Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1986 (details in table note)
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, & MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 19,187 10,306,312 677,125 922,092 6.6 8.9
3 Legislators 29 14,347 1,249 1,816 8.7 12.7
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public admin. 25 12,588 612 1,275 4.9 10.1
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 958 465,450 69,597 107,366 15.0 23.1
6 Administrators, protective services 73 35,858 8,616 11,819 24.0 33.0
7 Financial managers 757 400,794 3,691 9,913 0.9 2.5
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 196 111,030 3,009 5,430 2.7 4.9
9 Purchasing managers 187 101,989 4,950 7,532 4.9 7.4
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 760 429,962 4,480 12,680 1.0 2.9
14 Administrators, education and related fields 940 476,831 92,207 122,730 19.3 25.7
15 Managers, medicine and health 233 119,067 10,717 18,728 9.0 15.7
16 Managers, properties and real estate 477 266,501 14,101 15,564 5.3 5.8
17 Postmasters and mail superintendents 98 39,362 12,334 15,092 31.3 38.3
18 Funeral directors 35 19,276 1,506 1,906 7.8 9.9
19 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 8,566 4,649,389 208,697 262,263 4.5 5.6
23 Accountants and auditors 2,089 1,130,540 64,471 100,106 5.7 8.9
24 Underwriters 119 68,789 1,687 2,488 2.5 3.6
25 Other financial officers 1,040 558,095 14,932 23,096 2.7 4.1
26 Management analysts 206 111,071 3,497 7,912 3.1 7.1
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 655 353,358 35,261 45,768 10.0 13.0
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 26 12,287 1,375 2,093 11.2 17.0
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 329 188,452 4,853 5,143 2.6 2.7
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 444 236,330 13,091 16,264 5.5 6.9
34 Business and promotion agents 25 15,441 1,387 2,253 9.0 14.6
35 Construction inspectors 97 50,059 22,743 25,040 45.4 50.0
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, exc. construction 348 188,298 62,351 70,526 33.1 37.5
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 475 251,147 15,711 27,288 6.3 10.9
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS 15,234 8,117,565 880,244 1,149,706 10.8 14.2
43 Architects 160 88,137 3,264 4,233 3.7 4.8
44 Aerospace engineers 148 95,086 5,123 8,915 5.4 9.4
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 48 26,126 2,798 4,227 10.7 16.2
46 Mining engineers 18 9,908 0 0 0.0 0.0
47 Petroleum engineers 51 28,378 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 115 55,756 2,006 2,996 3.6 5.4
49 Nuclear engineers 18 9,373 542 813 5.8 8.7
53 Civil engineers 383 212,109 25,739 33,866 12.1 16.0
54 Agricultural engineers 7 4,081 531 531 13.0 13.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 909 515,969 34,004 45,828 6.6 8.9
56 Industrial engineers 349 194,441 11,941 15,930 6.1 8.2
57 Mechanical engineers 512 284,771 21,723 25,866 7.6 9.1
58 Marine and naval architects engineers 23 14,212 6,592 6,592 46.4 46.4
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 385 211,558 9,929 16,108 4.7 7.6
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 34 19,979 1,335 1,704 6.7 8.5
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 624 345,810 12,216 21,544 3.5 6.2
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 374 209,809 11,552 20,369 5.5 9.7
66 Actuaries 29 17,263 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 55 26,852 2,196 4,295 8.2 16.0
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 10 6,099 0 0 0.0 0.0
69 Physicists and astronomers 47 25,081 0 2,720 0.0 10.8
73 Chemists, except biochemists 216 119,067 8,238 11,037 6.9 9.3
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 24 11,860 884 2,315 7.5 19.5
75 Geologists and geodesists 73 37,420 485 1,118 1.3 3.0
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 24 11,112 1,304 1,550 11.7 13.9
77 Agricultural and food scientists 53 24,780 3,020 3,523 12.2 14.2
78 Biological and life scientists 118 64,024 6,002 9,900 9.4 15.5
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 74 33,621 7,321 10,571 21.8 31.4
83 Medical scientists 49 28,865 1,444 1,947 5.0 6.7
84 Physicians 433 232,960 15,542 24,639 6.7 10.6
85 Dentists 26 13,901 0 0 0.0 0.0
86 Veterinarians 32 14,901 0 252 0.0 1.7
87 Optometrists 13 6,644 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 1 560 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 4 1,681 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 2,873 1,482,042 232,336 299,780 15.7 20.2
96 Pharmacists 243 133,729 13,241 14,873 9.9 11.1
97 Dietitians 133 68,850 4,546 7,771 6.6 11.3
98 Inhalation therapists 135 78,176 6,349 10,072 8.1 12.9
