Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1989 (details in table note)
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, & MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 20,209 11,949,620 742,122 984,003 6.2 8.2
3 Legislators 31 15,726 3,007 3,007 19.1 19.1
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public admin. 31 19,620 958 2,271 4.9 11.6
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 977 516,713 91,561 125,182 17.7 24.2
6 Administrators, protective services 115 58,436 8,846 13,319 15.1 22.8
7 Financial managers 773 451,474 6,217 11,271 1.4 2.5
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 216 127,426 3,580 4,222 2.8 3.3
9 Purchasing managers 188 113,156 2,239 3,163 2.0 2.8
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 819 504,243 12,901 17,717 2.6 3.5
14 Administrators, education and related fields 992 545,150 104,536 142,640 19.2 26.2
15 Managers, medicine and health 311 187,307 9,366 13,086 5.0 7.0
16 Managers, properties and real estate 460 302,848 11,387 12,526 3.8 4.1
17 Postmasters and mail superintendents 70 31,861 15,129 15,772 47.5 49.5
18 Funeral directors 44 24,586 1,027 1,027 4.2 4.2
19 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 9,312 5,555,799 217,540 293,023 3.9 5.3
23 Accountants and auditors 2,051 1,248,296 81,114 111,057 6.5 8.9
24 Underwriters 161 105,135 2,823 3,856 2.7 3.7
25 Other financial officers 1,071 631,397 12,434 19,120 2.0 3.0
26 Management analysts 161 93,461 866 4,076 0.9 4.4
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 680 408,934 42,285 52,861 10.3 12.9
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 12 4,666 505 505 10.8 10.8
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 290 174,379 5,010 6,648 2.9 3.8
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 406 243,269 16,253 21,904 6.7 9.0
34 Business and promotion agents 20 12,716 583 583 4.6 4.6
35 Construction inspectors 102 56,554 13,994 14,987 24.7 26.5
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, exc. construction 324 173,822 56,759 64,563 32.7 37.1
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 592 342,645 21,200 25,616 6.2 7.5
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS 15,308 8,906,739 1,016,927 1,273,124 11.4 14.3
43 Architects 173 113,900 5,866 6,719 5.2 5.9
44 Aerospace engineers 139 111,140 12,625 18,188 11.4 16.4
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 32 19,025 1,691 2,191 8.9 11.5
46 Mining engineers 10 3,710 0 0 0.0 0.0
47 Petroleum engineers 38 19,374 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 116 59,307 2,109 4,106 3.6 6.9
49 Nuclear engineers 18 10,221 1,114 1,700 10.9 16.6
53 Civil engineers 400 233,242 30,518 41,560 13.1 17.8
54 Agricultural engineers 3 1,715 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 835 519,549 27,057 32,370 5.2 6.2
56 Industrial engineers 312 190,704 13,208 18,675 6.9 9.8
57 Mechanical engineers 479 292,318 21,995 27,919 7.5 9.6
58 Marine and naval architects engineers 26 13,801 1,214 1,214 8.8 8.8
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 361 216,581 9,455 13,308 4.4 6.1
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 39 23,946 1,746 1,746 7.3 7.3
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 832 513,601 27,711 37,869 5.4 7.4
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 358 232,273 19,078 28,470 8.2 12.3
66 Actuaries 25 15,941 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 35 23,236 783 3,013 3.4 13.0
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 12 7,700 0 1,532 0.0 19.9
69 Physicists and astronomers 53 26,022 1,693 3,351 6.5 12.9
73 Chemists, except biochemists 188 109,108 6,193 6,808 5.7 6.2
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 14 6,343 385 385 6.1 6.1
75 Geologists and geodesists 75 42,649 2,487 3,141 5.8 7.4
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 30 18,786 2,501 3,427 13.3 18.2
77 Agricultural and food scientists 36 15,884 960 1,846 6.0 11.6
78 Biological and life scientists 138 69,348 8,215 10,103 11.8 14.6
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 67 29,971 3,358 3,358 11.2 11.2
83 Medical scientists 71 44,207 1,445 3,795 3.3 8.6
84 Physicians 439 262,534 13,781 27,389 5.2 10.4
85 Dentists 35 20,546 1,144 2,378 5.6 11.6
86 Veterinarians 32 16,694 0 0 0.0 0.0
87 Optometrists 11 5,989 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 1 607 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 14 9,119 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 2,818 1,567,551 270,868 312,467 17.3 19.9
96 Pharmacists 243 136,662 8,207 11,516 6.0 8.4
97 Dietitians 133 74,844 7,515 9,445 10.0 12.6
