Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1988 (details in table note)
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, & MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 19,288 11,337,302 734,067 976,735 6.5 8.6
3 Legislators 28 15,473 420 565 2.7 3.7
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public admin. 25 15,304 698 698 4.6 4.6
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 881 466,771 97,084 123,685 20.8 26.5
6 Administrators, protective services 104 52,671 11,948 13,993 22.7 26.6
7 Financial managers 825 482,794 12,034 17,029 2.5 3.5
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 200 115,333 3,961 6,029 3.4 5.2
9 Purchasing managers 167 104,263 2,460 2,931 2.4 2.8
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 764 462,887 5,444 9,662 1.2 2.1
14 Administrators, education and related fields 934 539,973 111,044 146,034 20.6 27.0
15 Managers, medicine and health 279 153,106 8,099 11,457 5.3 7.5
16 Managers, properties and real estate 443 279,660 13,337 16,329 4.8 5.8
17 Postmasters and mail superintendents 81 38,826 21,167 21,548 54.5 55.5
18 Funeral directors 32 17,533 1,022 1,022 5.8 5.8
19 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 8,846 5,203,037 195,862 262,410 3.8 5.0
23 Accountants and auditors 1,947 1,174,092 74,872 103,435 6.4 8.8
24 Underwriters 144 86,704 310 2,216 0.4 2.6
25 Other financial officers 1,001 597,419 22,107 29,275 3.7 4.9
26 Management analysts 168 99,254 3,909 11,427 3.9 11.5
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 662 390,222 31,763 47,765 8.1 12.2
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 15 5,438 0 0 0.0 0.0
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 308 192,751 13,300 14,226 6.9 7.4
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 401 240,180 10,256 17,954 4.3 7.5
34 Business and promotion agents 20 13,971 1,937 1,937 13.9 13.9
35 Construction inspectors 101 61,277 15,997 20,058 26.1 32.7
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, exc. construction 340 197,878 49,679 66,567 25.1 33.6
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 572 330,483 25,358 28,483 7.7 8.6
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS 14,975 8,734,152 983,094 1,226,397 11.3 14.0
43 Architects 168 103,347 5,332 5,943 5.2 5.8
44 Aerospace engineers 132 110,532 7,243 11,453 6.6 10.4
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 39 21,048 5,511 5,511 26.2 26.2
46 Mining engineers 13 4,016 253 253 6.3 6.3
47 Petroleum engineers 35 25,382 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 113 57,827 3,313 6,057 5.7 10.5
49 Nuclear engineers 23 13,079 256 256 2.0 2.0
53 Civil engineers 353 194,114 21,570 30,640 11.1 15.8
54 Agricultural engineers 4 2,337 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 912 566,280 35,498 53,708 6.3 9.5
56 Industrial engineers 357 226,049 18,740 22,399 8.3 9.9
57 Mechanical engineers 479 288,565 22,921 26,329 7.9 9.1
58 Marine and naval architects engineers 23 12,524 3,812 3,812 30.4 30.4
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 369 224,785 11,935 13,572 5.3 6.0
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 39 17,369 2,059 2,059 11.9 11.9
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 721 431,997 11,625 20,323 2.7 4.7
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 345 213,353 15,816 22,265 7.4 10.4
66 Actuaries 20 10,771 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 54 31,932 1,502 4,346 4.7 13.6
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 9 6,699 1,197 1,860 17.9 27.8
69 Physicists and astronomers 55 28,295 2,014 2,426 7.1 8.6
73 Chemists, except biochemists 220 126,169 5,043 8,948 4.0 7.1
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 16 9,469 2,165 3,159 22.9 33.4
75 Geologists and geodesists 73 40,925 371 1,562 0.9 3.8
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 24 11,948 1,238 1,238 10.4 10.4
77 Agricultural and food scientists 48 17,999 1,780 1,780 9.9 9.9
78 Biological and life scientists 126 69,352 4,089 7,013 5.9 10.1
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 61 28,494 2,614 3,965 9.2 13.9
83 Medical scientists 60 38,372 4,323 4,323 11.3 11.3
84 Physicians 434 273,137 12,461 20,017 4.6 7.3
85 Dentists 41 26,959 982 1,107 3.6 4.1
86 Veterinarians 35 18,786 0 0 0.0 0.0
87 Optometrists 11 5,541 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 2 1,310 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 9 6,511 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 2,716 1,519,594 253,331 301,277 16.7 19.8
96 Pharmacists 242 137,787 12,037 14,484 8.7 10.5
97 Dietitians 131 72,224 8,049 9,636 11.1 13.3
98 Inhalation therapists 103 64,301 8,289 9,700 12.9 15.1
