Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1987 (details in table note)
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, & MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 19,618 10,770,202 725,802 944,012 6.7 8.8
3 Legislators 24 10,044 0 292 0.0 2.9
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public admin. 38 22,371 1,359 1,359 6.1 6.1
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 906 458,861 85,465 115,278 18.6 25.1
6 Administrators, protective services 93 44,313 10,454 10,454 23.6 23.6
7 Financial managers 819 444,750 5,976 11,004 1.3 2.5
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 223 130,788 195 2,218 0.1 1.7
9 Purchasing managers 169 97,409 2,803 3,864 2.9 4.0
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 737 430,632 9,309 14,649 2.2 3.4
14 Administrators, education and related fields 939 483,270 99,059 125,984 20.5 26.1
15 Managers, medicine and health 275 145,548 10,824 13,597 7.4 9.3
16 Managers, properties and real estate 488 283,455 8,908 12,275 3.1 4.3
17 Postmasters and mail superintendents 89 40,247 17,001 18,409 42.2 45.7
18 Funeral directors 44 22,262 0 437 0.0 2.0
19 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 8,818 4,862,822 218,431 277,388 4.5 5.7
23 Accountants and auditors 2,048 1,149,716 76,225 102,671 6.6 8.9
24 Underwriters 165 95,017 2,111 3,527 2.2 3.7
25 Other financial officers 1,052 569,954 13,174 23,369 2.3 4.1
26 Management analysts 188 103,157 3,754 6,574 3.6 6.4
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 696 380,181 39,464 47,684 10.4 12.5
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 22 8,434 1,819 1,819 21.6 21.6
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 356 207,227 5,890 7,620 2.8 3.7
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 431 234,652 15,404 21,343 6.6 9.1
34 Business and promotion agents 26 14,900 2,239 2,827 15.0 19.0
35 Construction inspectors 106 55,295 13,598 17,371 24.6 31.4
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, exc. construction 336 184,775 63,981 76,001 34.6 41.1
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 530 290,118 18,360 25,997 6.3 9.0
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS 15,571 8,500,358 976,737 1,209,124 11.5 14.2
43 Architects 136 76,815 3,442 4,380 4.5 5.7
44 Aerospace engineers 161 107,577 9,458 15,596 8.8 14.5
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 43 23,182 2,951 3,662 12.7 15.8
46 Mining engineers 14 5,368 1,166 1,277 21.7 23.8
47 Petroleum engineers 45 26,048 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 105 58,381 2,015 2,015 3.5 3.5
49 Nuclear engineers 29 16,505 1,554 1,554 9.4 9.4
53 Civil engineers 385 202,574 30,860 36,728 15.2 18.1
54 Agricultural engineers 2 1,484 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 911 520,075 36,943 48,597 7.1 9.3
56 Industrial engineers 380 227,640 15,678 20,033 6.9 8.8
57 Mechanical engineers 449 255,670 17,822 19,542 7.0 7.6
58 Marine and naval architects engineers 20 11,479 3,025 3,313 26.4 28.9
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 381 210,020 11,218 15,904 5.3 7.6
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 51 26,597 2,463 3,510 9.3 13.2
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 730 410,802 26,419 34,032 6.4 8.3
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 354 197,978 7,306 9,352 3.7 4.7
66 Actuaries 20 10,596 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 46 22,978 2,745 2,899 11.9 12.6
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 7 3,512 1,036 1,036 29.5 29.5
69 Physicists and astronomers 46 25,723 3,140 4,379 12.2 17.0
73 Chemists, except biochemists 223 124,057 9,161 10,852 7.4 8.7
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 21 13,012 1,638 2,667 12.6 20.5
75 Geologists and geodesists 75 38,685 1,770 2,786 4.6 7.2
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 29 14,022 1,047 2,860 7.5 20.4
77 Agricultural and food scientists 60 28,007 1,514 3,019 5.4 10.8
78 Biological and life scientists 137 72,293 4,074 7,024 5.6 9.7
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 57 22,689 1,033 2,171 4.6 9.6
83 Medical scientists 65 37,891 1,704 2,571 4.5 6.8
84 Physicians 441 255,932 14,558 28,400 5.7 11.1
85 Dentists 29 17,404 2,182 3,278 12.5 18.8
86 Veterinarians 37 19,358 514 894 2.7 4.6
87 Optometrists 20 11,488 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 1 470 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 5 3,334 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 2,965 1,577,611 253,524 310,676 16.1 19.7
96 Pharmacists 222 119,909 11,983 13,045 10.0 10.9
97 Dietitians 112 61,477 7,205 8,574 11.7 13.9