98 Inhalation therapists 94 54,098 2,827 4,046 5.2 7.5
99 Occupational therapists 65 38,181 10,142 10,853 26.6 28.4
103 Physical therapists 137 75,219 4,509 8,387 6.0 11.1
104 Speech therapists 107 58,899 20,943 27,578 35.6 46.8
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 103 62,798 10,037 11,828 16.0 18.8
106 Physicians' assistants 99 63,600 18,989 19,914 29.9 31.3
163 Counselors, educational and vocational 383 211,847 82,196 101,840 38.8 48.1
164 Librarians 351 186,968 51,345 64,444 27.5 34.5
165 Archivists and curators 38 18,413 2,287 2,287 12.4 12.4
166 Economists 188 121,061 5,473 11,712 4.5 9.7
167 Psychologists 228 133,641 25,992 31,582 19.4 23.6
168 Sociologists 5 3,226 957 957 29.7 29.7
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 28 12,053 421 1,185 3.5 9.8
173 Urban planners 32 19,996 1,359 1,989 6.8 9.9
174 Social workers 920 523,742 134,758 153,058 25.7 29.2
175 Recreation workers 173 91,666 1,854 6,314 2.0 6.9
176 Clergy 544 296,809 3,294 6,990 1.1 2.4
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 126 74,502 1,244 1,842 1.7 2.5
178 Lawyers 711 410,851 18,701 24,491 4.6 6.0
179 Judges 61 35,772 5,719 5,719 16.0 16.0
183 Authors 20 10,911 931 931 8.5 8.5
184 Technical writers 103 61,366 3,318 3,700 5.4 6.0
185 Designers 657 391,367 22,242 28,931 5.7 7.4
186 Musicians and composers 130 77,123 9,455 9,455 12.3 12.3
187 Actors and directors 100 64,321 8,929 9,312 13.9 14.5
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist print-makers 175 111,616 7,701 11,291 6.9 10.1
189 Photographers 115 68,158 5,864 7,566 8.6 11.1
193 Dancers 20 10,466 2,003 2,003 19.1 19.1
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 84 44,347 7,590 11,236 17.1 25.3
195 Editors and reporters 422 242,405 22,755 29,039 9.4 12.0
197 Public relations specialists 241 140,223 6,572 9,623 4.7 6.9
198 Announcers 90 44,483 3,124 3,314 7.0 7.4
199 Athletes 117 68,462 8,474 9,718 12.4 14.2
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,291 698,322 128,913 176,113 18.5 25.2
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 12 5,975 1,562 1,849 26.1 30.9
114 Biological science teachers 39 16,428 2,775 4,159 16.9 25.3
115 Chemistry teachers 25 11,897 2,874 2,874 24.2 24.2
116 Physics teachers 14 8,978 534 2,488 5.9 27.7
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 5 1,370 643 643 47.0 47.0
118 Psychology teachers 27 14,919 3,461 5,063 23.2 33.9
119 Economics teachers 30 16,250 2,637 3,958 16.2 24.4
123 History teachers 19 9,847 3,273 4,902 33.2 49.8
124 Political science teachers 15 11,421 2,563 2,686 22.4 23.5
125 Sociology teachers 10 6,224 2,387 2,387 38.3 38.3
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 8 4,294 1,035 1,035 24.1 24.1
127 Engineering teachers 56 27,515 5,768 7,873 21.0 28.6
128 Mathematical science teachers 99 56,481 10,245 16,463 18.1 29.1
129 Computer science teachers 36 22,958 2,094 2,094 9.1 9.1
133 Medical science teachers 21 12,196 2,255 2,608 18.5 21.4
134 Health specialties teachers 58 30,156 4,968 7,528 16.5 25.0
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 52 28,683 4,768 7,521 16.6 26.2
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 10 5,261 0 0 0.0 0.0
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 73 40,540 5,732 8,002 14.1 19.7
138 Physical education teachers 26 11,608 1,860 3,521 16.0 30.3
139 Education teachers 31 13,540 4,552 5,364 33.6 39.6
143 English teachers 99 54,799 10,561 14,628 19.3 26.7
144 Foreign language teachers 37 22,475 5,077 6,604 22.6 29.4
145 Law teachers 13 8,047 1,793 1,793 22.3 22.3
146 Social work teachers 1 89 0 0 0.0 0.0
147 Theology teachers 24 13,060 566 2,094 4.3 16.0
148 Trade and industrial teachers 6 3,262 1,846 1,846 56.6 56.6
149 Home economics teachers 4 1,903 57 435 3.0 22.8
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 16 7,798 696 696 8.9 8.9
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 425 230,346 42,332 54,998 18.4 23.9
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,801 3,802,657 1,850,916 2,172,481 48.7 57.1
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 711 423,492 100,104 123,905 23.6 29.3
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,684 1,500,514 831,891 987,633 55.4 65.8
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,219 1,228,170 721,588 826,373 58.8 67.3
158 Teachers, special education 504 270,396 156,541 180,622 57.9 66.8
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 683 380,084 40,792 53,947 10.7 14.2
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 6,036 3,511,199 422,713 502,481 12.0 14.3
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 513 301,151 34,630 37,530 11.5 12.5