99 Occupational therapists 43 25,204 5,917 6,475 23.5 25.7
103 Physical therapists 118 72,530 2,254 2,758 3.1 3.8
104 Speech therapists 109 57,690 23,098 29,951 40.0 51.9
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 93 58,496 9,189 9,189 15.7 15.7
106 Physicians' assistants 90 52,870 16,339 16,339 30.9 30.9
163 Counselors, educational and vocational 366 205,946 91,267 107,349 44.3 52.1
164 Librarians 352 189,800 47,250 58,540 24.9 30.8
165 Archivists and curators 38 21,214 1,846 1,846 8.7 8.7
166 Economists 172 96,526 7,837 10,144 8.1 10.5
167 Psychologists 255 147,277 22,326 27,952 15.2 19.0
168 Sociologists 1 304 304 304 100.0 100.0
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 22 8,542 1,658 2,435 19.4 28.5
173 Urban planners 30 16,487 1,857 4,160 11.3 25.2
174 Social workers 900 532,861 112,359 136,246 21.1 25.6
175 Recreation workers 158 93,364 3,680 5,479 3.9 5.9
176 Clergy 536 306,864 7,794 10,455 2.5 3.4
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 115 62,351 1,056 1,795 1.7 2.9
178 Lawyers 674 390,843 18,138 21,244 4.6 5.4
179 Judges 61 32,829 3,092 3,092 9.4 9.4
183 Authors 21 13,784 2,452 2,452 17.8 17.8
184 Technical writers 105 58,528 3,740 4,874 6.4 8.3
185 Designers 623 365,756 16,432 19,962 4.5 5.5
186 Musicians and composers 117 71,158 10,640 11,909 15.0 16.7
187 Actors and directors 118 76,112 15,066 19,982 19.8 26.3
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist print-makers 161 102,217 8,563 13,078 8.4 12.8
189 Photographers 123 74,869 11,679 13,077 15.6 17.5
193 Dancers 23 12,656 547 547 4.3 4.3
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 65 37,152 6,931 8,813 18.7 23.7
195 Editors and reporters 424 239,101 21,891 26,473 9.2 11.1
197 Public relations specialists 265 147,964 9,574 12,486 6.5 8.4
198 Announcers 82 42,083 2,160 3,722 5.1 8.8
199 Athletes 100 61,596 8,789 11,848 14.3 19.2
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,258 680,475 138,785 176,693 20.4 26.0
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 14 6,839 0 619 0.0 9.1
114 Biological science teachers 47 22,678 3,865 7,467 17.0 32.9
115 Chemistry teachers 29 15,471 2,373 5,537 15.3 35.8
116 Physics teachers 20 9,476 979 1,688 10.3 17.8
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 4 3,047 1,655 1,655 54.3 54.3
118 Psychology teachers 39 21,852 4,388 5,493 20.1 25.1
119 Economics teachers 35 19,468 1,104 2,064 5.7 10.6
123 History teachers 27 17,060 5,064 6,518 29.7 38.2
124 Political science teachers 19 13,326 4,143 4,713 31.1 35.4
125 Sociology teachers 17 10,161 3,081 3,081 30.3 30.3
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 8 2,725 1,289 1,289 47.3 47.3
127 Engineering teachers 55 28,780 4,254 5,919 14.8 20.6
128 Mathematical science teachers 84 45,483 13,937 16,823 30.6 37.0
129 Computer science teachers 34 20,825 2,270 4,301 10.9 20.7
133 Medical science teachers 12 5,563 1,070 1,070 19.2 19.2
134 Health specialties teachers 68 36,838 6,780 8,614 18.4 23.4
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 56 29,331 4,641 6,109 15.8 20.8
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 9 4,283 329 329 7.7 7.7
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 92 51,931 13,750 18,240 26.5 35.1
138 Physical education teachers 27 13,882 3,942 4,652 28.4 33.5
139 Education teachers 24 11,500 2,027 3,371 17.6 29.3
143 English teachers 99 52,516 16,122 18,037 30.7 34.3
144 Foreign language teachers 35 22,026 4,800 5,986 21.8 27.2
145 Law teachers 12 5,702 2,174 2,174 38.1 38.1
146 Social work teachers 1 83 0 0 0.0 0.0
147 Theology teachers 17 10,228 577 1,475 5.6 14.4
148 Trade and industrial teachers 9 4,544 2,464 2,582 54.2 56.8
149 Home economics teachers 4 1,422 838 838 58.9 58.9
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 9 3,722 0 0 0.0 0.0
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 352 189,713 30,866 36,046 16.3 19.0
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,544 3,617,485 1,788,263 2,090,253 49.4 57.8
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 643 373,424 89,818 110,694 24.1 29.6
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,611 1,429,282 806,523 945,011 56.4 66.1
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,181 1,180,534 712,156 818,520 60.3 69.3
158 Teachers, special education 435 245,540 138,179 163,508 56.3 66.6
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 674 388,705 41,586 52,520 10.7 13.5
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 5,908 3,461,724 391,431 468,871 11.3 13.5
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 471 271,005 32,314 36,662 11.9 13.5
204 Dental hygienists 149 79,563 2,211 2,298 2.8 2.9
