Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1990 (details in table note)
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, & MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 21,086 11,804,516 709,141 962,867 6.0 8.2
3 Legislators 17 7,949 0 0 0.0 0.0
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public admin. 32 16,570 2,981 2,981 18.0 18.0
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 966 501,884 72,083 108,432 14.4 21.6
6 Administrators, protective services 100 56,462 7,469 12,714 13.2 22.5
7 Financial managers 818 465,558 4,614 7,983 1.0 1.7
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 210 118,352 4,635 6,505 3.9 5.5
9 Purchasing managers 199 111,126 4,174 6,637 3.8 6.0
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 827 475,641 4,381 8,681 0.9 1.8
14 Administrators, education and related fields 975 517,910 106,560 130,291 20.6 25.2
15 Managers, medicine and health 318 171,344 9,559 13,647 5.6 8.0
16 Managers, properties and real estate 486 290,961 9,570 10,435 3.3 3.6
17 Postmasters and mail superintendents 71 30,391 18,750 20,372 61.7 67.0
18 Funeral directors 39 23,845 1,000 1,000 4.2 4.2
19 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 9,906 5,536,898 207,035 281,323 3.7 5.1
23 Accountants and auditors 2,172 1,263,014 75,189 106,263 6.0 8.4
24 Underwriters 160 94,981 1,753 2,537 1.8 2.7
25 Other financial officers 1,160 657,633 25,952 36,964 3.9 5.6
26 Management analysts 178 104,679 3,478 8,517 3.3 8.1
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 687 381,753 34,370 47,713 9.0 12.5
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 13 5,335 809 809 15.2 15.2
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 316 180,390 4,644 5,362 2.6 3.0
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 443 253,906 13,642 23,015 5.4 9.1
34 Business and promotion agents 34 15,841 708 708 4.5 4.5
35 Construction inspectors 121 71,519 19,178 24,152 26.8 33.8
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, exc. construction 363 191,272 60,656 76,132 31.7 39.8
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 475 259,302 15,951 19,693 6.2 7.6
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS 16,640 9,226,361 1,013,274 1,285,271 11.0 13.9
43 Architects 136 79,607 3,111 5,923 3.9 7.4
44 Aerospace engineers 148 104,490 6,762 11,897 6.5 11.4
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 44 24,949 1,201 1,818 4.8 7.3
46 Mining engineers 14 6,035 869 869 14.4 14.4
47 Petroleum engineers 32 14,974 826 826 5.5 5.5
48 Chemical engineers 120 66,501 1,443 2,489 2.2 3.7
49 Nuclear engineers 19 11,136 0 0 0.0 0.0
53 Civil engineers 402 216,215 26,154 34,933 12.1 16.2
54 Agricultural engineers 5 3,461 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 966 575,427 34,294 47,734 6.0 8.3
56 Industrial engineers 353 203,195 17,731 21,958 8.7 10.8
57 Mechanical engineers 485 298,763 14,476 19,944 4.8 6.7
58 Marine and naval architects engineers 15 7,364 1,828 1,828 24.8 24.8
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 455 258,670 10,583 18,288 4.1 7.1
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 40 21,738 272 272 1.3 1.3
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 950 556,666 20,457 30,275 3.7 5.4
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 385 225,087 11,846 25,954 5.3 11.5
66 Actuaries 32 21,340 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 40 24,663 3,234 3,813 13.1 15.5
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 10 6,287 254 1,187 4.0 18.9
69 Physicists and astronomers 45 21,701 0 1,473 0.0 6.8
73 Chemists, except biochemists 218 122,228 5,496 7,502 4.5 6.1
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 12 6,998 498 639 7.1 9.1
75 Geologists and geodesists 93 45,836 2,012 2,198 4.4 4.8
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 36 19,866 1,933 1,933 9.7 9.7
77 Agricultural and food scientists 39 16,120 679 1,171 4.2 7.3
78 Biological and life scientists 150 80,911 5,075 6,703 6.3 8.3
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 63 22,323 2,087 3,243 9.3 14.5
83 Medical scientists 69 38,091 1,146 2,191 3.0 5.8
84 Physicians 498 281,351 23,083 33,611 8.2 11.9
85 Dentists 31 17,364 789 1,307 4.5 7.5
86 Veterinarians 47 30,827 1,172 1,172 3.8 3.8
87 Optometrists 11 4,342 504 504 11.6 11.6
88 Podiatrists 7 3,106 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 7 3,684 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 3,093 1,656,605 274,228 344,974 16.6 20.8
96 Pharmacists 251 138,793 12,695 17,121 9.1 12.3
97 Dietitians 154 86,389 10,347 13,208 12.0 15.3
98 Inhalation therapists 105 61,674 6,071 7,168 9.8 11.6