204 Dental hygienists 149 81,265 1,722 2,030 2.1 2.5
205 Health record technologists and technicians 119 71,755 7,610 8,981 10.6 12.5
206 Radiologic technicians 209 124,347 7,369 7,722 5.9 6.2
207 Licensed practical nurses 720 402,813 67,881 76,849 16.9 19.1
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 453 278,728 29,103 34,746 10.4 12.5
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 500 300,428 49,762 59,252 16.6 19.7
214 Industrial engineering technicians 8 4,166 354 698 8.5 16.8
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 16 11,690 1,493 4,486 12.8 38.4
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 400 224,067 33,586 39,692 15.0 17.7
217 Drafting occupations 473 287,017 24,352 29,039 8.5 10.1
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 116 64,541 5,162 9,539 8.0 14.8
223 Biological technicians 98 51,816 4,801 4,801 9.3 9.3
224 Chemical technicians 149 72,443 10,888 11,964 15.0 16.5
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 162 83,044 8,720 15,226 10.5 18.3
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 156 98,348 47,015 47,015 47.8 47.8
227 Air traffic controllers 60 33,169 9,915 12,188 29.9 36.7
228 Broadcast equipment operators 43 25,765 7,270 8,532 28.2 33.1
229 Computer programmers 916 546,923 29,538 42,789 5.4 7.8
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 6 4,334 0 0 0.0 0.0
234 Legal assistants 328 191,342 7,761 10,412 4.1 5.4
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 442 252,047 33,780 38,990 13.4 15.5
SALES OCCUPATIONS 19,336 11,353,903 574,234 670,032 5.1 5.9
243 Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 4,186 2,461,626 119,246 142,457 4.8 5.8
253 Insurance sales occupations 620 363,855 14,491 17,106 4.0 4.7
254 Real estate sales occupations 739 435,250 14,944 24,352 3.4 5.6
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 405 248,197 3,764 7,545 1.5 3.0
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 250 136,047 6,929 8,195 5.1 6.0
257 Sales occupations, other business services 883 552,186 21,831 29,495 4.0 5.3
258 Sales engineers 50 26,767 270 270 1.0 1.0
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,247 1,362,134 21,216 31,042 1.6 2.3
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 453 266,147 5,076 7,314 1.9 2.7
264 Sales workers, apparel 753 431,160 8,046 9,753 1.9 2.3
265 Sales workers, shoes 173 106,393 3,188 3,188 3.0 3.0
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 228 129,136 837 1,071 0.6 0.8
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 310 198,125 641 1,552 0.3 0.8
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 333 194,659 4,113 4,727 2.1 2.4
269 Sales workers, parts 267 151,823 6,143 6,640 4.0 4.4
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,426 1,397,678 37,065 44,556 2.7 3.2
275 Sales counter clerks 286 174,056 1,883 1,883 1.1 1.1
276 Cashiers 4,249 2,435,553 298,317 320,952 12.2 13.2
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 288 166,845 1,887 2,585 1.1 1.5
278 News vendors 115 66,917 1,598 2,598 2.4 3.9
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 56 37,187 2,751 2,751 7.4 7.4
284 Auctioneers 2 1,527 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 17 10,635 0 0 0.0 0.0
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INC. CLERICAL 30,361 17,767,749 2,302,079 2,759,932 13.0 15.5
303 Supervisors, general office 760 454,871 49,644 73,554 10.9 16.2
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 56 37,540 3,031 3,299 8.1 8.8
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 149 87,075 1,954 2,064 2.2 2.4
306 Chief communications operators 2 1,329 0 0 0.0 0.0
307 Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 288 169,809 31,755 35,480 18.7 20.9
308 Computer operators 1,445 878,086 70,037 97,967 8.0 11.2
309 Peripheral equipment operators 9 6,714 263 263 3.9 3.9
313 Secretaries 6,729 3,823,366 272,096 343,831 7.1 9.0
314 Stenographers 50 28,155 12,039 12,885 42.8 45.8
315 Typists 1,166 684,172 68,182 95,684 10.0 14.0
316 Interviewers 321 193,977 15,743 18,315 8.1 9.4
317 Hotel clerks 167 87,925 4,081 4,081 4.6 4.6
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 190 116,681 28,346 31,171 24.3 26.7
319 Receptionists 1,336 778,032 36,144 45,642 4.6 5.9
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 378 228,707 16,573 21,489 7.2 9.4
325 Classified-ad clerks 9 4,441 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 34 23,514 0 0 0.0 0.0
327 Order clerks 342 196,913 53,025 58,774 26.9 29.8
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 141 82,005 6,826 10,151 8.3 12.4
329 Library clerks 246 145,528 19,648 24,577 13.5 16.9
335 File clerks 442 276,336 23,591 30,725 8.5 11.1