205 Health record technologists and technicians 100 57,191 1,955 2,081 3.4 3.6
206 Radiologic technicians 230 136,450 11,400 12,689 8.4 9.3
207 Licensed practical nurses 702 402,047 58,087 64,750 14.4 16.1
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 424 258,066 31,539 35,735 12.2 13.8
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 539 319,174 49,969 59,993 15.7 18.8
214 Industrial engineering technicians 12 5,562 1,211 1,211 21.8 21.8
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 22 10,878 2,254 2,254 20.7 20.7
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 368 219,908 19,676 27,407 8.9 12.5
217 Drafting occupations 472 281,066 25,121 32,699 8.9 11.6
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 133 75,932 10,022 12,469 13.2 16.4
223 Biological technicians 100 57,858 4,164 4,164 7.2 7.2
224 Chemical technicians 161 82,938 13,366 14,993 16.1 18.1
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 145 80,808 7,177 8,538 8.9 10.6
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 154 83,883 42,383 44,015 50.5 52.5
227 Air traffic controllers 57 34,171 15,852 17,811 46.4 52.1
228 Broadcast equipment operators 26 11,893 1,586 1,586 13.3 13.3
229 Computer programmers 872 565,704 23,652 38,341 4.2 6.8
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 6 3,702 0 0 0.0 0.0
234 Legal assistants 340 197,418 11,136 16,662 5.6 8.4
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 425 226,508 26,356 32,514 11.6 14.4
SALES OCCUPATIONS 18,770 11,018,803 587,275 688,601 5.3 6.2
243 Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 4,041 2,367,516 129,758 155,532 5.5 6.6
253 Insurance sales occupations 626 363,399 12,815 19,396 3.5 5.3
254 Real estate sales occupations 754 441,031 10,228 14,537 2.3 3.3
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 416 258,450 4,250 6,444 1.6 2.5
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 254 141,223 3,275 5,614 2.3 4.0
257 Sales occupations, other business services 792 508,059 24,767 30,628 4.9 6.0
258 Sales engineers 30 16,448 0 1,065 0.0 6.5
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,248 1,350,893 18,456 28,845 1.4 2.1
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 431 249,013 2,185 5,090 0.9 2.0
264 Sales workers, apparel 762 440,141 4,770 4,770 1.1 1.1
265 Sales workers, shoes 182 107,884 0 0 0.0 0.0
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 252 150,233 2,116 3,119 1.4 2.1
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 272 154,492 0 1,067 0.0 0.7
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 339 186,797 2,345 3,905 1.3 2.1
269 Sales workers, parts 256 146,747 6,455 8,429 4.4 5.7
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,440 1,423,365 49,781 61,208 3.5 4.3
275 Sales counter clerks 295 171,973 3,973 5,061 2.3 2.9
276 Cashiers 3,910 2,265,714 305,641 326,094 13.5 14.4
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 264 157,565 3,000 3,420 1.9 2.2
278 News vendors 124 71,870 2,000 2,000 2.8 2.8
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 56 31,820 1,130 2,049 3.6 6.4
284 Auctioneers 3 806 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 23 13,366 330 330 2.5 2.5
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INC. CLERICAL 30,434 17,790,460 2,332,980 2,818,442 13.1 15.8
303 Supervisors, general office 735 459,103 62,960 81,820 13.7 17.8
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 82 51,758 7,057 9,097 13.6 17.6
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 146 95,378 2,472 3,530 2.6 3.7
306 Chief communications operators 7 3,894 846 846 21.7 21.7
307 Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 263 161,522 34,419 40,759 21.3 25.2
308 Computer operators 1,414 866,020 90,702 120,052 10.5 13.9
309 Peripheral equipment operators 9 6,112 2,201 2,201 36.0 36.0
313 Secretaries 6,861 3,859,959 263,323 358,293 6.8 9.3
314 Stenographers 70 35,278 8,331 10,031 23.6 28.4
315 Typists 1,308 799,620 87,712 117,874 11.0 14.7
316 Interviewers 267 155,886 4,831 8,392 3.1 5.4
317 Hotel clerks 209 104,729 5,128 5,815 4.9 5.6
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 215 126,494 28,949 32,880 22.9 26.0
319 Receptionists 1,407 857,580 36,189 39,027 4.2 4.6
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 400 228,678 17,920 25,574 7.8 11.2
325 Classified-ad clerks 7 4,381 471 784 10.8 17.9
326 Correspondence clerks 30 14,166 153 833 1.1 5.9
327 Order clerks 325 184,241 50,365 58,309 27.3 31.6
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 103 56,789 6,533 9,274 11.5 16.3
329 Library clerks 250 145,071 25,816 34,840 17.8 24.0
335 File clerks 458 280,781 22,319 28,790 7.9 10.3
336 Records clerks 236 134,597 16,117 20,851 12.0 15.5
