Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1991 (details in table note)
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, & MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 20,911 11,976,987 762,236 971,308 6.4 8.1
3 Legislators 24 8,727 1,349 1,934 15.5 22.2
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public admin. 36 21,011 4,680 5,019 22.3 23.9
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 961 524,665 74,847 106,573 14.3 20.3
6 Administrators, protective services 85 51,710 6,668 7,639 12.9 14.8
7 Financial managers 821 455,057 6,136 13,336 1.3 2.9
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 195 115,876 3,257 4,912 2.8 4.2
9 Purchasing managers 192 112,750 4,464 6,478 4.0 5.7
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 804 478,581 6,036 10,396 1.3 2.2
14 Administrators, education and related fields 942 488,362 104,343 133,385 21.4 27.3
15 Managers, medicine and health 324 197,957 10,328 12,673 5.2 6.4
16 Managers, properties and real estate 483 291,325 14,447 18,772 5.0 6.4
17 Postmasters and mail superintendents 74 35,351 17,090 18,436 48.3 52.1
18 Funeral directors 39 21,599 1,191 1,191 5.5 5.5
19 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 9,790 5,623,655 228,992 273,649 4.1 4.9
23 Accountants and auditors 2,213 1,295,800 85,587 108,340 6.6 8.4
24 Underwriters 159 91,910 2,041 3,419 2.2 3.7
25 Other financial officers 1,059 613,619 21,222 33,924 3.5 5.5
26 Management analysts 158 94,509 1,991 1,991 2.1 2.1
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 713 421,998 40,098 48,560 9.5 11.5
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 16 8,301 0 0 0.0 0.0
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 295 172,365 6,125 6,540 3.6 3.8
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 445 240,705 19,335 28,350 8.0 11.8
34 Business and promotion agents 25 12,646 0 0 0.0 0.0
35 Construction inspectors 103 61,562 19,552 22,420 31.8 36.4
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, exc. construction 404 220,843 63,146 75,294 28.6 34.1
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 551 316,105 19,311 28,078 6.1 8.9
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS 16,573 9,364,296 1,032,504 1,300,913 11.0 13.9
43 Architects 144 82,633 0 1,740 0.0 2.1
44 Aerospace engineers 151 107,552 10,709 16,551 10.0 15.4
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 41 25,694 1,895 2,326 7.4 9.1
46 Mining engineers 14 5,158 0 0 0.0 0.0
47 Petroleum engineers 29 12,943 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 137 78,434 961 961 1.2 1.2
49 Nuclear engineers 21 9,961 733 733 7.4 7.4
53 Civil engineers 363 214,097 26,696 34,171 12.5 16.0
54 Agricultural engineers 7 4,592 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 880 537,798 30,484 45,600 5.7 8.5
56 Industrial engineers 320 187,681 13,288 18,083 7.1 9.6
57 Mechanical engineers 512 304,689 17,728 24,798 5.8 8.1
58 Marine and naval architects engineers 22 13,381 4,215 4,215 31.5 31.5
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 432 268,404 11,742 14,897 4.4 5.6
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 40 22,755 2,185 2,269 9.6 10.0
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 1,017 630,312 22,559 34,603 3.6 5.5
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 337 200,097 15,730 22,494 7.9 11.2
66 Actuaries 32 19,990 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 42 24,534 911 2,300 3.7 9.4
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 9 6,790 232 232 3.4 3.4
69 Physicists and astronomers 40 24,088 1,159 1,412 4.8 5.9
73 Chemists, except biochemists 221 124,618 10,709 13,476 8.6 10.8
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 22 13,005 1,580 3,734 12.1 28.7
75 Geologists and geodesists 101 56,220 3,247 3,609 5.8 6.4
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 41 21,887 388 3,165 1.8 14.5
77 Agricultural and food scientists 48 25,352 1,856 1,856 7.3 7.3
78 Biological and life scientists 157 91,360 8,553 11,241 9.4 12.3
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 66 24,569 3,190 4,584 13.0 18.7
83 Medical scientists 68 39,190 2,621 3,418 6.7 8.7
84 Physicians 525 292,628 15,819 23,523 5.4 8.0
85 Dentists 34 18,696 123 123 0.7 0.7
86 Veterinarians 34 20,104 1,675 1,675 8.3 8.3