336 Records clerks 180 105,583 16,986 20,175 16.1 19.1
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,925 1,637,667 64,852 88,717 4.0 5.4
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 298 174,890 23,016 25,367 13.2 14.5
339 Billing clerks 271 156,989 13,624 16,337 8.7 10.4
343 Cost and rate clerks 136 83,614 8,007 9,227 9.6 11.0
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 79 44,750 1,726 2,168 3.9 4.8
345 Duplicating machine operators 41 24,735 612 1,774 2.5 7.2
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 22 13,479 1,862 1,862 13.8 13.8
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 46 24,055 570 796 2.4 3.3
348 Telephone operators 381 209,182 65,799 70,847 31.5 33.9
349 Telegraphers 9 5,092 909 1,794 17.8 35.2
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 5 3,518 0 0 0.0 0.0
354 Postal clerks, exc. mail carriers 527 319,406 241,887 265,088 75.7 83.0
355 Mail carriers, postal service 545 327,495 268,824 281,725 82.1 86.0
356 Mail clerks, exc. postal service 287 165,795 26,414 32,510 15.9 19.6
357 Messengers 204 122,620 7,777 10,151 6.3 8.3
359 Dispatchers 320 188,511 42,373 47,893 22.5 25.4
363 Production coordinators 334 207,239 39,030 47,500 18.8 22.9
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 860 522,376 92,919 102,306 17.8 19.6
365 Stock and inventory clerks 899 540,781 86,120 104,904 15.9 19.4
366 Meter readers 88 49,133 20,566 23,591 41.9 48.0
368 Weighers, measurers, and checkers 120 71,256 17,635 18,640 24.7 26.2
369 Samplers 3 1,304 605 605 46.4 46.4
373 Expediters 158 92,607 11,520 12,792 12.4 13.8
374 Material recording, scheduling, & distributing clerks, n.e.c. 43 26,636 6,422 6,842 24.1 25.7
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 526 321,761 13,667 16,053 4.2 5.0
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 904 549,750 39,213 51,579 7.1 9.4
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 115 67,255 14,173 17,241 21.1 25.6
378 Bill and account collectors 225 137,085 10,555 14,192 7.7 10.4
379 General office clerks 1,299 767,844 110,413 130,658 14.4 17.0
383 Bank tellers 902 510,380 9,587 14,369 1.9 2.8
384 Proofreaders 48 35,104 714 1,428 2.0 4.1
385 Data-entry keyers 717 435,294 43,474 53,050 10.0 12.2
386 Statistical clerks 143 84,213 16,267 17,567 19.3 20.9
387 Teachers aides 763 445,528 125,500 161,479 28.2 36.2
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,678 989,641 145,475 178,751 14.7 18.1
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD 1,428 854,804 340 983 0.0 0.1
403 Launderers and ironers 3 1,356 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 26 14,241 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 48 27,947 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 635 353,840 340 983 0.1 0.3
407 Private household cleaners and servants 716 457,420 0 0 0.0 0.0
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PROTECTIVE SERVICE 3,188 1,955,080 749,691 816,393 38.3 41.8
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 58 39,681 28,938 29,388 72.9 74.1
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 152 92,365 51,294 55,070 55.5 59.6
415 Supervisors, guards 74 49,129 2,812 4,851 5.7 9.9
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 34 18,312 6,895 7,846 37.7 42.8
417 Firefighting occupations 314 189,164 140,352 149,920 74.2 79.3
418 Police and detectives, public service 745 455,272 268,137 292,423 58.9 64.2
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 182 108,191 38,136 43,640 35.2 40.3
424 Correctional institution officers 364 228,418 119,267 129,633 52.2 56.8
425 Crossing guards 64 39,466 9,221 10,971 23.4 27.8
426 Guards and police, exc. public service 1,040 647,061 79,412 86,538 12.3 13.4
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 161 88,020 5,226 6,114 5.9 6.9
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXC. PROTECTIVE & HOUSEHOLD 20,264 11,600,522 1,197,908 1,354,800 10.3 11.7
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 589 351,062 23,015 28,440 6.6 8.1
434 Bartenders 546 299,329 12,186 13,772 4.1 4.6
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,471 1,412,463 46,180 51,594 3.3 3.7
436 Cooks, except short order 2,873 1,635,966 92,706 109,960 5.7 6.7
437 Short-order cooks 144 84,952 2,452 2,452 2.9 2.9
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 629 358,275 7,048 7,346 2.0 2.1
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 215 122,825 3,599 3,599 2.9 2.9
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 569 361,872 22,651 26,470 6.3 7.3
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,146 637,694 55,263 66,652 8.7 10.5