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 3,069 1,725,820 65,061 86,930 3.8 5.0
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 308 174,898 29,269 32,641 16.7 18.7
339 Billing clerks 247 145,422 12,615 13,541 8.7 9.3
343 Cost and rate clerks 121 67,049 5,019 5,656 7.5 8.4
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 71 38,961 3,491 3,626 9.0 9.3
345 Duplicating machine operators 35 19,958 2,110 2,775 10.6 13.9
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 20 14,114 3,191 3,940 22.6 27.9
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 58 35,590 2,056 2,056 5.8 5.8
348 Telephone operators 363 205,217 78,263 85,552 38.1 41.7
349 Telegraphers 5 2,033 871 871 42.8 42.8
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 5 2,964 0 0 0.0 0.0
354 Postal clerks, exc. mail carriers 528 311,366 223,704 252,704 71.8 81.2
355 Mail carriers, postal service 540 315,940 264,670 281,160 83.8 89.0
356 Mail clerks, exc. postal service 274 160,221 18,699 22,083 11.7 13.8
357 Messengers 203 127,212 4,122 7,028 3.2 5.5
359 Dispatchers 298 157,126 38,896 41,999 24.8 26.7
363 Production coordinators 312 189,530 29,812 33,450 15.7 17.6
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 857 528,189 118,812 129,303 22.5 24.5
365 Stock and inventory clerks 915 554,801 107,301 124,809 19.3 22.5
366 Meter readers 89 50,763 20,404 23,526 40.2 46.3
368 Weighers, measurers, and checkers 141 75,024 21,295 21,815 28.4 29.1
369 Samplers 3 1,915 1,008 1,008 52.6 52.6
373 Expediters 163 99,390 13,171 14,503 13.3 14.6
374 Material recording, scheduling, & distributing clerks, n.e.c. 34 18,560 4,357 5,042 23.5 27.2
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 468 277,030 10,594 12,812 3.8 4.6
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 801 477,640 40,927 46,241 8.6 9.7
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 116 71,910 14,954 19,500 20.8 27.1
378 Bill and account collectors 205 124,676 8,710 9,477 7.0 7.6
379 General office clerks 1,338 809,367 93,053 113,061 11.5 14.0
383 Bank tellers 855 490,990 11,963 18,939 2.4 3.9
384 Proofreaders 50 28,786 857 857 3.0 3.0
385 Data-entry keyers 597 358,655 28,083 40,555 7.8 11.3
386 Statistical clerks 133 82,717 14,299 18,708 17.3 22.6
387 Teachers aides 731 421,899 113,462 152,132 26.9 36.1
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,679 992,690 153,064 180,271 15.4 18.2
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD 1,492 899,929 0 0 0.0 0.0
403 Launderers and ironers 3 2,003 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 27 15,003 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 52 33,525 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 666 367,495 0 0 0.0 0.0
407 Private household cleaners and servants 744 481,903 0 0 0.0 0.0
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PROTECTIVE SERVICE 3,206 1,969,001 765,154 838,640 38.9 42.6
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 65 37,587 23,299 25,270 62.0 67.2
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 165 101,037 55,412 61,677 54.8 61.0
415 Supervisors, guards 72 45,086 7,467 8,889 16.6 19.7
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 39 20,193 3,367 4,787 16.7 23.7
417 Firefighting occupations 342 199,557 141,746 148,716 71.0 74.5
418 Police and detectives, public service 680 429,385 261,911 288,303 61.0 67.1
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 195 114,688 47,203 54,727 41.2 47.7
424 Correctional institution officers 351 217,230 122,253 126,439 56.3 58.2
425 Crossing guards 75 44,366 5,661 6,565 12.8 14.8
426 Guards and police, exc. public service 1,094 689,290 91,923 107,570 13.3 15.6
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 128 70,583 4,911 5,695 7.0 8.1
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXC. PROTECTIVE & HOUSEHOLD 19,790 11,308,631 1,223,881 1,386,561 10.8 12.3
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 580 322,070 21,303 24,435 6.6 7.6
434 Bartenders 530 288,021 14,610 15,552 5.1 5.4
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,384 1,367,127 38,438 42,694 2.8 3.1
436 Cooks, except short order 2,688 1,547,279 96,645 115,271 6.2 7.4
437 Short-order cooks 165 94,833 3,253 3,810 3.4 4.0
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 562 312,951 3,289 4,232 1.1 1.4
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 225 126,385 8,523 8,523 6.7 6.7
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 594 345,807 26,012 28,639 7.5 8.3
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,174 673,764 70,309 85,871 10.4 12.7
445 Dental assistants 308 167,663 667 1,557 0.4 0.9
446 Health aides, except nursing 677 413,709 53,453 60,778 12.9 14.7