99 Occupational therapists 44 22,523 2,911 3,659 12.9 16.2
103 Physical therapists 107 54,535 4,280 4,386 7.8 8.0
104 Speech therapists 104 51,274 16,472 24,699 32.1 48.2
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 74 36,571 6,828 7,431 18.7 20.3
106 Physicians' assistants 87 43,719 11,289 11,289 25.8 25.8
163 Counselors, educational and vocational 335 170,989 67,483 82,582 39.5 48.3
164 Librarians 378 191,437 39,336 51,675 20.5 27.0
165 Archivists and curators 31 16,258 831 1,569 5.1 9.6
166 Economists 188 100,632 0 2,878 0.0 2.9
167 Psychologists 233 122,295 26,137 32,043 21.4 26.2
168 Sociologists 4 2,437 815 1,756 33.4 72.1
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 39 19,352 1,539 1,539 8.0 8.0
173 Urban planners 27 15,360 2,124 2,860 13.8 18.6
174 Social workers 891 471,171 131,307 148,992 27.9 31.6
175 Recreation workers 163 80,968 6,117 9,503 7.6 11.7
176 Clergy 495 250,837 3,636 7,264 1.4 2.9
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 134 69,985 0 507 0.0 0.7
178 Lawyers 683 336,694 14,606 20,478 4.3 6.1
179 Judges 61 30,101 1,162 2,814 3.9 9.3
183 Authors 25 10,709 1,853 2,819 17.3 26.3
184 Technical writers 68 41,935 3,027 4,170 7.2 9.9
185 Designers 651 358,765 12,070 17,763 3.4 5.0
186 Musicians and composers 151 81,499 13,531 14,390 16.6 17.7
187 Actors and directors 119 62,277 7,750 9,185 12.4 14.7
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist print-makers 162 92,820 6,999 10,247 7.5 11.0
189 Photographers 112 67,467 6,661 8,398 9.9 12.4
193 Dancers 23 12,605 1,368 1,368 10.9 10.9
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 92 47,637 3,326 3,326 7.0 7.0
195 Editors and reporters 458 237,166 20,511 25,974 8.6 11.0
197 Public relations specialists 273 149,892 5,598 7,348 3.7 4.9
198 Announcers 97 46,633 4,253 5,044 9.1 10.8
199 Athletes 102 56,032 4,222 5,866 7.5 10.5
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,232 633,677 103,089 151,062 16.3 23.8
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 11 4,789 1,093 1,462 22.8 30.5
114 Biological science teachers 49 26,366 4,217 8,428 16.0 32.0
115 Chemistry teachers 27 17,289 917 2,357 5.3 13.6
116 Physics teachers 30 12,805 1,563 2,639 12.2 20.6
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 5 2,301 1,034 1,098 45.0 47.7
118 Psychology teachers 25 11,777 5,328 5,328 45.2 45.2
119 Economics teachers 31 15,273 3,575 3,828 23.4 25.1
123 History teachers 35 20,764 4,861 4,861 23.4 23.4
124 Political science teachers 14 7,105 1,766 2,372 24.8 33.4
125 Sociology teachers 23 13,633 1,949 3,309 14.3 24.3
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 10 4,076 1,347 1,347 33.1 33.1
127 Engineering teachers 53 27,147 1,661 2,871 6.1 10.6
128 Mathematical science teachers 83 45,535 5,639 13,017 12.4 28.6
129 Computer science teachers 31 16,497 509 2,298 3.1 13.9
133 Medical science teachers 24 13,503 626 3,080 4.6 22.8
134 Health specialties teachers 65 32,095 7,436 9,892 23.2 30.8
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 55 26,830 4,556 7,112 17.0 26.5
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 11 3,964 456 1,219 11.5 30.8
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 87 41,814 9,175 15,026 21.9 35.9
138 Physical education teachers 17 9,511 1,494 2,256 15.7 23.7
139 Education teachers 13 6,790 1,903 2,744 28.0 40.4
143 English teachers 88 46,690 10,218 13,387 21.9 28.7
144 Foreign language teachers 36 17,921 2,842 2,842 15.9 15.9
145 Law teachers 21 11,204 987 1,504 8.8 13.4
146 Social work teachers 1 590 0 0 0.0 0.0
147 Theology teachers 22 12,161 1,586 2,894 13.0 23.8
148 Trade and industrial teachers 4 1,600 0 879 0.0 54.9
149 Home economics teachers 1 123 0 0 0.0 0.0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 12 4,977 510 510 10.3 10.3
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 348 178,546 25,840 32,500 14.5 18.2
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,660 3,434,176 1,667,353 1,990,287 48.6 58.0
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 666 349,338 66,790 91,802 19.1 26.3
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,603 1,328,643 725,545 859,946 54.6 64.7
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,343 1,206,154 692,641 825,593 57.4 68.4
158 Teachers, special education 426 218,489 142,870 165,082 65.4 75.6
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 622 331,551 39,506 47,864 11.9 14.4
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 6,134 3,286,309 363,413 457,818 11.1 13.9
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 543 289,506 25,472 34,812 8.8 12.0
204 Dental hygienists 114 56,805 3,259 3,518 5.7 6.2
205 Health record technologists and technicians 81 46,264 3,263 5,499 7.1 11.9