98 Inhalation therapists 102 58,161 7,398 9,638 12.7 16.6
99 Occupational therapists 61 33,815 7,046 8,934 20.8 26.4
103 Physical therapists 133 67,845 4,245 5,580 6.3 8.2
104 Speech therapists 127 67,465 24,042 29,089 35.6 43.1
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 85 45,152 10,208 11,679 22.6 25.9
106 Physicians' assistants 100 59,699 11,436 13,273 19.2 22.2
163 Counselors, educational and vocational 363 191,161 74,988 90,334 39.2 47.3
164 Librarians 397 198,320 44,425 53,543 22.4 27.0
165 Archivists and curators 42 24,565 4,088 4,088 16.6 16.6
166 Economists 181 99,935 3,730 7,754 3.7 7.8
167 Psychologists 217 118,955 23,756 29,508 20.0 24.8
168 Sociologists 1 1,166 0 0 0.0 0.0
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 31 15,675 449 1,054 2.9 6.7
173 Urban planners 23 10,023 2,154 3,774 21.5 37.7
174 Social workers 909 488,330 124,574 145,396 25.5 29.8
175 Recreation workers 164 85,626 5,138 6,279 6.0 7.3
176 Clergy 520 266,620 3,963 4,408 1.5 1.7
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 148 83,012 899 899 1.1 1.1
178 Lawyers 690 357,727 13,566 18,237 3.8 5.1
179 Judges 69 37,950 4,918 4,918 13.0 13.0
183 Authors 31 17,036 547 547 3.2 3.2
184 Technical writers 79 46,047 2,689 3,362 5.8 7.3
185 Designers 720 402,927 21,265 24,615 5.3 6.1
186 Musicians and composers 160 95,137 14,577 16,253 15.3 17.1
187 Actors and directors 119 66,215 10,126 13,601 15.3 20.5
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist print-makers 153 90,116 6,870 9,040 7.6 10.0
189 Photographers 134 73,021 5,905 7,222 8.1 9.9
193 Dancers 26 13,137 2,881 2,881 21.9 21.9
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 67 34,802 4,866 4,866 14.0 14.0
195 Editors and reporters 458 241,252 28,157 31,775 11.7 13.2
197 Public relations specialists 249 136,531 5,877 7,042 4.3 5.2
198 Announcers 96 52,698 2,308 2,404 4.4 4.6
199 Athletes 102 61,593 8,500 10,503 13.8 17.1
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,274 664,862 125,173 171,134 18.8 25.7
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 16 8,702 1,751 2,427 20.1 27.9
114 Biological science teachers 50 24,527 3,834 5,228 15.6 21.3
115 Chemistry teachers 20 11,522 1,627 2,063 14.1 17.9
116 Physics teachers 29 13,811 2,371 3,401 17.2 24.6
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 4 2,764 888 2,263 32.1 81.9
118 Psychology teachers 37 17,586 3,462 5,056 19.7 28.7
119 Economics teachers 41 24,684 4,403 4,403 17.8 17.8
123 History teachers 29 17,056 7,072 7,072 41.5 41.5
124 Political science teachers 20 11,286 2,341 4,239 20.7 37.6
125 Sociology teachers 16 9,062 1,601 3,065 17.7 33.8
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 14 5,715 1,174 2,018 20.5 35.3
127 Engineering teachers 40 17,093 4,257 5,048 24.9 29.5
128 Mathematical science teachers 74 35,861 6,680 11,263 18.6 31.4
129 Computer science teachers 21 10,325 551 2,296 5.3 22.2
133 Medical science teachers 25 13,646 570 570 4.2 4.2
134 Health specialties teachers 70 38,479 9,216 12,479 24.0 32.4
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 50 25,126 3,411 6,692 13.6 26.6
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 4 1,630 0 0 0.0 0.0
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 74 39,310 9,106 11,851 23.2 30.1
138 Physical education teachers 20 13,245 3,857 8,076 29.1 61.0
139 Education teachers 18 9,715 4,093 4,900 42.1 50.4
143 English teachers 116 58,675 11,743 14,711 20.0 25.1
144 Foreign language teachers 32 16,433 5,025 6,415 30.6 39.0
145 Law teachers 12 6,311 603 603 9.6 9.6
146 Social work teachers 4 2,086 0 627 0.0 30.1
147 Theology teachers 26 15,914 1,621 2,370 10.2 14.9
148 Trade and industrial teachers 5 2,112 244 244 11.6 11.6
149 Home economics teachers 2 456 0 0 0.0 0.0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 6 2,554 0 0 0.0 0.0
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 399 209,179 33,672 41,756 16.1 20.0
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,587 3,442,248 1,684,540 1,961,368 48.9 57.0
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 707 386,014 81,590 100,184 21.1 26.0
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,563 1,319,379 761,964 879,828 57.8 66.7
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,252 1,170,199 683,756 790,107 58.4 67.5
158 Teachers, special education 414 211,765 126,784 147,965 59.9 69.9
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 651 354,891 30,447 43,284 8.6 12.2
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 5,979 3,242,613 340,871 411,950 10.5 12.7
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 475 248,056 26,443 31,764 10.7 12.8
204 Dental hygienists 144 74,577 3,186 3,186 4.3 4.3