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,430 1,391,667 205,588 230,062 14.8 16.5
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 274 158,824 27,789 32,492 17.5 20.5
449 Maids and housemen 1,045 584,352 81,036 91,813 13.9 15.7
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,528 2,042,101 420,882 470,505 20.6 23.0
454 Elevator operators 21 13,023 8,838 8,838 67.9 67.9
455 Pest control occupations 58 41,702 2,349 2,349 5.6 5.6
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 59 29,809 2,059 4,362 6.9 14.6
457 Barbers 47 31,346 4,674 4,674 14.9 14.9
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 704 416,536 3,935 6,234 0.9 1.5
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 301 128,556 4,030 4,160 3.1 3.2
463 Guides 59 27,165 2,316 2,532 8.5 9.3
464 Ushers 37 26,673 1,094 1,094 4.1 4.1
465 Public transportation attendants 129 80,326 61,332 63,582 76.4 79.2
466 Baggage porters and bellhops 55 41,243 15,081 17,003 36.6 41.2
467 Welfare service aides 164 90,795 7,556 8,635 8.3 9.5
468 Child care workers, except private household 739 405,815 24,477 30,687 6.0 7.6
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 253 139,089 14,343 16,177 10.3 11.6
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 3,150 1,813,070 76,924 90,801 4.2 5.0
473 Farmers, except horticultural 11 6,166 0 0 0.0 0.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 1 298 0 0 0.0 0.0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 108 58,608 0 514 0.0 0.9
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 10 4,559 902 902 19.8 19.8
477 Supervisors, farm workers 46 27,271 4,790 5,917 17.6 21.7
479 Farm workers 1,414 780,449 6,593 7,150 0.8 0.9
483 Marine life cultivation workers 5 1,220 0 0 0.0 0.0
484 Nursery workers 55 32,816 496 496 1.5 1.5
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 125 81,819 10,106 10,502 12.4 12.8
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 994 615,200 40,920 48,160 6.7 7.8
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 150 83,800 4,174 5,325 5.0 6.4
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 18 13,823 2,361 2,361 17.1 17.1
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 5 4,472 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 15 7,917 886 886 11.2 11.2
495 Forestry workers, except logging 53 26,816 2,570 3,956 9.6 14.8
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 101 50,289 2,806 3,872 5.6 7.7
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 4 1,301 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 32 15,661 321 761 2.1 4.9
499 Hunters and trappers 3 584 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 13,225 7,812,262 2,001,689 2,156,283 25.6 27.6
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 448 254,676 29,054 34,882 11.4 13.7
505 Automobile mechanics 1,132 689,811 74,594 85,709 10.8 12.4
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 4 2,706 1,517 1,517 56.1 56.1
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 547 305,682 95,607 101,669 31.3 33.3
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 195 132,164 73,469 81,471 55.6 61.6
509 Small engine repairers 93 51,305 3,523 3,577 6.9 7.0
514 Automobile body and related repairers 250 137,577 10,267 10,575 7.5 7.7
515 Aircraft mechanics, exc. engine 29 18,878 6,485 7,114 34.4 37.7
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 295 151,379 61,388 69,212 40.6 45.7
517 Farm equipment mechanics 52 24,338 336 336 1.4 1.4
518 Industry machinery repairers 941 541,659 185,360 196,438 34.2 36.3
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 52 30,612 12,203 12,428 39.9 40.6
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 228 140,758 33,036 37,733 23.5 26.8
525 Data processing equipment repairers 220 141,029 2,715 4,435 1.9 3.1
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 55 31,282 5,021 6,186 16.1 19.8
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 104 60,586 38,600 39,183 63.7 64.7
529 Telephone Installers and repairers 342 197,533 144,298 147,073 73.0 74.5
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 103 58,015 26,284 26,971 45.3 46.5
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 370 219,616 49,486 51,384 22.5 23.4
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 32 16,955 4,273 4,383 25.2 25.8
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 30 17,650 750 750 4.2 4.2
538 Office machine repairers 120 63,029 2,237 3,070 3.5 4.9
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 32 17,792 9,177 9,513 51.6 53.5
543 Elevator installers and repairers 34 18,504 15,872 15,872 85.8 85.8
544 Millwrights 167 98,626 67,441 68,497 68.4 69.5