445 Dental assistants 323 192,517 5,561 5,561 2.9 2.9
446 Health aides, except nursing 729 418,015 61,211 69,456 14.6 16.6
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,475 1,423,239 214,662 236,501 15.1 16.6
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 259 153,966 19,717 23,777 12.8 15.4
449 Maids and housemen 1,047 559,409 73,567 81,447 13.2 14.6
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,504 2,055,145 394,795 447,015 19.2 21.8
454 Elevator operators 11 6,548 2,666 2,666 40.7 40.7
455 Pest control occupations 57 32,992 1,765 2,041 5.4 6.2
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 51 27,350 1,196 2,222 4.4 8.1
457 Barbers 40 25,479 3,643 3,643 14.3 14.3
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 684 405,492 5,602 5,855 1.4 1.4
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 287 129,642 6,891 7,936 5.3 6.1
463 Guides 88 43,630 6,153 6,975 14.1 16.0
464 Ushers 41 26,637 1,263 1,263 4.7 4.7
465 Public transportation attendants 132 84,987 62,335 65,490 73.3 77.1
466 Baggage porters and bellhops 59 31,642 8,690 8,690 27.5 27.5
467 Welfare service aides 183 95,999 8,726 10,407 9.1 10.8
468 Child care workers, except private household 818 445,018 33,576 40,851 7.5 9.2
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 294 178,376 20,790 22,716 11.7 12.7
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 3,038 1,773,668 66,648 81,768 3.8 4.6
473 Farmers, except horticultural 17 8,698 102 102 1.2 1.2
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 117 60,737 0 0 0.0 0.0
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 4 3,548 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 49 30,733 1,008 1,008 3.3 3.3
479 Farm workers 1,286 717,934 4,924 4,924 0.7 0.7
483 Marine life cultivation workers 6 2,832 555 555 19.6 19.6
484 Nursery workers 43 25,427 0 667 0.0 2.6
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 108 67,574 5,507 7,656 8.2 11.3
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 1,041 663,936 47,731 57,058 7.2 8.6
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 129 73,796 2,851 3,849 3.9 5.2
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 22 15,540 774 1,555 5.0 10.0
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 1 702 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 7 2,694 0 0 0.0 0.0
495 Forestry workers, except logging 46 25,164 184 855 0.7 3.4
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 111 52,413 3,011 3,095 5.7 5.9
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 4 2,615 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 46 19,204 0 442 0.0 2.3
499 Hunters and trappers 1 122 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 13,461 7,928,865 1,963,128 2,135,882 24.8 26.9
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 503 290,810 28,606 41,045 9.8 14.1
505 Automobile mechanics 1,153 689,404 68,303 76,047 9.9 11.0
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 4 1,948 0 617 0.0 31.7
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 520 286,923 76,318 81,131 26.6 28.3
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 191 122,653 51,983 60,622 42.4 49.4
509 Small engine repairers 85 48,015 3,104 3,202 6.5 6.7
514 Automobile body and related repairers 255 145,786 11,407 12,097 7.8 8.3
515 Aircraft mechanics, exc. engine 22 14,884 5,401 5,853 36.3 39.3
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 299 154,302 66,157 67,935 42.9 44.0
517 Farm equipment mechanics 71 34,373 1,387 1,387 4.0 4.0
518 Industry machinery repairers 921 534,682 177,599 189,407 33.2 35.4
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 49 24,988 12,173 12,326 48.7 49.3
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 235 139,857 28,257 32,702 20.2 23.4
525 Data processing equipment repairers 234 150,889 10,801 14,655 7.2 9.7
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 73 41,156 4,456 5,141 10.8 12.5
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 93 51,133 34,772 35,312 68.0 69.1
529 Telephone Installers and repairers 347 195,665 136,981 144,050 70.0 73.6
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 91 56,223 26,064 27,340 46.4 48.6
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 371 227,879 39,224 43,938 17.2 19.3
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 42 26,639 5,990 7,659 22.5 28.8
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 29 15,825 3,136 3,136 19.8 19.8
538 Office machine repairers 114 63,348 2,966 2,966 4.7 4.7
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 28 15,064 7,551 8,536 50.1 56.7
543 Elevator installers and repairers 33 19,779 18,053 18,053 91.3 91.3
544 Millwrights 169 95,271 70,182 71,108 73.7 74.6