206 Radiologic technicians 210 113,356 8,100 12,030 7.1 10.6
207 Licensed practical nurses 779 410,123 52,889 60,186 12.9 14.7
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 371 205,131 18,198 22,680 8.9 11.1
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 574 315,121 45,413 56,131 14.4 17.8
214 Industrial engineering technicians 7 4,330 882 882 20.4 20.4
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 16 8,544 1,110 1,725 13.0 20.2
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 406 223,713 33,137 42,334 14.8 18.9
217 Drafting occupations 487 269,609 26,678 32,883 9.9 12.2
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 151 76,946 12,147 14,850 15.8 19.3
223 Biological technicians 98 48,553 3,931 4,672 8.1 9.6
224 Chemical technicians 157 76,738 13,910 17,851 18.1 23.3
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 136 73,665 6,979 9,565 9.5 13.0
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 139 77,922 33,389 37,476 42.8 48.1
227 Air traffic controllers 61 32,725 7,863 8,693 24.0 26.6
228 Broadcast equipment operators 37 19,604 1,657 1,657 8.5 8.5
229 Computer programmers 987 539,123 25,965 41,512 4.8 7.7
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 8 4,643 1,440 1,440 31.0 31.0
234 Legal assistants 329 168,356 8,180 12,657 4.9 7.5
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 443 225,530 29,553 34,765 13.1 15.4
SALES OCCUPATIONS 19,581 10,587,845 656,068 750,903 6.2 7.1
243 Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 4,096 2,204,133 134,067 155,103 6.1 7.0
253 Insurance sales occupations 695 384,796 13,546 20,490 3.5 5.3
254 Real estate sales occupations 723 400,250 9,283 15,834 2.3 4.0
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 410 226,034 3,006 3,770 1.3 1.7
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 234 121,388 7,202 10,532 5.9 8.7
257 Sales occupations, other business services 873 480,418 22,618 29,567 4.7 6.2
258 Sales engineers 47 25,605 0 0 0.0 0.0
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,310 1,286,275 28,218 35,728 2.2 2.8
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 470 247,852 2,972 6,886 1.2 2.8
264 Sales workers, apparel 839 445,243 13,676 14,415 3.1 3.2
265 Sales workers, shoes 202 111,456 4,677 4,677 4.2 4.2
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 263 144,147 1,631 3,929 1.1 2.7
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 280 154,855 3,944 4,615 2.5 3.0
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 365 184,401 2,610 3,220 1.4 1.7
269 Sales workers, parts 316 170,821 6,966 7,890 4.1 4.6
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,484 1,313,278 56,855 66,272 4.3 5.0
275 Sales counter clerks 278 148,589 3,261 4,895 2.2 3.3
276 Cashiers 4,158 2,241,487 330,558 351,247 14.7 15.7
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 309 168,626 4,283 4,283 2.5 2.5
278 News vendors 137 75,296 3,104 3,957 4.1 5.3
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 61 35,256 1,996 1,996 5.7 5.7
284 Auctioneers 6 3,021 543 543 18.0 18.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 25 14,618 1,052 1,052 7.2 7.2
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INC. CLERICAL 32,025 17,172,208 2,320,184 2,791,321 13.5 16.3
303 Supervisors, general office 832 430,107 37,410 56,085 8.7 13.0
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 87 47,407 2,595 3,865 5.5 8.2
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 166 92,140 7,674 8,856 8.3 9.6
306 Chief communications operators 7 3,281 514 514 15.7 15.7
307 Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 288 155,326 29,592 36,496 19.1 23.5
308 Computer operators 1,471 829,820 86,047 98,196 10.4 11.8
309 Peripheral equipment operators 12 7,408 1,388 1,388 18.7 18.7
313 Secretaries 7,426 3,885,752 269,441 371,012 6.9 9.5
314 Stenographers 75 38,486 12,520 15,281 32.5 39.7
315 Typists 1,572 844,445 115,953 139,367 13.7 16.5
316 Interviewers 328 170,035 7,207 11,507 4.2 6.8
317 Hotel clerks 165 74,007 6,058 6,885 8.2 9.3
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 217 113,071 28,400 31,664 25.1 28.0
319 Receptionists 1,295 709,915 28,089 36,145 4.0 5.1
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 362 196,521 13,607 17,191 6.9 8.7
325 Classified-ad clerks 8 4,011 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 31 17,793 2,646 3,526 14.9 19.8
327 Order clerks 358 196,799 56,841 64,736 28.9 32.9
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 114 59,981 4,037 4,786 6.7 8.0
329 Library clerks 272 135,686 13,629 17,631 10.0 13.0
335 File clerks 557 311,685 32,871 39,277 10.5 12.6
336 Records clerks 202 113,309 21,735 26,400 19.2 23.3