205 Health record technologists and technicians 98 55,680 2,539 3,128 4.6 5.6
206 Radiologic technicians 241 132,812 9,041 13,347 6.8 10.0
207 Licensed practical nurses 757 403,310 43,423 53,192 10.8 13.2
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 395 212,621 22,402 25,847 10.5 12.2
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 525 292,899 53,140 64,488 18.1 22.0
214 Industrial engineering technicians 7 4,255 1,095 1,095 25.7 25.7
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 22 11,861 1,055 1,055 8.9 8.9
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 374 209,456 20,140 26,737 9.6 12.8
217 Drafting occupations 481 274,838 24,642 30,499 9.0 11.1
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 127 69,943 5,687 6,990 8.1 10.0
223 Biological technicians 103 55,412 5,206 5,206 9.4 9.4
224 Chemical technicians 153 70,954 9,050 10,797 12.8 15.2
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 115 64,160 6,922 7,622 10.8 11.9
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 147 73,564 32,567 34,354 44.3 46.7
227 Air traffic controllers 66 32,902 7,777 10,687 23.6 32.5
228 Broadcast equipment operators 37 20,553 5,976 5,976 29.1 29.1
229 Computer programmers 905 512,322 25,736 34,912 5.0 6.8
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 3 1,948 0 0 0.0 0.0
234 Legal assistants 352 184,604 5,386 7,546 2.9 4.1
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 452 235,888 29,457 33,523 12.5 14.2
SALES OCCUPATIONS 19,755 10,859,876 612,411 691,032 5.6 6.4
243 Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 4,142 2,267,547 125,977 141,614 5.6 6.2
253 Insurance sales occupations 709 385,281 13,945 18,086 3.6 4.7
254 Real estate sales occupations 784 441,361 11,261 17,213 2.6 3.9
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 447 247,701 3,329 4,315 1.3 1.7
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 245 127,515 7,398 8,455 5.8 6.6
257 Sales occupations, other business services 819 471,684 19,292 24,576 4.1 5.2
258 Sales engineers 59 32,955 0 0 0.0 0.0
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,393 1,338,868 24,969 36,346 1.9 2.7
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 482 277,546 6,596 6,841 2.4 2.5
264 Sales workers, apparel 811 431,283 7,516 8,861 1.7 2.1
265 Sales workers, shoes 194 117,476 4,907 4,907 4.2 4.2
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 287 156,556 2,117 2,333 1.4 1.5
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 289 166,288 1,945 3,132 1.2 1.9
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 367 195,430 2,752 3,709 1.4 1.9
269 Sales workers, parts 276 152,897 8,101 8,170 5.3 5.3
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,577 1,417,688 52,981 58,820 3.7 4.1
275 Sales counter clerks 292 161,090 4,408 4,989 2.7 3.1
276 Cashiers 4,162 2,248,403 310,751 332,160 13.8 14.8
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 217 117,756 1,209 1,812 1.0 1.5
278 News vendors 125 63,924 1,365 2,414 2.1 3.8
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 51 26,658 1,591 2,277 6.0 8.5
284 Auctioneers 4 2,087 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 23 11,884 0 0 0.0 0.0
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INC. CLERICAL 32,320 17,698,062 2,311,381 2,764,777 13.1 15.6
303 Supervisors, general office 810 425,256 49,678 65,259 11.7 15.3
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 93 49,143 1,721 2,699 3.5 5.5
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 144 80,772 4,733 5,363 5.9 6.6
306 Chief communications operators 6 3,611 0 0 0.0 0.0
307 Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 285 157,544 37,651 41,921 23.9 26.6
308 Computer operators 1,567 907,694 89,128 115,375 9.8 12.7
309 Peripheral equipment operators 4 2,269 0 0 0.0 0.0
313 Secretaries 7,398 3,968,977 270,202 356,027 6.8 9.0
314 Stenographers 73 38,893 13,068 13,533 33.6 34.8
315 Typists 1,490 819,156 99,467 127,243 12.1 15.5
316 Interviewers 288 165,646 11,077 13,132 6.7 7.9
317 Hotel clerks 171 86,099 2,070 2,791 2.4 3.2
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 217 114,782 25,206 29,184 22.0 25.4
319 Receptionists 1,377 747,274 26,830 31,901 3.6 4.3
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 383 216,011 10,967 12,036 5.1 5.6
325 Classified-ad clerks 9 4,292 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 36 17,831 5,200 5,970 29.2 33.5
327 Order clerks 338 184,081 52,649 60,934 28.6 33.1
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 126 71,021 5,278 7,806 7.4 11.0
329 Library clerks 279 145,067 14,436 17,854 10.0 12.3
335 File clerks 509 285,882 22,582 31,392 7.9 11.0