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 731 440,487 107,959 116,853 24.5 26.5
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 345 206,412 46,627 51,902 22.6 25.1
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 76 37,667 1,716 4,477 4.6 11.9
614 Drillers, oil well 50 27,129 1,545 2,472 5.7 9.1
615 Explosives workers 13 7,419 2,133 2,133 28.8 28.8
616 Mining machine operators 81 35,488 19,512 20,014 55.0 56.4
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 66 27,781 12,228 12,355 44.0 44.5
633 Supervisors, production occupations 2,250 1,340,970 168,766 194,042 12.6 14.5
634 Tool and die makers 226 139,464 60,227 64,395 43.2 46.2
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 7 4,625 0 0 0.0 0.0
636 Precision assemblers, metal 18 11,485 5,792 5,792 50.4 50.4
637 Machinists 743 449,251 144,182 154,207 32.1 34.3
639 Machinist apprentices 5 4,527 654 654 14.4 14.4
643 Boilermakers 48 30,547 16,142 16,142 52.8 52.8
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 26 13,555 6,606 7,069 48.7 52.2
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 4 2,679 1,182 1,182 44.1 44.1
646 Lay-out workers 12 6,240 2,527 2,527 40.5 40.5
647 Precious stones and metals workers (jewelers) 60 31,261 1,060 1,060 3.4 3.4
649 Engravers, metal 21 10,239 1,074 1,074 10.5 10.5
653 Sheet metal workers 226 135,364 64,384 69,596 47.6 51.4
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 9 5,084 4,792 4,792 94.2 94.2
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 5 2,820 433 433 15.3 15.3
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 6 3,371 1,788 1,788 53.0 53.0
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 53 32,803 5,511 5,511 16.8 16.8
658 Furniture and wood finishers 42 22,536 1,868 1,868 8.3 8.3
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 1 317 0 0 0.0 0.0
666 Dressmakers 101 58,680 2,995 3,732 5.1 6.4
667 Tailors 63 46,120 5,739 5,739 12.4 12.4
668 Upholsterers 75 40,623 5,229 5,229 12.9 12.9
669 Shoe repairers 18 9,656 0 0 0.0 0.0
673 Apparel and fabric patternmakers 4 1,986 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 7 3,702 0 0 0.0 0.0
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 38 24,884 8,203 8,203 33.0 33.0
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 40 25,143 10,586 10,586 42.1 42.1
677 Optical goods workers 119 74,565 4,762 5,414 6.4 7.3
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 57 33,895 0 1,802 0.0 5.3
679 Bookbinders 67 44,038 6,063 7,279 13.8 16.5
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 472 298,477 79,726 87,265 26.7 29.2
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 41 25,895 4,045 6,010 15.6 23.2
686 Butchers and meat cutters 437 258,396 75,828 79,500 29.3 30.8
687 Bakers 170 97,743 24,036 25,204 24.6 25.8
688 Food batchmakers 61 33,146 7,476 7,791 22.6 23.5
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 179 115,978 36,066 38,150 31.1 32.9
693 Adjusters and calibrators 17 12,067 2,303 2,303 19.1 19.1
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 114 57,979 24,609 27,280 42.4 47.1
695 Power plant operators 94 53,678 31,846 36,242 59.3 67.5
696 Stationary engineers 177 102,642 49,541 54,158 48.3 52.8
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 54 32,554 14,498 15,395 44.5 47.3
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 6,518 3,977,402 1,170,742 1,219,455 29.4 30.7
553 Supervisors; brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 10 7,309 6,125 6,125 83.8 83.8
554 Supervisors; carpenters and related workers 39 19,219 1,617 2,702 8.4 14.1
555 Supervisors; electricians and power transmission installers 58 35,342 11,223 12,781 31.8 36.2
556 Supervisors; painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 11 9,405 1,537 1,537 16.3 16.3
557 Supervisors; plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 13 8,914 4,002 4,002 44.9 44.9
558 Supervisors; n.e.c. 717 425,949 89,598 95,652 21.0 22.5
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 232 156,101 59,616 61,353 38.2 39.3
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 4 3,227 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 58 41,016 5,923 5,923 14.4 14.4
566 Carpet installers 91 63,331 10,507 11,486 16.6 18.1
567 Carpenters 1,632 969,892 197,803 209,036 20.4 21.6
569 Carpenter apprentices 18 12,153 6,354 6,354 52.3 52.3
573 Drywall installers 166 110,578 23,172 23,172 21.0 21.0
575 Electricians 1,001 586,014 258,209 266,124 44.1 45.4
576 Electrician apprentices 68 39,098 15,556 16,342 39.8 41.8
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 196 105,785 64,771 66,188 61.2 62.6