99 Occupational therapists 66 35,660 8,088 10,475 22.7 29.4
103 Physical therapists 131 74,064 3,002 7,205 4.1 9.7
104 Speech therapists 100 52,176 21,209 25,725 40.6 49.3
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 111 66,097 7,548 9,168 11.4 13.9
106 Physicians' assistants 114 64,877 14,438 17,324 22.3 26.7
163 Counselors, educational and vocational 398 216,217 79,974 93,504 37.0 43.2
164 Librarians 389 189,403 48,824 58,176 25.8 30.7
165 Archivists and curators 40 18,638 1,390 1,679 7.5 9.0
166 Economists 178 97,668 3,154 4,193 3.2 4.3
167 Psychologists 267 147,070 29,334 34,080 19.9 23.2
168 Sociologists 4 2,460 0 0 0.0 0.0
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 36 16,510 380 777 2.3 4.7
173 Urban planners 28 15,943 1,076 1,076 6.8 6.8
174 Social workers 1,035 558,602 149,482 165,006 26.8 29.5
175 Recreation workers 182 103,928 4,003 7,379 3.9 7.1
176 Clergy 535 292,780 1,833 4,502 0.6 1.5
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 170 92,731 311 311 0.3 0.3
178 Lawyers 772 414,119 16,016 22,194 3.9 5.4
179 Judges 60 29,301 3,709 5,379 12.7 18.4
183 Authors 27 15,108 2,296 2,924 15.2 19.4
184 Technical writers 109 61,859 2,973 4,897 4.8 7.9
185 Designers 698 393,464 18,215 21,821 4.6 5.5
186 Musicians and composers 142 83,562 12,884 13,421 15.4 16.1
187 Actors and directors 116 66,645 14,120 14,718 21.2 22.1
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist print-makers 150 84,527 4,450 7,966 5.3 9.4
189 Photographers 115 64,067 6,058 6,058 9.5 9.5
193 Dancers 21 11,955 3,750 3,750 31.4 31.4
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 101 53,287 9,079 13,040 17.0 24.5
195 Editors and reporters 462 253,143 27,802 30,036 11.0 11.9
197 Public relations specialists 298 146,798 8,492 11,981 5.8 8.2
198 Announcers 95 50,713 2,172 3,843 4.3 7.6
199 Athletes 110 68,213 4,058 6,539 5.9 9.6
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,470 789,664 132,650 178,293 16.8 22.6
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 10 4,319 0 0 0.0 0.0
114 Biological science teachers 46 21,750 2,338 6,186 10.7 28.4
115 Chemistry teachers 23 10,514 1,848 1,848 17.6 17.6
116 Physics teachers 30 16,211 2,700 5,143 16.7 31.7
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 4 1,456 0 0 0.0 0.0
118 Psychology teachers 32 14,728 4,443 5,397 30.2 36.6
119 Economics teachers 30 16,771 1,453 3,364 8.7 20.1
123 History teachers 31 16,783 4,308 4,930 25.7 29.4
124 Political science teachers 18 12,403 3,527 3,957 28.4 31.9
125 Sociology teachers 19 8,657 2,049 3,142 23.7 36.3
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 11 5,612 0 577 0.0 10.3
127 Engineering teachers 55 27,406 4,594 6,891 16.8 25.1
128 Mathematical science teachers 89 48,758 11,207 12,642 23.0 25.9
129 Computer science teachers 42 19,298 1,675 2,268 8.7 11.8
133 Medical science teachers 24 14,014 1,870 2,480 13.3 17.7
134 Health specialties teachers 64 33,057 8,517 9,917 25.8 30.0
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 75 41,924 7,041 11,369 16.8 27.1
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 10 4,310 878 1,176 20.4 27.3
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 82 49,340 10,659 13,505 21.6 27.4
138 Physical education teachers 19 10,257 2,387 2,814 23.3 27.4
139 Education teachers 24 14,451 4,093 4,093 28.3 28.3
143 English teachers 119 67,642 7,542 10,203 11.2 15.1
144 Foreign language teachers 49 22,442 4,472 4,985 19.9 22.2
145 Law teachers 10 6,253 1,509 1,509 24.1 24.1
146 Social work teachers 5 4,390 0 609 0.0 13.9
147 Theology teachers 30 12,900 2,305 2,922 17.9 22.7
148 Trade and industrial teachers 8 3,696 506 1,089 13.7 29.5
149 Home economics teachers 3 932 0 148 0.0 15.9
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 7 4,006 660 660 16.5 16.5
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 501 275,386 40,070 54,468 14.6 19.8
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 7,142 3,850,448 1,819,233 2,145,540 47.2 55.7
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 788 443,660 93,361 110,881 21.0 25.0
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,821 1,502,217 840,634 985,588 56.0 65.6
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,262 1,204,463 669,307 802,359 55.6 66.6
158 Teachers, special education 502 268,299 171,341 189,437 63.9 70.6
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 769 431,809 44,590 57,276 10.3 13.3
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 6,663 3,744,301 430,538 534,572 11.5 14.3
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 572 301,221 28,810 38,653 9.6 12.8
204 Dental hygienists 144 83,588 2,742 3,282 3.3 3.9