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 3,341 1,747,232 95,037 115,975 5.4 6.6
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 312 169,104 22,612 30,490 13.4 18.0
339 Billing clerks 280 157,433 23,022 24,325 14.6 15.5
343 Cost and rate clerks 161 83,214 7,266 8,720 8.7 10.5
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 84 47,869 1,642 2,204 3.4 4.6
345 Duplicating machine operators 43 23,291 3,791 4,639 16.3 19.9
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 27 14,799 1,136 1,136 7.7 7.7
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 78 44,427 4,704 5,260 10.6 11.8
348 Telephone operators 420 217,817 82,114 94,990 37.7 43.6
349 Telegraphers 8 5,038 622 622 12.3 12.3
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 10 4,979 0 672 0.0 13.5
354 Postal clerks, exc. mail carriers 560 300,926 227,371 252,760 75.6 84.0
355 Mail carriers, postal service 562 302,135 239,775 258,449 79.4 85.5
356 Mail clerks, exc. postal service 295 160,669 31,608 38,410 19.7 23.9
357 Messengers 259 143,114 7,382 9,952 5.2 7.0
359 Dispatchers 348 178,415 43,150 51,590 24.2 28.9
363 Production coordinators 335 183,502 24,305 28,685 13.2 15.6
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 819 464,078 111,059 118,545 23.9 25.5
365 Stock and inventory clerks 992 560,696 112,216 129,370 20.0 23.1
366 Meter readers 82 40,894 18,549 19,434 45.4 47.5
368 Weighers, measurers, and checkers 134 75,903 19,747 21,428 26.0 28.2
369 Samplers 3 1,357 0 0 0.0 0.0
373 Expediters 202 111,939 20,921 22,366 18.7 20.0
374 Material recording, scheduling, & distributing clerks, n.e.c. 50 25,844 6,309 6,309 24.4 24.4
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 439 247,886 9,525 14,452 3.8 5.8
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 693 375,308 33,760 40,357 9.0 10.8
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 140 75,051 18,697 21,251 24.9 28.3
378 Bill and account collectors 226 122,659 10,597 14,041 8.6 11.4
379 General office clerks 1,331 722,996 94,980 118,678 13.1 16.4
383 Bank tellers 893 476,332 8,418 11,586 1.8 2.4
384 Proofreaders 42 23,688 1,972 1,972 8.3 8.3
385 Data-entry keyers 630 342,031 37,740 46,358 11.0 13.6
386 Statistical clerks 187 104,103 15,627 20,263 15.0 19.5
387 Teachers aides 699 371,484 86,828 121,533 23.4 32.7
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,495 809,011 119,445 143,691 14.8 17.8
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD 1,773 957,251 2,168 2,168 0.2 0.2
403 Launderers and ironers 8 4,400 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 33 18,379 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 60 33,727 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 755 382,838 0 0 0.0 0.0
407 Private household cleaners and servants 917 517,908 2,168 2,168 0.4 0.4
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PROTECTIVE SERVICE 3,268 1,798,738 696,825 780,549 38.7 43.4
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 70 38,972 27,243 27,707 69.9 71.1
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 156 88,695 47,139 53,292 53.1 60.1
415 Supervisors, guards 66 38,026 5,894 6,361 15.5 16.7
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 27 13,976 3,230 3,808 23.1 27.2
417 Firefighting occupations 383 214,681 151,618 156,930 70.6 73.1
418 Police and detectives, public service 732 399,722 239,780 273,288 60.0 68.4
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 161 86,038 26,025 31,571 30.2 36.7
424 Correctional institution officers 321 177,908 82,789 95,050 46.5 53.4
425 Crossing guards 85 40,551 8,962 10,564 22.1 26.1
426 Guards and police, exc. public service 1,155 639,247 103,335 120,901 16.2 18.9
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 112 60,921 809 1,076 1.3 1.8
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXC. PROTECTIVE & HOUSEHOLD 20,531 10,852,611 1,220,582 1,383,435 11.2 12.7
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 516 281,631 14,719 16,685 5.2 5.9
434 Bartenders 594 300,966 21,804 23,763 7.2 7.9
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,717 1,399,716 55,311 60,593 4.0 4.3
436 Cooks, except short order 2,774 1,482,892 87,251 108,144 5.9 7.3
437 Short-order cooks 205 113,649 2,751 4,195 2.4 3.7
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 636 331,231 3,765 4,815 1.1 1.5
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 234 127,667 10,015 13,536 7.8 10.6
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 618 334,071 26,113 31,000 7.8 9.3
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,207 628,061 62,483 72,371 9.9 11.5
445 Dental assistants 306 163,663 503 2,761 0.3 1.7
446 Health aides, except nursing 661 368,654 42,580 50,172 11.6 13.6