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 554 352,706 55,596 57,901 15.8 16.4
583 Paperhangers 16 10,132 1,116 1,116 11.0 11.0
584 Plasterers 57 41,997 9,093 9,544 21.7 22.7
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 614 365,053 163,774 167,212 44.9 45.8
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 22 11,726 3,180 3,180 27.1 27.1
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 98 70,109 17,986 18,373 25.7 26.2
589 Glaziers 64 41,226 11,245 11,245 27.3 27.3
593 Insulation workers 90 63,333 15,557 15,823 24.6 25.0
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 25 14,196 5,309 7,501 37.4 52.8
595 Roofers 189 124,559 16,576 17,575 13.3 14.1
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 60 34,852 16,552 16,552 47.5 47.5
597 Structural metal workers 105 65,873 46,315 46,315 70.3 70.3
598 Drillers, earth 22 10,671 2,397 2,397 22.5 22.5
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 288 177,637 50,032 55,947 28.2 31.5
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 13,301 8,025,059 2,307,705 2,431,505 28.8 30.3
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 39 21,993 10,877 10,877 49.5 49.5
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 91 57,486 14,918 18,242 26.0 31.7
705 Milling and planing machine operators 18 12,226 3,034 3,493 24.8 28.6
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 187 121,655 51,089 52,054 42.0 42.8
707 Rolling machine operators 27 14,457 9,969 10,499 69.0 72.6
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 47 28,973 13,431 13,431 46.4 46.4
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 242 144,887 55,141 57,148 38.1 39.4
713 Forging machine operators 30 18,655 11,763 11,914 63.1 63.9
714 Numerical control machine operators 7 4,700 2,983 2,983 63.5 63.5
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 76 44,465 19,942 20,704 44.8 46.6
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 36 20,214 10,147 10,448 50.2 51.7
719 Molding and casting machine operators 156 94,124 29,325 31,386 31.2 33.3
723 Metal plating machine operators 44 29,928 11,727 11,727 39.2 39.2
724 Heat treating equipment operators 26 19,397 12,116 12,116 62.5 62.5
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 17 9,156 2,352 2,979 25.7 32.5
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 18 9,594 2,504 2,504 26.1 26.1
727 Sawing machine operators 162 85,713 12,812 12,812 14.9 14.9
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 16 9,347 808 808 8.6 8.6
729 Nail and tacking machine operators 6 6,747 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 71 42,865 8,982 9,646 21.0 22.5
734 Printing machine operators 473 293,428 57,314 61,852 19.5 21.1
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 72 46,504 16,418 17,833 35.3 38.3
736 Typesetters and compositors 102 57,380 6,888 7,552 12.0 13.2
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 60 37,395 5,522 5,522 14.8 14.8
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 146 75,280 7,258 7,909 9.6 10.5
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 90 47,292 2,474 2,474 5.2 5.2
743 Textile cutting machine operators 12 7,006 1,657 1,657 23.6 23.6
744 Textile sewing machine operators 1,173 744,757 143,578 153,500 19.3 20.6
745 Shoe machine operators 55 27,017 3,409 4,569 12.6 16.9
747 Pressing machine operators 197 121,654 26,590 27,150 21.9 22.3
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 345 204,873 27,997 29,770 13.7 14.5
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 156 80,123 9,322 9,322 11.6 11.6
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 61 37,228 11,569 13,315 31.1 35.8
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 789 483,248 138,351 144,292 28.6 29.9
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 57 28,537 10,576 11,442 37.1 40.1
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 171 104,791 37,724 39,058 36.0 37.3
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 108 62,808 36,425 36,425 58.0 58.0
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 45 25,454 4,386 4,386 17.2 17.2
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 283 173,806 43,024 46,763 24.8 26.9
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 6 3,544 1,441 1,441 40.7 40.7
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 23 13,248 3,958 3,958 29.9 29.9
765 Folding machine operators 44 27,482 7,590 8,020 27.6 29.2
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, exc. food 166 94,343 43,331 48,049 45.9 50.9
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 94 52,161 15,071 16,961 28.9 32.5
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 353 219,603 58,532 62,733 26.7 28.6
