 4,404 9.3 9.3
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 71 42,209 518 3,029 1.2 7.2
679 Bookbinders 62 31,470 8,404 9,048 26.7 28.8
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 579 328,648 90,125 99,364 27.4 30.2
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 63 38,375 8,827 8,827 23.0 23.0
686 Butchers and meat cutters 504 264,051 83,126 87,722 31.5 33.2
687 Bakers 173 91,433 22,590 25,088 24.7 27.4
688 Food batchmakers 60 31,450 8,131 8,131 25.9 25.9
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 228 128,831 52,594 54,783 40.8 42.5
693 Adjusters and calibrators 12 6,427 2,047 2,047 31.8 31.8
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 90 49,189 20,683 23,620 42.0 48.0
695 Power plant operators 81 37,955 22,793 24,679 60.1 65.0
696 Stationary engineers 202 101,708 50,937 54,917 50.1 54.0
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 69 33,107 12,144 12,730 36.7 38.5
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 6,763 3,597,352 1,109,417 1,185,083 30.8 32.9
553 Supervisors; brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 8 3,766 1,726 1,726 45.8 45.8
554 Supervisors; carpenters and related workers 46 24,155 8,511 9,872 35.2 40.9
555 Supervisors; electricians and power transmission installers 77 41,460 15,051 16,335 36.3 39.4
556 Supervisors; painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 22 12,246 2,191 2,191 17.9 17.9
557 Supervisors; plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 19 12,192 6,616 6,616 54.3 54.3
558 Supervisors; n.e.c. 658 343,050 90,432 98,604 26.4 28.7
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 218 116,241 35,818 36,952 30.8 31.8
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 8 3,074 369 369 12.0 12.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 56 36,291 4,862 5,592 13.4 15.4
566 Carpet installers 103 58,234 9,632 10,394 16.5 17.8
567 Carpenters 1,650 859,886 193,645 208,208 22.5 24.2
569 Carpenter apprentices 16 7,934 3,218 3,876 40.6 48.9
573 Drywall installers 188 107,657 19,073 22,841 17.7 21.2
575 Electricians 1,020 529,663 244,734 260,365 46.2 49.2
576 Electrician apprentices 59 28,604 8,469 10,495 29.6 36.7
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 203 102,308 68,235 70,548 66.7 69.0
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 565 316,021 55,765 59,766 17.6 18.9
583 Paperhangers 11 4,882 998 1,497 20.4 30.7
584 Plasterers 52 31,966 8,019 8,538 25.1 26.7
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 708 365,367 156,224 161,670 42.8 44.2
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 19 9,715 3,050 3,524 31.4 36.3
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 133 75,478 18,774 21,216 24.9 28.1
589 Glaziers 75 40,089 10,500 11,317 26.2 28.2
593 Insulation workers 104 57,119 19,433 21,607 34.0 37.8
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 14 6,162 1,537 2,067 24.9 33.5
595 Roofers 221 125,848 20,263 21,719 16.1 17.3
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 65 36,598 15,920 15,920 43.5 43.5
597 Structural metal workers 99 59,493 43,968 44,573 73.9 74.9
598 Drillers, earth 25 12,922 3,806 3,806 29.5 29.5
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 321 168,931 38,576 42,879 22.8 25.4
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 14,173 7,695,531 2,627,249 2,774,145 34.1 36.0
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 47 27,247 14,734 14,734 54.1 54.1
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 123 67,465 18,793 20,305 27.9 30.1
705 Milling and planing machine operators 26 14,066 4,781 5,645 34.0 40.1
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 213 120,238 64,697 68,917 53.8 57.3
707 Rolling machine operators 17 9,269 6,223 6,223 67.1 67.1
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 57 31,252 14,767 15,772 47.2 50.5
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 267 136,994 55,178 57,770 40.3 42.2
713 Forging machine operators 31 16,075 7,709 8,850 48.0 55.1
714 Numerical control machine operators 6 3,547 1,289 1,289 36.4 36.4
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 70 35,358 15,370 15,370 43.5 43.5
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 43 22,137 8,613 9,131 38.9 41.2
719 Molding and casting machine operators 188 99,316 36,334 37,026 36.6 37.3
723 Metal plating machine operators 71 38,528 13,344 15,327 34.6 39.8
724 Heat treating equipment operators 23 12,759 7,247 7,247 56.8 56.8
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 18 8,827 2,192 2,192 24.8 24.8
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 27 12,550 3,049 3,783 24.3 30.1
727 Sawing machine operators 169 79,772 8,073 9,742 10.1 12.2
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 5 1,440 735 735 51.0 51.0
729 Nail and tacking machine operators 2 823 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 55 28,207 6,018 7,282 21.3 25.8
734 Printing machine operators 508 275,364 71,642 78,886 26.0 28.6
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 74 38,776 11,300 11,300 29.1 29.1
736 Typesetters and compositors 135 67,676 5,888 7,769 8.7 11.5
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 61 35,960 8,873 10,408 24.7 28.9
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 144 81,557 10,025 11,468 12.3 14.1
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 92 47,360 7,396 7,396 15.6 15.6
743 Textile cutting machine operators 10 4,411 1,313 1,313 29.8 29.8
744 Textile sewing machine operators 1,351 757,508 177,116 188,514 23.4 24.9
745 Shoe machine operators 98 45,036 10,860 11,077 24.1 24.6
747 Pressing machine operators 254 140,818 37,128 38,995 26.4 27.7
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 298 154,023 23,975 27,458 15.6 17.8
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 139 75,652 9,942 10,735 13.1 14.2