336 Records clerks 262 145,252 20,797 25,550 14.3 17.6
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 3,266 1,740,667 88,976 114,192 5.1 6.6
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 306 164,813 29,246 37,357 17.7 22.7
339 Billing clerks 316 179,049 15,054 20,607 8.4 11.5
343 Cost and rate clerks 138 83,816 7,511 9,331 9.0 11.1
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 64 32,466 1,291 1,428 4.0 4.4
345 Duplicating machine operators 42 25,621 1,128 3,940 4.4 15.4
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 22 11,739 836 1,675 7.1 14.3
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 56 29,697 1,980 1,980 6.7 6.7
348 Telephone operators 417 226,400 88,286 98,041 39.0 43.3
349 Telegraphers 10 4,279 497 497 11.6 11.6
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 5 2,969 584 584 19.7 19.7
354 Postal clerks, exc. mail carriers 576 311,419 233,093 262,483 74.8 84.3
355 Mail carriers, postal service 584 318,215 262,340 274,159 82.4 86.2
356 Mail clerks, exc. postal service 303 177,711 24,217 28,810 13.6 16.2
357 Messengers 266 155,650 9,649 10,553 6.2 6.8
359 Dispatchers 377 199,074 41,112 48,014 20.7 24.1
363 Production coordinators 344 198,590 26,643 33,558 13.4 16.9
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 852 471,152 96,565 106,203 20.5 22.5
365 Stock and inventory clerks 994 579,659 112,432 132,944 19.4 22.9
366 Meter readers 95 50,448 26,296 27,640 52.1 54.8
368 Weighers, measurers, and checkers 126 71,189 20,742 21,015 29.1 29.5
369 Samplers 1 534 0 0 0.0 0.0
373 Expediters 180 101,585 25,780 27,150 25.4 26.7
374 Material recording, scheduling, & distributing clerks, n.e.c. 46 25,369 6,686 6,995 26.4 27.6
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 457 252,801 7,725 10,217 3.1 4.0
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 784 439,551 32,734 40,056 7.4 9.1
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 138 65,812 15,709 18,661 23.9 28.4
378 Bill and account collectors 216 118,902 10,033 12,977 8.4 10.9
379 General office clerks 1,323 738,690 92,087 109,286 12.5 14.8
383 Bank tellers 865 462,876 6,347 11,970 1.4 2.6
384 Proofreaders 43 24,606 714 714 2.9 2.9
385 Data-entry keyers 618 358,711 32,183 40,623 9.0 11.3
386 Statistical clerks 156 95,310 12,635 17,130 13.3 18.0
387 Teachers aides 741 397,735 93,069 118,669 23.4 29.8
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,728 944,406 124,460 149,347 13.2 15.8
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD 1,677 900,290 1,140 1,140 0.1 0.1
403 Launderers and ironers 2 843 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 23 12,055 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 74 43,456 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 750 384,980 501 501 0.1 0.1
407 Private household cleaners and servants 828 458,955 638 638 0.1 0.1
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PROTECTIVE SERVICE 3,370 1,908,508 725,304 795,016 38.0 41.7
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 72 37,753 27,110 28,454 71.8 75.4
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 164 88,719 42,129 48,913 47.5 55.1
415 Supervisors, guards 67 34,148 4,179 6,047 12.2 17.7
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 31 16,551 6,167 6,496 37.3 39.3
417 Firefighting occupations 360 198,724 146,194 150,931 73.6 76.0
418 Police and detectives, public service 781 442,547 264,785 290,139 59.8 65.6
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 186 105,084 40,166 45,124 38.2 42.9
424 Correctional institution officers 287 171,062 90,261 96,360 52.8 56.3
425 Crossing guards 93 50,019 5,537 7,415 11.1 14.8
426 Guards and police, exc. public service 1,184 686,327 92,756 109,117 13.5 15.9
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 145 77,575 6,020 6,020 7.8 7.8
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXC. PROTECTIVE & HOUSEHOLD 20,619 11,066,845 1,226,460 1,390,460 11.1 12.6
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 552 288,998 14,847 17,673 5.1 6.1
434 Bartenders 597 311,706 13,437 14,290 4.3 4.6
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,590 1,372,332 44,174 54,468 3.2 4.0
436 Cooks, except short order 2,916 1,568,927 98,973 117,815 6.3 7.5
437 Short-order cooks 164 86,160 732 1,113 0.8 1.3
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 664 345,720 4,378 4,378 1.3 1.3
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 235 128,340 9,558 10,811 7.4 8.4
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 620 345,363 23,157 27,626 6.7 8.0
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,229 664,093 72,602 91,417 10.9 13.8
445 Dental assistants 304 166,932 1,351 3,486 0.8 2.1