773 Motion picture projectionists 8 3,312 0 0 0.0 0.0
774 Photographic process machine operators 140 83,333 9,219 10,846 11.1 13.0
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,652 991,433 346,733 367,190 35.0 37.0
779 Machine operators, not specified 553 323,761 95,441 99,110 29.5 30.6
783 Welders and cutters 933 573,967 204,888 215,911 35.7 37.6
784 Solderers and brazers 69 43,807 9,645 9,763 22.0 22.3
785 Assemblers 1,850 1,126,831 369,156 380,102 32.8 33.7
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 25 14,494 4,586 4,705 31.6 32.5
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 31 17,658 3,256 3,364 18.4 19.1
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 55 32,991 8,289 8,813 25.1 26.7
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 43 26,385 1,907 1,907 7.2 7.2
794 Hand grinding and polishing occupations 8 3,687 1,931 1,931 52.4 52.4
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 76 37,026 4,633 4,633 12.5 12.5
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 1,158 703,340 212,303 228,871 30.2 32.5
797 Production testers 103 65,192 8,509 8,824 13.1 13.5
798 Production samplers and weighers 15 7,600 0 0 0.0 0.0
799 Graders and sorters, exc. agricultural 185 104,693 22,885 23,813 21.9 22.7
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,858 4,572,147 1,320,548 1,405,005 28.9 30.7
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 130 81,675 4,299 8,926 5.3 10.9
804 Truck drivers, heavy 2,880 1,649,335 417,496 442,296 25.3 26.8
805 Truck drivers, light 1,268 768,030 137,472 142,478 17.9 18.6
806 Driver-sales workers 291 175,890 45,901 47,166 26.1 26.8
808 Bus drivers 763 424,143 157,275 178,148 37.1 42.0
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 259 165,349 14,210 19,011 8.6 11.5
813 Parking lot attendants 73 52,116 9,023 10,143 17.3 19.5
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 14 7,347 3,606 3,606 49.1 49.1
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 74 38,271 34,775 35,445 90.9 92.6
824 Locomotive operating occupations 98 47,435 43,754 43,926 92.2 92.6
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 66 32,649 29,262 30,036 89.6 92.0
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 14 9,600 8,562 8,562 89.2 89.2
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 43 23,231 4,103 4,103 17.7 17.7
829 Sailors and deckhands 28 14,639 4,811 4,811 32.9 32.9
833 Marine engineers 3 980 297 297 30.3 30.3
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 8 4,992 1,754 1,754 35.1 35.1
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 15 10,609 3,957 3,957 37.3 37.3
844 Operating engineers 368 207,229 84,990 89,494 41.0 43.2
845 Longshore equipment operators 2 1,674 1,674 1,674 100.0 100.0
848 Hoist and winch operators 35 16,323 2,641 2,641 16.2 16.2
849 Crane and tower operators 164 105,236 71,880 72,886 68.3 69.3
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 192 105,619 25,976 27,324 24.6 25.9
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 178 89,032 17,900 20,194 20.1 22.7
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 759 468,984 170,713 181,051 36.4 38.6
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 133 71,759 24,216 25,077 33.7 34.9
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, & LABORERS 8,013 4,801,890 1,145,838 1,213,602 23.9 25.3
863 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, & laborers, n.e.c. 22 13,923 4,978 5,913 35.8 42.5
864 Helpers, mechanics and repairers 55 31,793 7,570 8,145 23.8 25.6
865 Helpers, construction trades 195 111,542 9,992 12,580 9.0 11.3
866 Helpers, surveyor 15 7,320 252 252 3.4 3.4
867 Helpers, extractive occupations 4 1,711 322 322 18.8 18.8
869 Construction laborers 1,204 753,626 171,084 183,814 22.7 24.4
873 Production helpers 123 82,134 28,013 28,181 34.1 34.3
875 Garbage collectors 78 51,537 14,553 15,790 28.2 30.6
876 Stevedores 28 19,700 16,363 16,363 83.1 83.1
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,534 896,434 193,709 201,922 21.6 22.5
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 173 89,344 26,026 27,098 29.1 30.3
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,154 711,407 245,148 260,162 34.5 36.6
885 Garage and service station related occupations 410 230,150 7,884 8,203 3.4 3.6
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 431 275,670 39,955 39,955 14.5 14.5
888 Hand packers and packagers 549 320,128 70,978 75,238 22.2 23.5
889 Laborers, except construction 2,038 1,205,470 309,010 329,664 25.6 27.3
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1989. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1980 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.