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,387 1,272,485 209,850 242,037 16.5 19.0
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 270 141,934 23,473 28,290 16.5 19.9
449 Maids and housemen 1,062 539,876 83,680 92,379 15.5 17.1
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,811 2,033,903 438,279 477,587 21.5 23.5
454 Elevator operators 26 17,339 11,398 11,398 65.7 65.7
455 Pest control occupations 59 35,169 3,280 3,882 9.3 11.0
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 61 27,968 3,954 3,954 14.1 14.1
457 Barbers 42 25,280 1,452 2,207 5.7 8.7
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 769 426,587 10,958 13,380 2.6 3.1
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 287 119,449 6,815 9,345 5.7 7.8
463 Guides 61 28,106 1,265 2,038 4.5 7.3
464 Ushers 32 16,942 1,553 1,553 9.2 9.2
465 Public transportation attendants 125 68,271 46,014 48,456 67.4 71.0
466 Baggage porters and bellhops 51 27,476 7,464 8,690 27.2 31.6
467 Welfare service aides 167 92,029 12,247 13,497 13.3 14.7
468 Child care workers, except private household 636 333,371 19,373 23,284 5.8 7.0
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 217 114,223 12,232 13,423 10.7 11.8
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 3,164 1,746,800 108,666 120,944 6.2 6.9
473 Farmers, except horticultural 21 11,829 776 776 6.6 6.6
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 1 699 0 0 0.0 0.0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 115 56,604 1,586 1,586 2.8 2.8
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 14 7,629 487 487 6.4 6.4
477 Supervisors, farm workers 44 25,002 529 529 2.1 2.1
479 Farm workers 1,409 751,905 13,266 15,164 1.8 2.0
483 Marine life cultivation workers 6 1,581 220 220 13.9 13.9
484 Nursery workers 50 27,993 0 0 0.0 0.0
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 167 101,877 17,431 20,002 17.1 19.6
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 997 579,377 60,441 66,143 10.4 11.4
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 102 57,581 714 1,646 1.2 2.9
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 24 16,349 1,071 1,071 6.5 6.5
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 6 3,881 523 523 13.5 13.5
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 10 4,819 175 335 3.6 7.0
495 Forestry workers, except logging 38 19,003 5,281 5,757 27.8 30.3
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 104 51,295 5,820 6,360 11.3 12.4
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 14 8,647 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 40 19,988 0 0 0.0 0.0
499 Hunters and trappers 2 739 346 346 46.8 46.8
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 14,024 7,719,161 2,114,436 2,269,616 27.4 29.4
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 416 219,696 22,476 29,238 10.2 13.3
505 Automobile mechanics 1,226 690,639 84,948 92,471 12.3 13.4
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 4 1,900 0 0 0.0 0.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 586 317,034 92,703 99,964 29.2 31.5
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 176 97,617 50,886 52,999 52.1 54.3
509 Small engine repairers 107 53,843 3,722 3,722 6.9 6.9
514 Automobile body and related repairers 255 132,510 10,313 10,952 7.8 8.3
515 Aircraft mechanics, exc. engine 25 13,493 8,698 8,698 64.5 64.5
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 322 160,944 69,076 72,532 42.9 45.1
517 Farm equipment mechanics 63 30,185 1,676 1,676 5.6 5.6
518 Industry machinery repairers 940 522,037 200,669 214,230 38.4 41.0
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 63 35,311 17,558 18,457 49.7 52.3
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 252 137,690 35,518 39,852 25.8 28.9
525 Data processing equipment repairers 232 131,714 13,177 14,299 10.0 10.9
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 69 34,976 7,769 8,260 22.2 23.6
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 119 63,558 53,979 55,506 84.9 87.3
529 Telephone Installers and repairers 412 221,687 160,918 168,183 72.6 75.9
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 130 73,938 33,632 36,470 45.5 49.3
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 374 220,959 52,230 55,957 23.6 25.3
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 28 14,175 2,749 2,749 19.4 19.4
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 16 9,296 650 650 7.0 7.0
538 Office machine repairers 109 56,462 5,069 5,542 9.0 9.8
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 36 21,371 9,098 11,221 42.6 52.5
543 Elevator installers and repairers 36 19,744 15,303 16,025 77.5 81.2