205 Health record technologists and technicians 132 77,991 7,648 10,389 9.8 13.3
206 Radiologic technicians 223 119,947 14,015 16,412 11.7 13.7
207 Licensed practical nurses 786 436,739 52,257 59,758 12.0 13.7
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 488 268,744 30,451 33,218 11.3 12.4
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 608 347,731 60,771 83,092 17.5 23.9
214 Industrial engineering technicians 8 4,655 439 439 9.4 9.4
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 37 22,369 2,629 3,865 11.8 17.3
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 409 235,660 23,211 30,107 9.8 12.8
217 Drafting occupations 446 262,776 18,450 26,597 7.0 10.1
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 130 71,114 5,160 6,824 7.3 9.6
223 Biological technicians 111 59,482 5,209 5,209 8.8 8.8
224 Chemical technicians 174 86,826 14,847 17,131 17.1 19.7
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 147 81,892 12,692 13,178 15.5 16.1
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 182 108,327 54,072 57,650 49.9 53.2
227 Air traffic controllers 65 37,513 19,204 22,662 51.2 60.4
228 Broadcast equipment operators 45 28,380 8,560 9,189 30.2 32.4
229 Computer programmers 1,003 582,863 28,376 44,890 4.9 7.7
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 8 4,639 612 612 13.2 13.2
234 Legal assistants 391 216,537 7,192 9,010 3.3 4.2
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 554 305,303 33,192 42,405 10.9 13.9
SALES OCCUPATIONS 20,390 11,521,782 579,949 678,115 5.0 5.9
243 Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 4,449 2,534,949 113,919 136,967 4.5 5.4
253 Insurance sales occupations 717 419,322 19,994 23,631 4.8 5.6
254 Real estate sales occupations 729 414,179 12,689 16,383 3.1 4.0
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 397 234,388 2,531 4,097 1.1 1.7
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 254 145,079 7,092 8,595 4.9 5.9
257 Sales occupations, other business services 979 585,939 22,030 26,677 3.8 4.6
258 Sales engineers 53 29,216 0 0 0.0 0.0
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,394 1,379,129 28,419 38,178 2.1 2.8
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 450 259,211 2,104 3,018 0.8 1.2
264 Sales workers, apparel 817 441,372 5,926 7,566 1.3 1.7
265 Sales workers, shoes 183 100,327 1,019 1,944 1.0 1.9
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 227 132,963 1,918 1,918 1.4 1.4
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 305 172,197 129 776 0.1 0.5
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 360 192,776 1,859 3,335 1.0 1.7
269 Sales workers, parts 275 145,451 4,928 7,037 3.4 4.8
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,445 1,351,346 38,724 45,570 2.9 3.4
275 Sales counter clerks 333 180,268 7,247 7,464 4.0 4.1
276 Cashiers 4,437 2,458,220 301,894 334,202 12.3 13.6
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 345 201,595 4,097 4,457 2.0 2.2
278 News vendors 147 86,761 1,691 4,561 1.9 5.3
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 59 34,665 1,741 1,741 5.0 5.0
284 Auctioneers 5 4,305 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 30 18,124 0 0 0.0 0.0
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INC. CLERICAL 32,232 18,026,131 2,451,214 2,909,088 13.6 16.1
303 Supervisors, general office 838 470,124 39,261 53,797 8.4 11.4
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 83 47,118 2,044 5,405 4.3 11.5
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 159 90,067 4,206 5,658 4.7 6.3
306 Chief communications operators 4 1,957 0 0 0.0 0.0
307 Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 292 163,531 38,683 42,465 23.7 26.0
308 Computer operators 1,405 793,374 76,246 96,113 9.6 12.1
309 Peripheral equipment operators 15 8,392 880 880 10.5 10.5
313 Secretaries 7,065 3,849,528 281,714 367,975 7.3 9.6
314 Stenographers 71 41,629 8,918 10,482 21.4 25.2
315 Typists 1,120 611,031 91,177 109,314 14.9 17.9
316 Interviewers 366 204,625 10,427 15,631 5.1 7.6
317 Hotel clerks 165 87,177 4,583 5,488 5.3 6.3
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 221 118,604 27,665 32,259 23.3 27.2
319 Receptionists 1,432 804,256 29,053 37,845 3.6 4.7
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 413 240,485 14,972 21,827 6.2 9.1
325 Classified-ad clerks 20 11,275 1,180 1,180 10.5 10.5
326 Correspondence clerks 27 17,847 492 1,435 2.8 8.0
327 Order clerks 349 195,428 67,416 70,855 34.5 36.3
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 128 70,896 3,021 4,305 4.3 6.1
329 Library clerks 300 167,913 19,150 23,414 11.4 13.9
335 File clerks 545 303,995 23,583 26,376 7.8 8.7