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 658 401,093 100,667 111,647 25.1 27.8
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 306 173,636 43,710 46,181 25.2 26.6
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 84 42,791 3,516 3,633 8.2 8.5
614 Drillers, oil well 55 25,916 991 991 3.8 3.8
615 Explosives workers 15 8,010 1,749 1,749 21.8 21.8
616 Mining machine operators 78 35,927 16,616 17,383 46.2 48.4
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 53 23,151 8,220 8,220 35.5 35.5
633 Supervisors, production occupations 2,228 1,336,179 168,727 198,137 12.6 14.8
634 Tool and die makers 250 141,155 60,240 62,980 42.7 44.6
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 10 6,048 1,486 1,486 24.6 24.6
636 Precision assemblers, metal 13 7,219 3,362 3,362 46.6 46.6
637 Machinists 750 457,631 157,895 166,231 34.5 36.3
639 Machinist apprentices 8 7,066 0 0 0.0 0.0
643 Boilermakers 39 23,356 11,358 11,358 48.6 48.6
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 29 15,911 5,952 5,952 37.4 37.4
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 10 5,774 2,642 3,248 45.8 56.2
646 Lay-out workers 18 10,273 4,135 5,023 40.3 48.9
647 Precious stones and metals workers (jewelers) 57 32,720 1,328 1,328 4.1 4.1
649 Engravers, metal 18 10,892 3,094 3,094 28.4 28.4
653 Sheet metal workers 198 113,163 47,106 47,834 41.6 42.3
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 3 1,321 625 625 47.3 47.3
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 2 1,067 0 632 0.0 59.3
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 8 5,500 1,726 2,359 31.4 42.9
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 71 48,959 11,711 11,711 23.9 23.9
658 Furniture and wood finishers 41 21,353 1,722 2,379 8.1 11.1
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 1 704 704 704 100.0 100.0
666 Dressmakers 104 57,808 5,589 5,589 9.7 9.7
667 Tailors 67 44,501 6,429 6,429 14.4 14.4
668 Upholsterers 79 53,932 3,997 4,446 7.4 8.2
669 Shoe repairers 18 8,287 1,713 2,097 20.7 25.3
673 Apparel and fabric patternmakers 4 2,444 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 8 4,029 0 0 0.0 0.0
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 25 14,573 6,184 6,480 42.4 44.5
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 33 20,161 7,114 7,114 35.3 35.3
677 Optical goods workers 86 51,545 1,699 3,202 3.3 6.2
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 57 34,472 1,390 2,278 4.0 6.6
679 Bookbinders 67 41,719 7,417 9,601 17.8 23.0
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 460 310,661 81,290 87,226 26.2 28.1
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 53 33,730 7,983 8,356 23.7 24.8
686 Butchers and meat cutters 431 242,111 74,652 78,363 30.8 32.4
687 Bakers 188 109,477 20,856 22,404 19.1 20.5
688 Food batchmakers 56 30,160 8,791 9,157 29.1 30.4
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 170 112,983 38,119 40,947 33.7 36.2
693 Adjusters and calibrators 20 12,343 4,616 4,616 37.4 37.4
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 88 50,125 18,825 19,438 37.6 38.8
695 Power plant operators 76 43,673 31,576 32,523 72.3 74.5
696 Stationary engineers 166 102,501 39,662 43,219 38.7 42.2
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 91 52,050 21,510 24,572 41.3 47.2
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 6,523 3,953,985 1,162,673 1,218,027 29.4 30.8
553 Supervisors; brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 8 5,933 1,292 1,292 21.8 21.8
554 Supervisors; carpenters and related workers 40 24,832 13,084 13,084 52.7 52.7
555 Supervisors; electricians and power transmission installers 45 29,081 12,893 15,371 44.3 52.9
556 Supervisors; painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 13 5,609 755 755 13.5 13.5
557 Supervisors; plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 12 11,341 2,538 2,538 22.4 22.4
558 Supervisors; n.e.c. 638 365,555 92,811 98,334 25.4 26.9
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 249 153,149 55,630 56,843 36.3 37.1
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 11 5,662 2,016 2,016 35.6 35.6
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 51 35,671 12,412 12,412 34.8 34.8
566 Carpet installers 93 64,067 12,456 12,456 19.4 19.4
567 Carpenters 1,677 1,015,716 211,191 219,711 20.8 21.6
569 Carpenter apprentices 13 8,939 3,718 3,718 41.6 41.6
573 Drywall installers 185 112,645 18,284 18,630 16.2 16.5
575 Electricians 1,013 586,670 254,097 263,412 43.3 44.9
576 Electrician apprentices 58 37,427 7,915 8,982 21.1 24.0
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 197 106,996 62,057 64,379 58.0 60.2