87 Optometrists 12 5,267 547 547 10.4 10.4
88 Podiatrists 4 2,247 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 8 6,572 0 1,084 0.0 16.5
95 Registered nurses 3,095 1,668,822 287,792 342,581 17.2 20.5
96 Pharmacists 277 152,145 9,590 14,550 6.3 9.6
97 Dietitians 123 64,182 5,409 6,931 8.4 10.8
98 Inhalation therapists 125 71,251 3,765 3,953 5.3 5.5
99 Occupational therapists 56 32,093 1,534 3,382 4.8 10.5
103 Physical therapists 146 83,609 3,149 6,109 3.8 7.3
104 Speech therapists 113 58,854 19,576 25,626 33.3 43.5
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 107 58,653 13,301 16,015 22.7 27.3
106 Physicians' assistants 113 63,361 11,223 15,276 17.7 24.1
163 Counselors, educational and vocational 404 217,651 79,930 93,369 36.7 42.9
164 Librarians 388 197,271 53,425 63,330 27.1 32.1
165 Archivists and curators 35 15,757 594 594 3.8 3.8
166 Economists 182 100,418 2,437 4,939 2.4 4.9
167 Psychologists 290 162,091 30,242 38,208 18.7 23.6
168 Sociologists 2 799 684 684 85.5 85.5
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 43 26,421 2,086 3,647 7.9 13.8
173 Urban planners 28 15,919 1,182 1,182 7.4 7.4
174 Social workers 1,062 596,695 151,872 180,362 25.5 30.2
175 Recreation workers 188 104,861 9,757 12,044 9.3 11.5
176 Clergy 511 279,515 3,335 5,559 1.2 2.0
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 147 79,978 239 766 0.3 1.0
178 Lawyers 750 399,858 10,931 21,011 2.7 5.3
179 Judges 63 29,727 2,573 3,287 8.7 11.1
183 Authors 25 16,040 1,948 1,948 12.1 12.1
184 Technical writers 98 59,062 2,699 4,635 4.6 7.8
185 Designers 652 378,266 21,182 23,033 5.6 6.1
186 Musicians and composers 138 79,888 13,970 15,271 17.5 19.1
187 Actors and directors 102 58,694 8,736 9,262 14.9 15.8
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist print-makers 161 93,089 5,471 6,189 5.9 6.6
189 Photographers 115 68,411 6,707 7,342 9.8 10.7
193 Dancers 23 13,089 0 1,082 0.0 8.3
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 88 51,896 7,695 9,110 14.8 17.6
195 Editors and reporters 466 245,552 29,105 31,836 11.9 13.0
197 Public relations specialists 315 173,627 9,703 15,228 5.6 8.8
198 Announcers 104 59,125 3,140 4,503 5.3 7.6
199 Athletes 107 64,328 5,984 8,645 9.3 13.4
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,421 775,880 131,905 179,729 17.0 23.2
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 6 3,101 0 0 0.0 0.0
114 Biological science teachers 55 32,471 3,750 5,795 11.5 17.8
115 Chemistry teachers 27 11,857 2,034 2,631 17.2 22.2
116 Physics teachers 31 15,110 3,499 4,960 23.2 32.8
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 11 6,601 1,522 1,985 23.1 30.1
118 Psychology teachers 42 20,172 4,302 4,805 21.3 23.8
119 Economics teachers 37 21,041 2,138 2,822 10.2 13.4
123 History teachers 26 15,720 2,913 2,913 18.5 18.5
124 Political science teachers 18 12,479 2,570 3,128 20.6 25.1
125 Sociology teachers 19 10,662 1,860 2,008 17.4 18.8
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 12 5,371 2,521 3,016 46.9 56.1
127 Engineering teachers 45 26,496 2,335 4,431 8.8 16.7
128 Mathematical science teachers 85 46,439 10,802 14,343 23.3 30.9
129 Computer science teachers 38 20,667 2,376 2,376 11.5 11.5
133 Medical science teachers 29 14,020 2,340 3,428 16.7 24.5
134 Health specialties teachers 77 44,362 8,127 9,734 18.3 21.9
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 51 25,209 5,118 6,892 20.3 27.3
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 13 8,615 1,865 1,865 21.7 21.7
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 67 36,881 6,843 8,702 18.6 23.6
138 Physical education teachers 11 6,381 936 1,641 14.7 25.7
139 Education teachers 19 11,461 3,909 4,402 34.1 38.4
143 English teachers 115 64,773 11,575 16,580 17.9 25.6
144 Foreign language teachers 50 29,163 5,665 6,221 19.4 21.3
145 Law teachers 11 5,806 1,663 1,663 28.6 28.6
146 Social work teachers 8 4,412 1,354 2,325 30.7 52.7
147 Theology teachers 20 10,493 2,297 2,297 21.9 21.9
148 Trade and industrial teachers 5 2,266 337 1,776 14.9 78.4
149 Home economics teachers 3 921 89 89 9.7 9.7
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 11 6,327 543 1,021 8.6 16.1
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 479 256,603 36,623 55,878 14.3 21.8