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 64 35,312 10,028 10,028 28.4 28.4
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 728 397,613 138,481 151,771 34.8 38.2
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 63 34,872 16,917 17,439 48.5 50.0
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 228 125,634 47,431 49,579 37.8 39.5
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 103 52,571 26,441 28,028 50.3 53.3
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 38 21,374 6,750 7,433 31.6 34.8
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 344 191,896 59,143 60,875 30.8 31.7
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 9 4,728 2,760 3,423 58.4 72.4
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 33 18,009 8,598 9,336 47.7 51.8
765 Folding machine operators 54 24,696 7,685 7,685 31.1 31.1
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, exc. food 197 101,964 58,087 60,686 57.0 59.5
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 93 47,526 13,927 15,220 29.3 32.0
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 369 204,946 64,760 69,849 31.6 34.1
773 Motion picture projectionists 20 10,316 2,677 2,677 25.9 25.9
774 Photographic process machine operators 173 89,316 12,755 13,223 14.3 14.8
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,679 917,813 388,018 401,010 42.3 43.7
779 Machine operators, not specified 629 346,226 131,091 138,811 37.9 40.1
783 Welders and cutters 1,017 546,576 228,484 241,287 41.8 44.1
784 Solderers and brazers 70 38,297 11,809 12,230 30.8 31.9
785 Assemblers 1,858 1,042,636 444,728 463,722 42.7 44.5
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 35 19,613 4,443 4,951 22.7 25.2
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 33 17,598 4,082 4,082 23.2 23.2
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 46 26,450 4,937 5,265 18.7 19.9
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 27 16,094 934 934 5.8 5.8
794 Hand grinding and polishing occupations 8 4,860 455 455 9.4 9.4
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 89 44,331 5,990 5,990 13.5 13.5
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 1,218 643,363 216,572 228,921 33.7 35.6
797 Production testers 116 63,833 22,600 23,221 35.4 36.4
798 Production samplers and weighers 19 10,761 1,782 2,315 16.6 21.5
799 Graders and sorters, exc. agricultural 191 106,295 20,278 21,037 19.1 19.8
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,864 4,162,475 1,395,660 1,476,450 33.5 35.5
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 86 50,975 6,495 9,345 12.7 18.3
804 Truck drivers, heavy 3,091 1,606,479 484,388 507,793 30.2 31.6
805 Truck drivers, light 1,015 553,111 111,263 116,394 20.1 21.0
806 Driver-sales workers 347 192,732 61,642 65,147 32.0 33.8
808 Bus drivers 758 396,474 155,990 176,733 39.3 44.6
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 235 129,960 18,182 21,736 14.0 16.7
813 Parking lot attendants 84 49,340 4,767 4,935 9.7 10.0
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 4 1,679 509 509 30.3 30.3
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 79 37,768 32,079 32,712 84.9 86.6
824 Locomotive operating occupations 121 56,757 48,006 49,264 84.6 86.8
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 94 44,742 41,551 41,551 92.9 92.9
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 13 8,427 8,427 8,427 100.0 100.0
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 49 28,917 9,695 10,559 33.5 36.5
829 Sailors and deckhands 33 21,575 6,717 6,932 31.1 32.1
833 Marine engineers 2 939 0 0 0.0 0.0
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 16 9,530 5,164 5,164 54.2 54.2
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 25 13,473 3,680 3,680 27.3 27.3
844 Operating engineers 294 149,223 61,446 64,836 41.2 43.4
845 Longshore equipment operators 5 2,305 2,237 2,237 97.0 97.0
848 Hoist and winch operators 68 33,610 4,912 5,444 14.6 16.2
849 Crane and tower operators 173 90,846 58,893 60,890 64.8 67.0
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 180 96,892 23,793 26,403 24.6 27.2
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 179 83,479 21,110 22,782 25.3 27.3
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 680 382,563 172,948 180,273 45.2 47.1
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 233 120,678 51,765 52,704 42.9 43.7
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, & LABORERS 8,028 4,349,173 1,133,759 1,202,461 26.1 27.6
863 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, & laborers, n.e.c. 15 8,740 2,867 3,016 32.8 34.5
864 Helpers, mechanics and repairers 66 33,193 5,296 5,296 16.0 16.0
865 Helpers, construction trades 265 144,764 10,698 15,746 7.4 10.9
866 Helpers, surveyor 29 18,525 2,435 2,435 13.1 13.1
867 Helpers, extractive occupations 4 2,406 881 881 36.6 36.6
869 Construction laborers 1,225 673,207 161,373 171,386 24.0 25.5
873 Production helpers 148 89,210 24,598 25,766 27.6 28.9
875 Garbage collectors 114 63,505 20,538 22,263 32.3 35.1
876 Stevedores 35 19,439 18,067 18,067 92.9 92.9
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,535 821,275 193,669 207,255 23.6 25.2
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 164 90,630 30,528 34,690 33.7 38.3
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,079 594,150 227,282 241,810 38.3 40.7
885 Garage and service station related occupations 519 271,030 13,596 15,065 5.0 5.6
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 379 213,481 29,583 31,006 13.9 14.5
888 Hand packers and packagers 569 292,894 82,491 86,642 28.2 29.6
889 Laborers, except construction 1,882 1,012,724 309,855 321,137 30.6 31.7
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1985. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1980 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.