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 551 348,798 51,741 53,694 14.8 15.4
583 Paperhangers 19 10,547 3,676 3,676 34.9 34.9
584 Plasterers 42 26,675 7,727 8,619 29.0 32.3
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 651 407,102 178,916 188,662 43.9 46.3
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 29 15,967 4,485 6,869 28.1 43.0
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 120 84,690 16,186 16,783 19.1 19.8
589 Glaziers 51 28,613 6,513 6,513 22.8 22.8
593 Insulation workers 79 51,733 14,300 14,871 27.6 28.7
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 27 16,601 2,748 2,748 16.6 16.6
595 Roofers 175 108,495 14,370 14,529 13.2 13.4
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 58 34,543 13,418 13,919 38.8 40.3
597 Structural metal workers 85 48,070 28,440 29,379 59.2 61.1
598 Drillers, earth 21 12,196 4,920 6,025 40.3 49.4
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 312 190,660 52,086 57,806 27.3 30.3
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 13,064 7,879,449 2,327,116 2,452,958 29.5 31.1
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 37 18,998 8,593 9,442 45.2 49.7
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 105 62,555 23,530 23,530 37.6 37.6
705 Milling and planing machine operators 25 13,438 6,691 6,691 49.8 49.8
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 191 124,842 60,720 61,075 48.6 48.9
707 Rolling machine operators 24 15,786 10,730 10,730 68.0 68.0
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 49 32,039 13,693 13,693 42.7 42.7
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 226 135,829 50,699 51,916 37.3 38.2
713 Forging machine operators 24 13,237 9,348 9,348 70.6 70.6
714 Numerical control machine operators 3 2,343 1,773 1,773 75.7 75.7
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 58 33,144 13,541 13,541 40.9 40.9
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 40 22,770 4,988 5,947 21.9 26.1
719 Molding and casting machine operators 169 105,746 32,801 34,474 31.0 32.6
723 Metal plating machine operators 58 38,139 12,158 12,158 31.9 31.9
724 Heat treating equipment operators 27 19,556 10,965 10,965 56.1 56.1
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 23 12,064 3,319 3,319 27.5 27.5
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 22 9,641 797 797 8.3 8.3
727 Sawing machine operators 168 95,549 20,523 20,899 21.5 21.9
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 10 5,291 0 0 0.0 0.0
729 Nail and tacking machine operators 5 3,536 821 1,704 23.2 48.2
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 59 27,144 4,087 4,087 15.1 15.1
734 Printing machine operators 514 313,280 70,978 73,875 22.7 23.6
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 88 60,457 17,728 19,669 29.3 32.5
736 Typesetters and compositors 106 61,733 4,070 4,763 6.6 7.7
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 68 43,155 3,447 4,428 8.0 10.3
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 143 73,908 5,725 8,397 7.7 11.4
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 93 42,341 5,100 5,858 12.0 13.8
743 Textile cutting machine operators 11 5,281 1,439 1,439 27.3 27.3
744 Textile sewing machine operators 1,138 718,551 138,573 150,750 19.3 21.0
745 Shoe machine operators 72 34,506 6,746 7,912 19.5 22.9
747 Pressing machine operators 212 142,392 27,520 29,853 19.3 21.0
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 349 198,568 28,573 31,534 14.4 15.9
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 133 72,828 10,833 12,710 14.9 17.5
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 55 33,117 11,533 11,933 34.8 36.0
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 696 414,840 112,703 116,539 27.2 28.1
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 53 32,454 12,407 13,116 38.2 40.4
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 164 98,797 37,096 38,088 37.5 38.6
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 99 53,699 32,653 33,816 60.8 63.0
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 39 22,974 9,878 10,418 43.0 45.3
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 301 196,860 53,329 54,274 27.1 27.6
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 14 5,135 1,402 1,402 27.3 27.3
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 22 11,283 1,745 2,346 15.5 20.8
765 Folding machine operators 32 15,673 4,807 4,807 30.7 30.7
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, exc. food 188 100,799 53,228 56,245 52.8 55.8
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 89 45,314 10,662 13,103 23.5 28.9
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 337 201,495 67,537 69,357 33.5 34.4