446 Health aides, except nursing 673 370,069 43,194 48,024 11.7 13.0
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,437 1,296,792 206,741 231,809 15.9 17.9
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 286 156,178 25,888 29,044 16.6 18.6
449 Maids and housemen 1,070 546,879 77,688 83,547 14.2 15.3
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,598 1,996,625 447,044 495,297 22.4 24.8
454 Elevator operators 16 7,701 4,236 4,236 55.0 55.0
455 Pest control occupations 71 45,034 1,286 1,286 2.9 2.9
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 68 35,080 3,660 4,502 10.4 12.8
457 Barbers 42 26,051 2,232 2,232 8.6 8.6
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 761 422,274 5,789 7,278 1.4 1.7
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 280 117,525 4,332 5,668 3.7 4.8
463 Guides 72 33,501 2,773 3,801 8.3 11.3
464 Ushers 30 15,847 795 795 5.0 5.0
465 Public transportation attendants 135 75,731 55,170 58,712 72.8 77.5
466 Baggage porters and bellhops 67 37,531 13,564 14,699 36.1 39.2
467 Welfare service aides 197 106,999 12,177 13,363 11.4 12.5
468 Child care workers, except private household 699 368,724 25,165 30,478 6.8 8.3
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 246 129,736 11,518 12,610 8.9 9.7
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 3,096 1,762,512 95,957 112,969 5.4 6.4
473 Farmers, except horticultural 14 6,515 0 0 0.0 0.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 125 62,308 314 314 0.5 0.5
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 9 5,248 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 55 28,018 4,047 4,863 14.4 17.4
479 Farm workers 1,364 764,368 10,256 12,101 1.3 1.6
483 Marine life cultivation workers 2 384 384 384 100.0 100.0
484 Nursery workers 57 34,250 1,319 1,816 3.8 5.3
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 115 61,140 9,928 12,216 16.2 20.0
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 1,044 625,639 57,617 65,779 9.2 10.5
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 119 68,032 5,022 5,289 7.4 7.8
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 23 15,849 1,027 1,027 6.5 6.5
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 2 1,715 978 978 57.0 57.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 14 7,831 903 2,025 11.5 25.9
495 Forestry workers, except logging 33 16,836 1,111 1,111 6.6 6.6
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 82 44,502 2,683 4,698 6.0 10.6
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 8 4,878 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 28 14,294 369 369 2.6 2.6
499 Hunters and trappers 2 705 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 13,880 7,747,483 2,023,961 2,195,991 26.1 28.3
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 491 259,942 29,473 35,768 11.3 13.8
505 Automobile mechanics 1,172 671,936 65,858 73,828 9.8 11.0
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 1 570 0 0 0.0 0.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 550 297,362 98,736 105,490 33.2 35.5
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 199 116,985 58,338 68,889 49.9 58.9
509 Small engine repairers 94 48,345 2,933 2,933 6.1 6.1
514 Automobile body and related repairers 234 128,303 10,919 12,448 8.5 9.7
515 Aircraft mechanics, exc. engine 24 12,886 8,558 9,141 66.4 70.9
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 301 149,751 65,557 68,611 43.8 45.8
517 Farm equipment mechanics 47 26,023 3,004 3,004 11.5 11.5
518 Industry machinery repairers 947 538,044 205,553 216,311 38.2 40.2
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 57 33,397 19,046 19,594 57.0 58.7
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 260 144,460 30,508 38,191 21.1 26.4
525 Data processing equipment repairers 232 138,582 10,629 13,248 7.7 9.6
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 55 29,094 4,786 6,041 16.5 20.8
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 110 60,487 40,714 42,233 67.3 69.8
529 Telephone Installers and repairers 373 207,155 134,940 140,452 65.1 67.8
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 103 57,638 26,570 27,926 46.1 48.5
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 412 237,485 51,423 56,024 21.7 23.6
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 35 18,973 1,469 1,469 7.7 7.7
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 18 11,860 170 803 1.4 6.8
538 Office machine repairers 115 61,797 4,949 5,660 8.0 9.2
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 34 19,652 7,951 9,036 40.5 46.0
543 Elevator installers and repairers 43 24,411 18,207 19,176 74.6 78.6
544 Millwrights 164 92,085 63,892 64,526 69.4 70.1