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 7,083 3,900,414 1,875,755 2,158,845 48.1 55.3
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 769 431,653 94,843 110,033 22.0 25.5
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,756 1,530,113 853,707 973,454 55.8 63.6
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,279 1,216,466 692,090 804,265 56.9 66.1
158 Teachers, special education 512 291,353 178,605 204,794 61.3 70.3
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 767 430,828 56,509 66,299 13.1 15.4
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 6,504 3,696,353 431,727 526,525 11.7 14.2
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 589 314,048 24,453 34,430 7.8 11.0
204 Dental hygienists 149 85,374 3,325 4,588 3.9 5.4
205 Health record technologists and technicians 112 60,164 6,824 9,590 11.3 15.9
206 Radiologic technicians 265 140,804 8,322 10,631 5.9 7.6
207 Licensed practical nurses 782 446,518 58,558 62,879 13.1 14.1
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 539 311,980 29,233 34,108 9.4 10.9
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 583 342,168 70,599 86,221 20.6 25.2
214 Industrial engineering technicians 11 6,363 965 965 15.2 15.2
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 29 17,963 3,016 3,888 16.8 21.6
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 390 227,289 28,778 35,214 12.7 15.5
217 Drafting occupations 422 248,353 17,959 28,319 7.2 11.4
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 114 60,911 6,905 7,806 11.3 12.8
223 Biological technicians 113 61,220 5,402 6,165 8.8 10.1
224 Chemical technicians 162 85,587 13,115 15,075 15.3 17.6
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 163 86,535 10,784 14,153 12.5 16.4
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 164 94,511 54,545 55,964 57.7 59.2
227 Air traffic controllers 62 36,083 13,304 16,613 36.9 46.0
228 Broadcast equipment operators 38 22,405 8,838 9,398 39.4 41.9
229 Computer programmers 898 544,260 31,526 44,089 5.8 8.1
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 12 6,249 529 529 8.5 8.5
234 Legal assistants 382 206,994 7,081 11,117 3.4 5.4
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 525 290,572 27,666 34,782 9.5 12.0
SALES OCCUPATIONS 19,575 11,264,682 580,876 676,645 5.2 6.0
243 Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 4,224 2,414,160 116,101 131,117 4.8 5.4
253 Insurance sales occupations 690 398,623 14,801 23,700 3.7 5.9
254 Real estate sales occupations 682 397,948 10,720 14,668 2.7 3.7
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 427 254,523 2,203 5,260 0.9 2.1
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 213 110,923 1,828 2,749 1.6 2.5
257 Sales occupations, other business services 890 544,113 24,095 29,641 4.4 5.4
258 Sales engineers 42 22,967 479 479 2.1 2.1
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,302 1,365,406 26,668 33,667 2.0 2.5
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 414 232,408 4,323 4,323 1.9 1.9
264 Sales workers, apparel 777 442,303 5,354 7,838 1.2 1.8
265 Sales workers, shoes 164 94,635 1,667 1,845 1.8 1.9
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 225 137,569 1,605 2,532 1.2 1.8
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 282 167,595 466 2,016 0.3 1.2
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 383 217,540 1,361 5,002 0.6 2.3
269 Sales workers, parts 255 139,111 1,485 4,369 1.1 3.1
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,381 1,350,552 40,065 51,445 3.0 3.8
275 Sales counter clerks 311 183,559 14,600 18,388 8.0 10.0
276 Cashiers 4,296 2,439,579 305,718 327,257 12.5 13.4
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 374 213,412 2,275 3,601 1.1 1.7
278 News vendors 155 85,132 3,258 4,478 3.8 5.3
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 61 35,591 1,805 2,269 5.1 6.4
284 Auctioneers 2 3,003 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 25 14,031 0 0 0.0 0.0
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INC. CLERICAL 30,986 17,687,507 2,382,034 2,832,320 13.5 16.0
303 Supervisors, general office 763 442,378 44,257 59,300 10.0 13.4
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 55 35,007 0 1,629 0.0 4.7
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 170 106,020 9,582 10,730 9.0 10.1