773 Motion picture projectionists 12 7,013 2,517 2,517 35.9 35.9
774 Photographic process machine operators 163 107,232 12,600 12,832 11.7 12.0
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,611 991,813 361,950 376,672 36.5 38.0
779 Machine operators, not specified 537 311,681 112,958 121,626 36.2 39.0
783 Welders and cutters 880 531,824 199,001 206,968 37.4 38.9
784 Solderers and brazers 81 53,710 11,396 13,853 21.2 25.8
785 Assemblers 1,805 1,102,881 342,467 359,906 31.1 32.6
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 30 17,691 2,319 2,319 13.1 13.1
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 32 20,643 5,261 5,261 25.5 25.5
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 59 32,899 4,464 5,791 13.6 17.6
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 24 11,063 1,317 1,317 11.9 11.9
794 Hand grinding and polishing occupations 8 4,599 1,457 1,457 31.7 31.7
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 58 29,815 2,775 4,154 9.3 13.9
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 1,132 691,682 216,125 230,630 31.2 33.3
797 Production testers 111 65,680 14,397 18,174 21.9 27.7
798 Production samplers and weighers 18 8,925 3,405 3,405 38.1 38.1
799 Graders and sorters, exc. agricultural 164 99,210 13,216 13,356 13.3 13.5
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,580 4,417,960 1,329,942 1,406,785 30.1 31.8
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 92 55,137 9,148 12,031 16.6 21.8
804 Truck drivers, heavy 2,761 1,570,813 430,649 451,182 27.4 28.7
805 Truck drivers, light 1,193 745,235 118,909 124,522 16.0 16.7
806 Driver-sales workers 311 182,850 55,668 59,380 30.4 32.5
808 Bus drivers 765 448,959 170,599 195,090 38.0 43.5
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 254 152,757 18,558 19,032 12.1 12.5
813 Parking lot attendants 78 47,226 10,985 11,396 23.3 24.1
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 10 8,897 2,532 4,514 28.5 50.7
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 78 40,167 35,254 35,254 87.8 87.8
824 Locomotive operating occupations 102 53,537 48,503 48,503 90.6 90.6
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 80 37,135 34,223 34,350 92.2 92.5
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 10 7,176 7,176 7,176 100.0 100.0
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 50 30,837 7,976 7,976 25.9 25.9
829 Sailors and deckhands 31 18,778 6,933 6,933 36.9 36.9
833 Marine engineers 2 1,614 1,614 1,614 100.0 100.0
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 7 3,418 122 122 3.6 3.6
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 29 17,154 4,378 4,378 25.5 25.5
844 Operating engineers 362 198,553 75,067 78,873 37.8 39.7
845 Longshore equipment operators 1 579 579 579 100.0 100.0
848 Hoist and winch operators 33 21,278 1,403 1,403 6.6 6.6
849 Crane and tower operators 141 84,048 56,471 56,887 67.2 67.7
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 178 92,811 19,513 20,826 21.0 22.4
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 167 84,399 22,102 24,845 26.2 29.4
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 710 439,240 165,552 173,561 37.7 39.5
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 135 75,363 26,028 26,356 34.5 35.0
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, & LABORERS 7,911 4,712,759 1,158,391 1,245,276 24.6 26.4
863 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, & laborers, n.e.c. 18 10,040 2,174 2,713 21.7 27.0
864 Helpers, mechanics and repairers 55 33,760 4,887 5,396 14.5 16.0
865 Helpers, construction trades 210 135,315 16,467 17,480 12.2 12.9
866 Helpers, surveyor 22 12,102 819 1,422 6.8 11.7
867 Helpers, extractive occupations 8 4,500 2,003 2,003 44.5 44.5
869 Construction laborers 1,269 766,358 190,548 203,899 24.9 26.6
873 Production helpers 98 62,715 17,651 18,883 28.1 30.1
875 Garbage collectors 66 39,378 8,508 9,255 21.6 23.5
876 Stevedores 29 19,856 18,243 18,243 91.9 91.9
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,528 904,524 190,010 207,987 21.0 23.0
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 189 111,348 44,891 45,529 40.3 40.9
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,101 670,884 221,881 238,060 33.1 35.5
885 Garage and service station related occupations 404 231,167 8,152 9,224 3.5 4.0
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 383 236,169 36,795 42,182 15.6 17.9
888 Hand packers and packagers 530 294,295 80,858 86,379 27.5 29.4
889 Laborers, except construction 2,001 1,180,349 314,506 336,622 26.6 28.5
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1988. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1980 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.