544 Millwrights 163 95,266 67,349 68,012 70.7 71.4
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 624 339,112 85,809 94,037 25.3 27.7
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 258 143,029 40,231 42,993 28.1 30.1
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 104 48,170 2,650 2,650 5.5 5.5
614 Drillers, oil well 83 40,001 2,654 3,679 6.6 9.2
615 Explosives workers 14 6,350 2,422 2,530 38.1 39.8
616 Mining machine operators 77 31,668 16,744 17,482 52.9 55.2
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 76 38,221 12,594 14,311 32.9 37.4
633 Supervisors, production occupations 2,371 1,325,395 160,967 189,905 12.1 14.3
634 Tool and die makers 268 150,523 67,160 70,263 44.6 46.7
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 8 5,505 2,062 2,062 37.5 37.5
636 Precision assemblers, metal 15 7,528 3,701 3,701 49.2 49.2
637 Machinists 822 466,594 167,726 175,708 35.9 37.7
639 Machinist apprentices 8 5,864 0 0 0.0 0.0
643 Boilermakers 44 23,840 15,805 17,451 66.3 73.2
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 39 23,771 10,851 12,602 45.6 53.0
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 8 4,677 1,584 1,584 33.9 33.9
646 Lay-out workers 31 18,372 8,639 8,639 47.0 47.0
647 Precious stones and metals workers (jewelers) 64 28,204 312 312 1.1 1.1
649 Engravers, metal 17 9,192 1,812 1,812 19.7 19.7
653 Sheet metal workers 224 129,286 59,323 61,917 45.9 47.9
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 5 2,417 1,521 1,521 62.9 62.9
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 6 3,355 1,085 1,085 32.3 32.3
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 11 6,104 2,648 2,648 43.4 43.4
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 71 42,047 6,384 6,949 15.2 16.5
658 Furniture and wood finishers 46 23,400 2,559 2,559 10.9 10.9
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 4 1,595 462 462 29.0 29.0
666 Dressmakers 131 74,586 4,789 4,789 6.4 6.4
667 Tailors 59 35,595 8,310 8,310 23.3 23.3
668 Upholsterers 89 47,995 3,878 4,196 8.1 8.7
669 Shoe repairers 27 12,308 2,900 2,900 23.6 23.6
673 Apparel and fabric patternmakers 2 788 473 473 60.1 60.1
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 13 6,321 1,257 1,257 19.9 19.9
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 19 12,112 2,997 2,997 24.7 24.7
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 33 18,081 8,968 9,673 49.6 53.5
677 Optical goods workers 82 45,563 2,458 2,841 5.4 6.2
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 73 43,605 1,403 1,403 3.2 3.2
679 Bookbinders 60 34,882 9,020 9,020 25.9 25.9
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 564 321,592 96,984 104,000 30.2 32.3
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 42 26,461 7,373 8,102 27.9 30.6
686 Butchers and meat cutters 506 275,337 87,744 91,790 31.9 33.3
687 Bakers 176 92,322 30,449 31,062 33.0 33.6
688 Food batchmakers 61 33,450 6,032 6,543 18.0 19.6
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 186 103,084 43,468 48,406 42.2 47.0
693 Adjusters and calibrators 11 5,488 1,024 1,024 18.7 18.7
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 84 46,338 17,492 19,379 37.7 41.8
695 Power plant operators 72 38,542 23,557 24,399 61.1 63.3
696 Stationary engineers 199 104,146 42,167 44,474 40.5 42.7
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 78 40,301 13,822 16,049 34.3 39.8
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 6,722 3,735,944 1,153,414 1,219,514 30.9 32.6
553 Supervisors; brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 6 3,579 620 620 17.3 17.3
554 Supervisors; carpenters and related workers 43 23,702 9,119 9,119 38.5 38.5
555 Supervisors; electricians and power transmission installers 59 27,532 9,126 9,564 33.1 34.7
556 Supervisors; painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 12 6,906 1,143 1,143 16.6 16.6
557 Supervisors; plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 21 14,445 6,202 6,814 42.9 47.2
558 Supervisors; n.e.c. 647 354,735 86,828 93,403 24.5 26.3
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 222 123,761 47,720 49,394 38.6 39.9
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 5 2,173 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 58 33,078 8,917 8,917 27.0 27.0
566 Carpet installers 110 61,758 10,483 10,547 17.0 17.1
567 Carpenters 1,693 915,442 202,977 213,416 22.2 23.3
569 Carpenter apprentices 20 10,624 6,459 6,459 60.8 60.8
573 Drywall installers 170 107,900 17,772 18,984 16.5 17.6
575 Electricians 983 548,152 255,874 266,695 46.7 48.7
576 Electrician apprentices 56 28,369 11,561 14,523 40.8 51.2
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 218 106,755 65,890 69,522 61.7 65.1