336 Records clerks 250 145,164 17,044 22,079 11.7 15.2
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,999 1,636,995 83,617 98,066 5.1 6.0
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 334 196,045 25,446 31,288 13.0 16.0
339 Billing clerks 326 181,575 18,084 21,325 10.0 11.7
343 Cost and rate clerks 120 69,525 4,990 6,509 7.2 9.4
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 83 46,803 5,128 5,926 11.0 12.7
345 Duplicating machine operators 48 32,848 2,775 3,808 8.4 11.6
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 17 8,365 1,114 1,172 13.3 14.0
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 56 29,435 2,573 3,080 8.7 10.5
348 Telephone operators 381 207,862 71,864 80,703 34.6 38.8
349 Telegraphers 13 7,660 1,978 1,978 25.8 25.8
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 9 5,185 0 0 0.0 0.0
354 Postal clerks, exc. mail carriers 530 296,780 230,127 250,800 77.5 84.5
355 Mail carriers, postal service 580 332,849 275,389 292,262 82.7 87.8
356 Mail clerks, exc. postal service 323 183,861 30,131 36,120 16.4 19.6
357 Messengers 247 137,666 5,292 5,292 3.8 3.8
359 Dispatchers 385 219,508 48,822 54,034 22.2 24.6
363 Production coordinators 345 198,306 26,151 32,345 13.2 16.3
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 882 529,668 106,255 114,904 20.1 21.7
365 Stock and inventory clerks 1,011 588,459 111,679 133,029 19.0 22.6
366 Meter readers 81 40,613 16,321 18,135 40.2 44.7
368 Weighers, measurers, and checkers 137 82,097 15,099 17,223 18.4 21.0
369 Samplers 1 543 0 0 0.0 0.0
373 Expediters 227 124,255 23,664 24,937 19.0 20.1
374 Material recording, scheduling, & distributing clerks, n.e.c. 57 28,334 6,268 9,095 22.1 32.1
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 584 336,490 12,761 17,819 3.8 5.3
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 904 522,133 32,503 41,978 6.2 8.0
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 156 91,552 17,496 20,851 19.1 22.8
378 Bill and account collectors 238 137,055 8,847 11,729 6.5 8.6
379 General office clerks 1,378 761,238 105,840 133,744 13.9 17.6
383 Bank tellers 842 457,025 8,460 15,559 1.9 3.4
384 Proofreaders 54 30,402 2,048 2,048 6.7 6.7
385 Data-entry keyers 842 496,696 66,398 75,317 13.4 15.2
386 Statistical clerks 154 89,404 21,373 26,310 23.9 29.4
387 Teachers aides 891 498,973 146,684 187,466 29.4 37.6
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,729 975,507 154,323 179,453 15.8 18.4
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD 1,351 763,943 0 412 0.0 0.1
403 Launderers and ironers 2 572 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 23 12,623 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 63 40,100 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 572 303,994 0 412 0.0 0.1
407 Private household cleaners and servants 691 406,654 0 0 0.0 0.0
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PROTECTIVE SERVICE 3,391 1,939,836 754,549 840,360 38.9 43.3
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 77 41,196 27,006 28,484 65.6 69.1
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 154 86,559 42,337 46,015 48.9 53.2
415 Supervisors, guards 83 45,197 3,295 5,600 7.3 12.4
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 33 14,439 5,746 6,232 39.8 43.2
417 Firefighting occupations 345 200,059 140,504 150,691 70.2 75.3
418 Police and detectives, public service 803 471,351 273,153 299,585 58.0 63.6
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 185 106,130 31,211 33,116 29.4 31.2
424 Correctional institution officers 408 243,694 123,271 140,535 50.6 57.7
425 Crossing guards 58 30,403 9,520 10,839 31.3 35.7
426 Guards and police, exc. public service 1,124 642,135 95,845 115,603 14.9 18.0
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 121 58,673 2,661 3,661 4.5 6.2
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXC. PROTECTIVE & HOUSEHOLD 21,215 11,695,974 1,234,876 1,400,392 10.6 12.0
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 613 333,759 15,788 19,272 4.7 5.8
434 Bartenders 519 286,545 16,944 17,483 5.9 6.1
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,524 1,389,918 42,796 49,822 3.1 3.6
436 Cooks, except short order 2,984 1,666,603 98,723 117,638 5.9 7.1
437 Short-order cooks 138 79,073 1,901 1,901 2.4 2.4
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 648 353,981 5,808 7,013 1.6 2.0
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 233 131,146 12,788 13,661 9.8 10.4
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 636 360,654 25,309 33,999 7.0 9.4
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,276 702,769 69,918 82,471 9.9 11.7
445 Dental assistants 333 189,417 4,853 5,389 2.6 2.8