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 720 403,797 103,046 110,700 25.5 27.4
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 297 169,379 48,467 54,528 28.6 32.2
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 90 42,207 2,065 2,847 4.9 6.7
614 Drillers, oil well 64 38,518 312 312 0.8 0.8
615 Explosives workers 17 7,694 2,266 2,266 29.5 29.5
616 Mining machine operators 79 36,240 15,367 16,220 42.4 44.8
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 78 36,447 12,708 13,411 34.9 36.8
633 Supervisors, production occupations 2,323 1,298,996 152,150 176,770 11.7 13.6
634 Tool and die makers 245 136,176 58,207 61,897 42.7 45.5
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 8 4,496 486 486 10.8 10.8
636 Precision assemblers, metal 16 8,059 2,817 2,817 35.0 35.0
637 Machinists 819 463,445 170,373 180,722 36.8 39.0
639 Machinist apprentices 2 661 0 0 0.0 0.0
643 Boilermakers 29 13,657 6,545 6,762 47.9 49.5
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 39 22,006 8,282 8,730 37.6 39.7
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 7 4,345 2,268 2,268 52.2 52.2
646 Lay-out workers 23 13,119 5,177 5,989 39.5 45.6
647 Precious stones and metals workers (jewelers) 53 26,815 511 511 1.9 1.9
649 Engravers, metal 35 19,618 3,699 3,699 18.9 18.9
653 Sheet metal workers 200 114,714 48,403 52,556 42.2 45.8
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 1 450 0 0 0.0 0.0
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 2 1,152 0 0 0.0 0.0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 7 3,700 2,861 2,861 77.3 77.3
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 50 30,504 7,810 10,024 25.6 32.9
658 Furniture and wood finishers 59 30,575 1,537 1,537 5.0 5.0
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 0
666 Dressmakers 110 62,076 2,789 3,108 4.5 5.0
667 Tailors 84 52,444 11,733 11,733 22.4 22.4
668 Upholsterers 101 54,498 6,169 6,536 11.3 12.0
669 Shoe repairers 21 11,779 3,747 3,747 31.8 31.8
673 Apparel and fabric patternmakers 3 1,442 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 12 7,210 3,008 3,008 41.7 41.7
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 25 16,941 4,947 4,947 29.2 29.2
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 40 22,769 6,945 6,945 30.5 30.5
677 Optical goods workers 75 36,752 2,539 2,539 6.9 6.9
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 76 47,122 2,451 2,451 5.2 5.2
679 Bookbinders 44 25,088 8,158 8,407 32.5 33.5
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 522 302,318 81,845 88,875 27.1 29.4
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 50 27,935 5,126 5,287 18.3 18.9
686 Butchers and meat cutters 473 260,389 80,916 85,678 31.1 32.9
687 Bakers 187 102,312 29,345 29,590 28.7 28.9
688 Food batchmakers 64 37,690 5,814 5,814 15.4 15.4
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 180 98,380 34,361 42,863 34.9 43.6
693 Adjusters and calibrators 24 13,266 3,616 3,989 27.3 30.1
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 99 60,636 27,392 30,580 45.2 50.4
695 Power plant operators 78 45,325 26,185 28,235 57.8 62.3
696 Stationary engineers 203 111,114 42,112 46,377 37.9 41.7
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 75 36,006 15,222 16,567 42.3 46.0
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 6,761 3,819,371 1,107,720 1,168,290 29.0 30.6
553 Supervisors; brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 8 3,594 1,267 1,267 35.2 35.2
554 Supervisors; carpenters and related workers 44 23,205 7,586 7,586 32.7 32.7
555 Supervisors; electricians and power transmission installers 51 28,546 12,017 12,427 42.1 43.5
556 Supervisors; painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 11 6,727 188 188 2.8 2.8
557 Supervisors; plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 19 10,845 2,367 2,823 21.8 26.0
558 Supervisors; n.e.c. 701 391,491 96,544 101,022 24.7 25.8
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 235 130,052 47,211 49,510 36.3 38.1
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 7 3,206 1,125 1,125 35.1 35.1
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 49 29,787 7,465 7,992 25.1 26.8
566 Carpet installers 102 58,405 7,537 7,537 12.9 12.9
567 Carpenters 1,733 949,418 182,475 197,148 19.2 20.8
569 Carpenter apprentices 25 15,837 3,261 3,447 20.6 21.8
573 Drywall installers 187 111,130 23,980 24,286 21.6 21.9
575 Electricians 1,005 565,368 245,530 256,241 43.4 45.3
576 Electrician apprentices 60 28,854 10,349 10,686 35.9 37.0
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 201 106,153 70,423 72,097 66.3 67.9
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 598 354,891 45,086 54,458 12.7 15.3