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 589 338,902 57,454 63,309 17.0 18.7
583 Paperhangers 18 9,609 2,493 2,493 25.9 25.9
584 Plasterers 50 29,296 10,031 10,219 34.2 34.9
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 680 374,324 163,213 169,150 43.6 45.2
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 26 14,794 4,813 5,446 32.5 36.8
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 121 77,675 15,831 16,495 20.4 21.2
589 Glaziers 77 41,206 14,945 15,833 36.3 38.4
593 Insulation workers 104 55,869 16,378 17,014 29.3 30.5
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 21 9,980 2,827 2,827 28.3 28.3
595 Roofers 217 136,631 19,676 24,341 14.4 17.8
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 77 48,046 16,571 17,574 34.5 36.6
597 Structural metal workers 108 65,623 38,804 40,831 59.1 62.2
598 Drillers, earth 26 12,002 3,038 3,806 25.3 31.7
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 285 153,075 46,648 51,055 30.5 33.4
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 13,831 7,744,663 2,565,769 2,689,776 33.1 34.7
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 29 16,415 9,331 9,331 56.8 56.8
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 114 62,007 19,943 22,035 32.2 35.5
705 Milling and planing machine operators 26 14,150 6,991 6,991 49.4 49.4
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 242 141,477 66,624 69,959 47.1 49.4
707 Rolling machine operators 20 13,187 6,301 6,301 47.8 47.8
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 59 33,855 16,542 16,542 48.9 48.9
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 249 147,434 73,399 74,784 49.8 50.7
713 Forging machine operators 26 14,094 7,799 8,570 55.3 60.8
714 Numerical control machine operators 3 2,022 614 614 30.4 30.4
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 77 41,557 22,629 22,629 54.5 54.5
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 54 29,172 9,608 10,198 32.9 35.0
719 Molding and casting machine operators 177 100,949 33,112 34,856 32.8 34.5
723 Metal plating machine operators 55 35,609 10,530 10,530 29.6 29.6
724 Heat treating equipment operators 40 23,891 13,518 13,518 56.6 56.6
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 23 11,630 2,739 3,298 23.6 28.4
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 18 8,431 1,520 2,422 18.0 28.7
727 Sawing machine operators 170 93,794 15,834 17,815 16.9 19.0
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 7 4,489 824 824 18.3 18.3
729 Nail and tacking machine operators 6 4,222 742 742 17.6 17.6
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 63 31,465 6,731 7,784 21.4 24.7
734 Printing machine operators 516 290,794 67,686 76,132 23.3 26.2
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 71 38,814 12,048 13,394 31.0 34.5
736 Typesetters and compositors 137 72,448 11,550 11,920 15.9 16.5
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 74 42,307 4,597 4,597 10.9 10.9
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 175 86,988 12,366 13,922 14.2 16.0
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 95 48,716 4,448 5,003 9.1 10.3
743 Textile cutting machine operators 10 4,575 640 640 14.0 14.0
744 Textile sewing machine operators 1,275 730,554 162,188 172,587 22.2 23.6
745 Shoe machine operators 81 36,108 9,742 10,468 27.0 29.0
747 Pressing machine operators 241 137,256 34,998 38,399 25.5 28.0
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 338 175,379 17,958 21,791 10.2 12.4
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 155 76,248 9,390 9,675 12.3 12.7
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 65 34,768 10,649 10,649 30.6 30.6
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 738 413,989 139,326 142,334 33.7 34.4
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 56 31,169 7,916 9,641 25.4 30.9
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 164 89,139 36,842 37,656 41.3 42.2
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 107 62,164 30,763 32,700 49.5 52.6
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 29 17,685 7,648 7,648 43.2 43.2
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 309 180,624 52,601 52,601 29.1 29.1
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 11 5,002 1,570 1,570 31.4 31.4
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 15 7,762 2,463 2,679 31.7 34.5
765 Folding machine operators 46 23,663 8,000 8,000 33.8 33.8
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, exc. food 200 111,774 64,977 66,401 58.1 59.4
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 114 56,505 14,802 16,224 26.2 28.7
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 383 227,681 63,658 64,734 28.0 28.4