446 Health aides, except nursing 773 433,055 56,738 69,751 13.1 16.1
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,579 1,426,218 200,500 228,992 14.1 16.1
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 252 141,691 21,609 23,004 15.3 16.2
449 Maids and housemen 1,174 615,085 63,764 73,843 10.4 12.0
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,696 2,062,964 451,228 485,745 21.9 23.5
454 Elevator operators 18 9,518 3,257 3,257 34.2 34.2
455 Pest control occupations 55 33,047 1,359 2,055 4.1 6.2
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 72 32,506 261 1,079 0.8 3.3
457 Barbers 50 32,494 4,101 4,101 12.6 12.6
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 713 394,965 7,363 10,574 1.9 2.7
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 331 142,986 5,843 7,576 4.1 5.3
463 Guides 85 43,287 3,208 3,636 7.4 8.4
464 Ushers 34 21,035 541 1,343 2.6 6.4
465 Public transportation attendants 153 97,167 62,704 64,900 64.5 66.8
466 Baggage porters and bellhops 66 35,858 12,988 12,988 36.2 36.2
467 Welfare service aides 182 100,361 8,031 10,828 8.0 10.8
468 Child care workers, except private household 777 420,640 24,715 33,626 5.9 8.0
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 301 159,234 11,840 14,443 7.4 9.1
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 3,214 1,812,316 89,218 100,445 4.9 5.5
473 Farmers, except horticultural 12 7,756 1,139 1,139 14.7 14.7
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 118 63,081 604 604 1.0 1.0
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 10 6,082 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 49 34,562 0 1,144 0.0 3.3
479 Farm workers 1,315 711,157 8,242 8,242 1.2 1.2
483 Marine life cultivation workers 3 1,595 592 592 37.1 37.1
484 Nursery workers 85 47,622 1,844 1,844 3.9 3.9
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 107 64,614 4,965 7,870 7.7 12.2
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 1,128 659,416 62,370 66,634 9.5 10.1
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 158 87,792 4,649 5,454 5.3 6.2
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 41 28,276 1,482 1,482 5.2 5.2
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 1 305 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 11 6,897 0 0 0.0 0.0
495 Forestry workers, except logging 34 15,197 673 673 4.4 4.4
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 103 59,971 2,657 4,766 4.4 7.9
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 8 4,978 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 30 12,541 0 0 0.0 0.0
499 Hunters and trappers 1 474 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 13,567 7,733,921 1,903,463 2,059,209 24.6 26.6
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 433 239,499 24,257 29,490 10.1 12.3
505 Automobile mechanics 1,168 679,783 66,723 71,984 9.8 10.6
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 1 69 0 0 0.0 0.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 534 291,402 78,811 84,184 27.0 28.9
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 181 105,041 44,525 52,110 42.4 49.6
509 Small engine repairers 91 50,542 1,550 1,550 3.1 3.1
514 Automobile body and related repairers 259 146,138 5,185 6,015 3.5 4.1
515 Aircraft mechanics, exc. engine 28 18,561 12,535 13,722 67.5 73.9
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 301 153,982 58,086 59,247 37.7 38.5
517 Farm equipment mechanics 62 34,087 692 2,234 2.0 6.6
518 Industry machinery repairers 890 502,784 161,701 167,405 32.2 33.3
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 42 17,772 11,147 11,719 62.7 65.9
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 262 159,321 36,922 42,672 23.2 26.8
525 Data processing equipment repairers 262 155,111 13,688 17,922 8.8 11.6
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 63 34,045 5,107 5,565 15.0 16.3
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 110 60,974 41,679 42,163 68.4 69.1
529 Telephone Installers and repairers 328 181,256 130,271 141,295 71.9 78.0
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 100 57,593 27,175 27,961 47.2 48.5
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 365 216,610 48,994 55,265 22.6 25.5
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 38 20,990 4,517 4,517 21.5 21.5
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 19 9,049 2,489 2,489 27.5 27.5
538 Office machine repairers 130 80,194 3,246 5,979 4.0 7.5
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 38 24,416 7,773 9,608 31.8 39.4
543 Elevator installers and repairers 46 27,672 21,598 21,598 78.0 78.0
544 Millwrights 165 89,306 58,180 58,383 65.1 65.4