583 Paperhangers 26 13,248 2,896 2,896 21.9 21.9
584 Plasterers 53 31,486 9,134 10,132 29.0 32.2
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 683 394,063 177,029 182,774 44.9 46.4
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 26 13,122 4,404 4,404 33.6 33.6
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 114 70,126 18,701 18,701 26.7 26.7
589 Glaziers 66 34,945 13,107 13,719 37.5 39.3
593 Insulation workers 88 51,937 15,534 15,534 29.9 29.9
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 15 9,083 393 393 4.3 4.3
595 Roofers 213 132,278 19,720 22,420 14.9 16.9
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 60 35,735 14,046 15,674 39.3 43.9
597 Structural metal workers 100 58,983 28,390 29,029 48.1 49.2
598 Drillers, earth 24 12,626 2,451 2,451 19.4 19.4
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 257 144,229 37,505 40,325 26.0 28.0
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 13,912 7,882,426 2,423,217 2,537,768 30.7 32.2
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 39 21,742 12,157 12,503 55.9 57.5
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 110 57,754 23,710 24,893 41.1 43.1
705 Milling and planing machine operators 21 12,104 3,573 3,573 29.5 29.5
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 255 148,831 70,432 74,007 47.3 49.7
707 Rolling machine operators 21 13,106 5,174 5,174 39.5 39.5
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 48 29,094 16,704 17,348 57.4 59.6
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 242 138,911 61,185 61,185 44.0 44.0
713 Forging machine operators 25 13,517 7,046 8,616 52.1 63.7
714 Numerical control machine operators 2 1,148 660 660 57.5 57.5
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 67 35,870 18,691 18,691 52.1 52.1
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 53 34,155 13,403 13,403 39.2 39.2
719 Molding and casting machine operators 174 95,385 28,923 29,895 30.3 31.3
723 Metal plating machine operators 51 31,174 5,873 6,331 18.8 20.3
724 Heat treating equipment operators 34 22,670 13,818 13,818 61.0 61.0
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 22 11,892 4,109 4,109 34.5 34.5
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 19 10,681 1,578 2,162 14.8 20.2
727 Sawing machine operators 194 104,146 18,767 20,717 18.0 19.9
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 6 2,712 1,281 1,281 47.2 47.2
729 Nail and tacking machine operators 6 3,554 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 63 32,041 6,050 6,585 18.9 20.6
734 Printing machine operators 532 304,596 70,210 75,800 23.1 24.9
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 69 41,649 15,047 15,047 36.1 36.1
736 Typesetters and compositors 126 67,962 7,447 9,594 11.0 14.1
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 59 37,500 9,373 9,373 25.0 25.0
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 164 81,178 9,648 10,749 11.9 13.2
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 93 44,261 1,985 2,475 4.5 5.6
743 Textile cutting machine operators 13 7,136 547 1,570 7.7 22.0
744 Textile sewing machine operators 1,326 767,137 149,797 161,868 19.5 21.1
745 Shoe machine operators 82 34,406 8,000 9,147 23.3 26.6
747 Pressing machine operators 227 140,054 31,962 33,149 22.8 23.7
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 319 167,197 22,198 24,346 13.3 14.6
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 144 71,796 10,050 10,473 14.0 14.6
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 59 29,934 10,365 10,773 34.6 36.0
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 736 421,776 110,069 118,519 26.1 28.1
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 57 31,361 14,689 15,961 46.8 50.9
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 185 103,678 35,622 38,861 34.4 37.5
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 101 53,211 28,854 29,769 54.2 55.9
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 32 16,955 6,277 6,277 37.0 37.0
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 303 184,131 58,560 60,850 31.8 33.0
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 10 5,689 2,789 2,789 49.0 49.0
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 14 7,782 2,532 2,847 32.5 36.6
765 Folding machine operators 37 21,090 3,755 3,755 17.8 17.8
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, exc. food 166 91,569 53,036 54,325 57.9 59.3
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 99 48,827 22,620 22,993 46.3 47.1
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 374 204,643 58,412 60,209 28.5 29.4
773 Motion picture projectionists 12 7,772 2,781 2,781 35.8 35.8