773 Motion picture projectionists 19 9,052 4,035 4,035 44.6 44.6
774 Photographic process machine operators 142 76,822 7,122 8,617 9.3 11.2
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,616 912,824 370,929 384,332 40.6 42.1
779 Machine operators, not specified 603 337,436 140,751 147,827 41.7 43.8
783 Welders and cutters 967 540,414 221,217 230,544 40.9 42.7
784 Solderers and brazers 60 34,606 10,517 10,517 30.4 30.4
785 Assemblers 1,864 1,067,469 417,668 433,872 39.1 40.6
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 23 11,414 1,686 1,686 14.8 14.8
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 25 13,533 2,305 2,305 17.0 17.0
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 50 26,020 5,206 5,206 20.0 20.0
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 24 15,559 1,522 3,346 9.8 21.5
794 Hand grinding and polishing occupations 5 1,932 665 665 34.4 34.4
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 94 45,785 6,535 6,535 14.3 14.3
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 1,216 668,709 232,273 246,390 34.7 36.8
797 Production testers 91 51,957 13,182 14,055 25.4 27.1
798 Production samplers and weighers 12 8,358 1,880 1,880 22.5 22.5
799 Graders and sorters, exc. agricultural 157 90,811 14,118 16,854 15.5 18.6
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,595 4,214,502 1,301,918 1,380,474 30.9 32.8
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 107 62,121 12,166 14,449 19.6 23.3
804 Truck drivers, heavy 2,932 1,606,529 447,334 467,471 27.8 29.1
805 Truck drivers, light 1,056 604,339 95,184 98,049 15.8 16.2
806 Driver-sales workers 345 197,688 64,794 67,700 32.8 34.2
808 Bus drivers 759 413,148 140,903 164,167 34.1 39.7
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 253 144,776 22,342 26,239 15.4 18.1
813 Parking lot attendants 81 48,581 7,335 8,408 15.1 17.3
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 5 2,162 0 0 0.0 0.0
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 67 35,756 31,668 32,124 88.6 89.8
824 Locomotive operating occupations 115 59,172 56,030 56,616 94.7 95.7
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 79 39,817 37,113 37,113 93.2 93.2
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 5 1,963 1,963 1,963 100.0 100.0
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 43 25,540 6,300 7,931 24.7 31.1
829 Sailors and deckhands 26 16,869 6,219 6,717 36.9 39.8
833 Marine engineers 3 1,496 776 776 51.9 51.9
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 16 9,407 3,611 4,053 38.4 43.1
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 33 16,606 3,024 3,162 18.2 19.0
844 Operating engineers 292 156,434 59,420 65,060 38.0 41.6
845 Longshore equipment operators 5 3,445 3,375 3,375 98.0 98.0
848 Hoist and winch operators 52 28,216 3,387 3,387 12.0 12.0
849 Crane and tower operators 160 86,088 59,509 61,544 69.1 71.5
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 159 83,568 20,394 22,298 24.4 26.7
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 172 92,764 17,817 18,454 19.2 19.9
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 652 388,962 168,818 175,353 43.4 45.1
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 178 89,056 32,436 34,064 36.4 38.3
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, & LABORERS 8,186 4,594,789 1,143,925 1,218,186 24.9 26.5
863 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, & laborers, n.e.c. 21 13,297 5,126 5,126 38.6 38.6
864 Helpers, mechanics and repairers 68 36,400 4,168 4,731 11.5 13.0
865 Helpers, construction trades 292 171,959 21,869 24,338 12.7 14.2
866 Helpers, surveyor 27 15,753 473 473 3.0 3.0
867 Helpers, extractive occupations 8 3,640 2,310 2,310 63.5 63.5
869 Construction laborers 1,297 730,866 167,196 178,715 22.9 24.5
873 Production helpers 108 66,509 24,402 25,024 36.7 37.6
875 Garbage collectors 92 58,304 17,982 19,428 30.8 33.3
876 Stevedores 41 22,794 20,344 20,395 89.3 89.5
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,608 884,996 203,013 217,898 22.9 24.6
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 181 97,168 25,823 26,912 26.6 27.7
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,088 635,250 218,549 233,028 34.4 36.7
885 Garage and service station related occupations 512 277,428 11,089 11,089 4.0 4.0
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 340 189,282 31,822 36,397 16.8 19.2
888 Hand packers and packagers 537 301,073 80,865 86,492 26.9 28.7
889 Laborers, except construction 1,966 1,090,069 308,894 325,830 28.3 29.9
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1986. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1980 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.