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 657 373,073 89,079 92,672 23.9 24.8
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 398 224,837 61,621 69,131 27.4 30.7
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 87 41,489 3,902 5,105 9.4 12.3
614 Drillers, oil well 53 27,672 2,480 2,480 9.0 9.0
615 Explosives workers 16 6,709 999 999 14.9 14.9
616 Mining machine operators 92 42,827 23,704 24,741 55.3 57.8
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 53 24,966 9,494 9,494 38.0 38.0
633 Supervisors, production occupations 2,264 1,325,633 142,151 170,223 10.7 12.8
634 Tool and die makers 247 146,422 59,434 64,487 40.6 44.0
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 6 3,969 0 0 0.0 0.0
636 Precision assemblers, metal 29 15,909 5,916 5,916 37.2 37.2
637 Machinists 793 466,392 176,511 182,584 37.8 39.1
639 Machinist apprentices 8 5,340 1,561 1,561 29.2 29.2
643 Boilermakers 48 28,436 13,718 13,718 48.2 48.2
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 29 15,517 8,361 8,361 53.9 53.9
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 7 3,925 2,963 2,963 75.5 75.5
646 Lay-out workers 14 8,332 5,579 5,579 67.0 67.0
647 Precious stones and metals workers (jewelers) 50 20,350 590 590 2.9 2.9
649 Engravers, metal 28 13,892 2,243 2,243 16.1 16.1
653 Sheet metal workers 204 113,676 50,331 57,059 44.3 50.2
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 5 1,753 397 397 22.6 22.6
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 4 3,010 515 515 17.1 17.1
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 4 2,276 450 450 19.7 19.7
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 54 31,259 7,433 7,699 23.8 24.6
658 Furniture and wood finishers 48 23,147 1,975 2,278 8.5 9.8
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 0
666 Dressmakers 102 52,270 2,901 4,117 5.6 7.9
667 Tailors 69 42,172 6,517 6,517 15.5 15.5
668 Upholsterers 86 46,970 5,592 6,318 11.9 13.5
669 Shoe repairers 10 5,528 495 495 9.0 9.0
673 Apparel and fabric patternmakers 4 2,610 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 6 2,429 543 543 22.3 22.3
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 30 20,234 3,848 3,848 19.0 19.0
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 33 17,852 6,131 6,131 34.3 34.3
677 Optical goods workers 100 57,520 2,902 2,902 5.0 5.0
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 68 41,698 1,929 1,929 4.6 4.6
679 Bookbinders 58 34,810 8,788 9,373 25.2 26.9
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 477 288,512 66,471 70,851 23.0 24.6
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 40 22,701 3,105 3,514 13.7 15.5
686 Butchers and meat cutters 448 250,808 71,303 75,497 28.4 30.1
687 Bakers 177 100,868 27,521 29,781 27.3 29.5
688 Food batchmakers 66 37,603 7,755 10,374 20.6 27.6
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 173 107,437 30,231 33,309 28.1 31.0
693 Adjusters and calibrators 13 8,264 1,414 1,982 17.1 24.0
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 108 59,341 24,713 27,010 41.6 45.5
695 Power plant operators 89 48,852 25,090 28,268 51.4 57.9
696 Stationary engineers 210 111,559 45,832 46,382 41.1 41.6
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 86 46,874 22,126 23,744 47.2 50.7
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 6,740 3,881,923 1,107,797 1,167,896 28.5 30.1
553 Supervisors; brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 12 9,343 1,510 1,510 16.2 16.2
554 Supervisors; carpenters and related workers 31 15,426 4,562 4,562 29.6 29.6
555 Supervisors; electricians and power transmission installers 61 35,162 7,649 9,642 21.8 27.4
556 Supervisors; painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 13 7,210 1,396 1,396 19.4 19.4
557 Supervisors; plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 16 7,648 2,527 2,527 33.0 33.0
558 Supervisors; n.e.c. 741 416,062 84,816 95,936 20.4 23.1
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 236 146,862 43,026 45,203 29.3 30.8
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 2 1,137 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 62 41,086 3,308 4,759 8.1 11.6
566 Carpet installers 109 62,136 7,926 8,559 12.8 13.8
567 Carpenters 1,597 915,367 188,039 196,383 20.5 21.5
569 Carpenter apprentices 11 5,594 1,170 1,170 20.9 20.9
573 Drywall installers 190 119,457 24,772 27,384 20.7 22.9
575 Electricians 1,055 583,548 267,774 281,140 45.9 48.2
576 Electrician apprentices 60 32,261 10,946 11,563 33.9 35.8
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 221 115,570 78,226 79,599 67.7 68.9
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 567 340,310 55,553 59,979 16.3 17.6