774 Photographic process machine operators 150 83,148 7,214 9,399 8.7 11.3
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,718 985,534 383,634 390,617 38.9 39.6
779 Machine operators, not specified 566 326,277 113,105 119,092 34.7 36.5
783 Welders and cutters 920 531,420 186,637 196,076 35.1 36.9
784 Solderers and brazers 64 39,210 7,859 8,367 20.0 21.3
785 Assemblers 1,880 1,078,936 378,713 390,844 35.1 36.2
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 28 19,297 4,100 4,100 21.2 21.2
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 26 17,418 4,821 4,821 27.7 27.7
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 59 30,889 7,605 7,605 24.6 24.6
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 30 17,316 4,115 4,562 23.8 26.3
794 Hand grinding and polishing occupations 9 5,749 2,249 2,249 39.1 39.1
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 90 47,292 6,544 6,544 13.8 13.8
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 1,263 710,643 223,069 238,903 31.4 33.6
797 Production testers 119 66,759 16,379 16,959 24.5 25.4
798 Production samplers and weighers 23 11,692 4,554 4,554 39.0 39.0
799 Graders and sorters, exc. agricultural 176 97,069 12,862 13,828 13.3 14.2
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,813 4,350,726 1,349,436 1,429,641 31.0 32.9
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 109 60,423 11,325 13,051 18.7 21.6
804 Truck drivers, heavy 2,892 1,598,361 438,383 459,988 27.4 28.8
805 Truck drivers, light 1,182 695,122 132,726 139,643 19.1 20.1
806 Driver-sales workers 367 205,399 68,372 71,114 33.3 34.6
808 Bus drivers 773 417,547 143,892 171,046 34.5 41.0
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 268 150,390 22,551 24,429 15.0 16.2
813 Parking lot attendants 64 33,250 3,190 4,156 9.6 12.5
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 10 7,710 1,015 1,015 13.2 13.2
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 87 44,062 38,753 38,753 88.0 88.0
824 Locomotive operating occupations 105 51,849 48,695 48,695 93.9 93.9
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 79 36,450 33,250 33,250 91.2 91.2
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 12 6,266 6,266 6,266 100.0 100.0
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 49 30,431 7,065 7,065 23.2 23.2
829 Sailors and deckhands 27 17,273 5,544 5,544 32.1 32.1
833 Marine engineers 6 3,050 1,358 1,726 44.5 56.6
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 15 7,303 3,982 3,982 54.5 54.5
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 33 14,711 2,893 2,893 19.7 19.7
844 Operating engineers 355 184,788 72,900 77,015 39.5 41.7
845 Longshore equipment operators 3 1,591 1,238 1,238 77.8 77.8
848 Hoist and winch operators 37 21,112 433 433 2.1 2.1
849 Crane and tower operators 146 85,332 49,044 50,012 57.5 58.6
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 167 92,632 21,987 23,851 23.7 25.7
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 162 84,317 21,236 21,645 25.2 25.7
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 704 415,712 181,744 189,247 43.7 45.5
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 161 85,643 31,594 33,586 36.9 39.2
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, & LABORERS 8,202 4,686,363 1,182,956 1,266,285 25.2 27.0
863 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, & laborers, n.e.c. 27 15,099 3,089 3,089 20.5 20.5
864 Helpers, mechanics and repairers 52 27,828 2,662 3,594 9.6 12.9
865 Helpers, construction trades 281 164,731 19,875 22,527 12.1 13.7
866 Helpers, surveyor 20 12,023 0 275 0.0 2.3
867 Helpers, extractive occupations 6 3,261 2,594 2,594 79.5 79.5
869 Construction laborers 1,274 743,720 184,782 195,278 24.8 26.3
873 Production helpers 127 74,460 19,269 22,311 25.9 30.0
875 Garbage collectors 107 66,055 15,366 18,898 23.3 28.6
876 Stevedores 24 13,271 9,816 11,669 74.0 87.9
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,570 876,319 205,200 216,923 23.4 24.8
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 167 91,574 27,612 30,482 30.2 33.3
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,108 637,588 227,100 246,202 35.6 38.6
885 Garage and service station related occupations 485 261,077 10,824 10,824 4.1 4.1
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 326 186,075 37,974 40,450 20.4 21.7
888 Hand packers and packagers 545 305,311 70,582 75,080 23.1 24.6
889 Laborers, except construction 2,083 1,207,970 346,209 366,090 28.7 30.3
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1987. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1980 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.