583 Paperhangers 10 5,395 630 630 11.7 11.7
584 Plasterers 52 30,731 6,859 6,859 22.3 22.3
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 641 364,306 152,583 157,648 41.9 43.3
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 26 11,935 5,084 5,496 42.6 46.0
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 103 64,598 15,880 16,154 24.6 25.0
589 Glaziers 71 41,249 9,899 9,899 24.0 24.0
593 Insulation workers 87 53,083 17,172 17,172 32.3 32.3
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 31 17,075 5,418 5,894 31.7 34.5
595 Roofers 244 153,760 16,181 18,825 10.5 12.2
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 65 41,144 18,324 18,324 44.5 44.5
597 Structural metal workers 94 52,450 33,938 33,938 64.7 64.7
598 Drillers, earth 27 14,460 5,211 5,211 36.0 36.0
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 305 177,561 37,419 40,538 21.1 22.8
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 13,604 7,840,248 2,124,394 2,246,073 27.1 28.6
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 29 16,274 7,948 8,520 48.8 52.4
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 95 56,006 14,266 14,266 25.5 25.5
705 Milling and planing machine operators 27 14,480 4,723 6,529 32.6 45.1
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 191 110,334 39,152 40,976 35.5 37.1
707 Rolling machine operators 20 12,337 6,614 6,614 53.6 53.6
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 42 24,406 11,317 11,837 46.4 48.5
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 220 122,569 42,299 44,569 34.5 36.4
713 Forging machine operators 27 20,217 7,535 7,535 37.3 37.3
714 Numerical control machine operators 11 6,387 4,545 4,545 71.2 71.2
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 82 47,347 23,661 23,661 50.0 50.0
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 39 20,760 10,379 10,681 50.0 51.4
719 Molding and casting machine operators 161 94,311 23,458 23,933 24.9 25.4
723 Metal plating machine operators 59 35,266 8,745 9,679 24.8 27.4
724 Heat treating equipment operators 28 18,742 13,667 13,667 72.9 72.9
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 23 13,783 2,364 2,364 17.1 17.1
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 20 10,335 3,438 3,438 33.3 33.3
727 Sawing machine operators 177 103,993 13,938 13,938 13.4 13.4
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 12 6,398 486 486 7.6 7.6
729 Nail and tacking machine operators 11 7,915 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 54 26,833 4,991 4,991 18.6 18.6
734 Printing machine operators 506 297,492 62,720 65,844 21.1 22.1
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 76 45,341 14,750 15,487 32.5 34.2
736 Typesetters and compositors 106 55,419 7,006 7,006 12.6 12.6
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 65 39,060 2,699 2,699 6.9 6.9
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 146 75,797 6,535 7,319 8.6 9.7
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 88 46,247 1,847 2,156 4.0 4.7
743 Textile cutting machine operators 14 7,154 2,550 2,550 35.6 35.6
744 Textile sewing machine operators 1,234 707,292 124,433 132,406 17.6 18.7
745 Shoe machine operators 52 29,311 3,581 3,581 12.2 12.2
747 Pressing machine operators 242 137,507 15,571 17,849 11.3 13.0
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 347 179,391 25,964 26,374 14.5 14.7
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 143 74,749 8,843 10,009 11.8 13.4
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 52 28,559 6,210 6,210 21.7 21.7
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 771 444,628 116,986 125,006 26.3 28.1
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 56 28,515 7,825 7,825 27.4 27.4
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 189 115,159 35,014 37,735 30.4 32.8
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 107 64,315 28,680 29,104 44.6 45.3
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 30 19,901 6,273 6,606 31.5 33.2
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 319 188,457 51,046 55,928 27.1 29.7
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 7 4,937 1,005 1,005 20.3 20.3
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 21 12,571 2,477 2,477 19.7 19.7
765 Folding machine operators 35 21,204 3,472 3,472 16.4 16.4
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, exc. food 183 104,092 55,241 57,998 53.1 55.7
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 92 46,552 13,666 14,815 29.4 31.8
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 348 201,779 60,197 61,819 29.8 30.6
773 Motion picture projectionists 9 3,347 796 796 23.8 23.8
774 Photographic process machine operators 152 88,336 8,784 10,612 9.9 12.0
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,690 976,371 314,339 337,004 32.2 34.5
779 Machine operators, not specified 646 362,681 106,344 112,992 29.3 31.2
783 Welders and cutters 947 559,928 193,843 205,795 34.6 36.8
784 Solderers and brazers 62 36,144 9,143 9,452 25.3 26.2
785 Assemblers 1,836 1,084,543 346,894 364,644 32.0 33.6
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 17 12,319 1,059 1,059 8.6 8.6
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 33 21,396 1,921 2,465 9.0 11.5
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 53 28,520 4,731 4,731 16.6 16.6
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 37 21,225 1,162 1,162 5.5 5.5
794 Hand grinding and polishing occupations 13 6,866 511 1,055 7.4 15.4
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 84 49,925 6,639 6,639 13.3 13.3
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 1,159 668,551 182,282 192,792 27.3 28.8
797 Production testers 97 56,514 13,205 14,101 23.4 25.0
798 Production samplers and weighers 17 8,598 101 742 1.2 8.6
799 Graders and sorters, exc. agricultural 195 110,861 24,527 24,527 22.1 22.1
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,974 4,484,483 1,282,857 1,375,850 28.6 30.7
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 120 70,266 8,157 9,826 11.6 14.0
804 Truck drivers, heavy 3,016 1,686,859 414,518 440,583 24.6 26.1
805 Truck drivers, light 1,260 715,259 134,164 143,784 18.8 20.1
806 Driver-sales workers 324 185,353 43,198 48,490 23.3 26.2
808 Bus drivers 792 442,702 153,234 174,723 34.6 39.5
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 250 144,154 18,246 19,893 12.7 13.8
813 Parking lot attendants 82 50,432 6,412 6,412 12.7 12.7
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 8 5,243 1,979 1,979 37.7 37.7
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 63 30,756 22,897 24,514 74.4 79.7
824 Locomotive operating occupations 85 41,914 37,366 37,827 89.2 90.2
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 67 30,704 27,339 27,954 89.0 91.0
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 15 9,211 9,211 9,211 100.0 100.0
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 45 27,087 5,756 6,409 21.3 23.7
829 Sailors and deckhands 27 17,717 5,790 6,888 32.7 38.9
833 Marine engineers 4 2,865 1,402 1,402 48.9 48.9
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 10 5,387 3,434 3,434 63.7 63.7
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 27 18,602 6,613 6,613 35.6 35.6
844 Operating engineers 400 216,713 86,903 94,200 40.1 43.5
845 Longshore equipment operators 2 1,002 1,002 1,002 100.0 100.0
848 Hoist and winch operators 35 17,040 1,930 2,312 11.3 13.6
849 Crane and tower operators 161 92,763 59,745 60,057 64.4 64.7
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 147 79,951 23,022 24,415 28.8 30.5
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 182 91,790 21,658 23,684 23.6 25.8
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 715 429,871 160,419 169,412 37.3 39.4
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 137 70,842 28,462 30,824 40.2 43.5
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, & LABORERS 8,351 4,788,913 1,106,659 1,173,453 23.1 24.5
863 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, & laborers, n.e.c. 26 13,870 6,667 7,026 48.1 50.7
864 Helpers, mechanics and repairers 50 27,789 3,367 5,543 12.1 19.9
865 Helpers, construction trades 215 128,094 17,906 20,963 14.0 16.4
866 Helpers, surveyor 16 8,835 1,118 1,409 12.7 16.0
867 Helpers, extractive occupations 6 2,685 2,165 2,165 80.6 80.6
869 Construction laborers 1,288 755,461 178,833 188,790 23.7 25.0
873 Production helpers 130 82,948 21,615 23,337 26.1 28.1
875 Garbage collectors 80 47,222 18,222 19,322 38.6 40.9
876 Stevedores 32 17,635 11,866 13,039 67.3 73.9
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,668 938,399 183,305 195,978 19.5 20.9
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 154 84,886 25,282 27,099 29.8 31.9
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,072 624,654 208,176 215,725 33.3 34.5
885 Garage and service station related occupations 404 209,263 10,073 10,073 4.8 4.8
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 381 230,142 32,172 34,074 14.0 14.8
888 Hand packers and packagers 551 305,949 76,423 82,675 25.0 27.0
889 Laborers, except construction 2,278 1,311,081 309,469 326,234 23.6 24.9
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1990. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1980 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.