306 Chief communications operators 11 7,919 206 206 2.6 2.6
307 Supervisors; distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 304 180,410 35,338 40,146 19.6 22.3
308 Computer operators 1,250 721,297 83,866 99,476 11.6 13.8
309 Peripheral equipment operators 11 5,450 333 333 6.1 6.1
313 Secretaries 6,475 3,605,000 268,184 347,738 7.4 9.6
314 Stenographers 50 27,922 3,346 5,606 12.0 20.1
315 Typists 995 579,739 74,456 99,498 12.8 17.2
316 Interviewers 278 159,610 8,302 10,985 5.2 6.9
317 Hotel clerks 190 96,112 2,275 2,275 2.4 2.4
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 199 114,613 23,864 25,756 20.8 22.5
319 Receptionists 1,479 858,116 22,691 30,167 2.6 3.5
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 404 236,905 19,696 23,614 8.3 10.0
325 Classified-ad clerks 8 5,231 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 27 14,646 598 1,165 4.1 8.0
327 Order clerks 389 232,058 61,564 69,759 26.5 30.1
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 117 66,270 4,241 9,599 6.4 14.5
329 Library clerks 271 151,951 21,516 27,423 14.2 18.0
335 File clerks 512 301,310 29,274 32,941 9.7 10.9
336 Records clerks 209 126,392 21,854 28,167 17.3 22.3
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,960 1,632,294 70,291 91,792 4.3 5.6
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 293 178,351 19,075 21,606 10.7 12.1
339 Billing clerks 289 162,838 10,212 12,596 6.3 7.7
343 Cost and rate clerks 131 83,834 12,938 13,949 15.4 16.6
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 97 58,155 6,207 6,207 10.7 10.7
345 Duplicating machine operators 66 36,362 3,186 3,963 8.8 10.9
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 16 9,218 580 580 6.3 6.3
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 51 28,175 2,754 3,460 9.8 12.3
348 Telephone operators 383 212,282 75,942 80,360 35.8 37.9
349 Telegraphers 8 5,146 1,370 1,370 26.6 26.6
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 9 6,207 1,044 1,044 16.8 16.8
354 Postal clerks, exc. mail carriers 507 284,435 214,102 238,094 75.3 83.7
355 Mail carriers, postal service 586 338,130 263,960 281,911 78.1 83.4
356 Mail clerks, exc. postal service 292 181,936 33,296 38,506 18.3 21.2
357 Messengers 233 132,353 6,701 8,868 5.1 6.7
359 Dispatchers 358 207,803 49,571 53,580 23.9 25.8
363 Production coordinators 344 193,722 26,797 32,035 13.8 16.5
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 898 553,664 94,033 107,234 17.0 19.4
365 Stock and inventory clerks 950 558,824 115,673 132,481 20.7 23.7
366 Meter readers 85 47,198 26,562 28,722 56.3 60.9
368 Weighers, measurers, and checkers 116 62,765 14,465 17,461 23.0 27.8
369 Samplers 2 967 0 0 0.0 0.0
373 Expediters 253 133,336 16,501 23,542 12.4 17.7
374 Material recording, scheduling, & distributing clerks, n.e.c. 39 22,437 4,179 4,179 18.6 18.6
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 584 345,558 12,830 17,245 3.7 5.0
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 962 556,019 31,952 43,164 5.7 7.8
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 157 93,180 23,592 25,386 25.3 27.2
378 Bill and account collectors 285 164,869 13,987 19,309 8.5 11.7
379 General office clerks 1,234 714,666 102,130 121,720 14.3 17.0
383 Bank tellers 853 477,817 9,955 13,668 2.1 2.9
384 Proofreaders 39 24,466 540 1,502 2.2 6.1
385 Data-entry keyers 899 525,797 52,345 66,692 10.0 12.7
386 Statistical clerks 137 75,319 13,911 16,918 18.5 22.5
387 Teachers aides 867 477,241 146,390 182,044 30.7 38.1
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,836 1,027,790 169,524 194,616 16.5 18.9
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD 1,363 794,476 0 0 0.0 0.0
403 Launderers and ironers 3 1,391 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 18 11,588 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 52 28,993 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 643 360,200 0 0 0.0 0.0
407 Private household cleaners and servants 647 392,305 0 0 0.0 0.0
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, PROTECTIVE SERVICE 3,428 2,064,910 812,354 885,571 39.3 42.9
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 64 40,268 30,955 31,854 76.9 79.1
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 154 96,683 43,720 49,316 45.2 51.0
415 Supervisors, guards 73 42,154 2,663 2,663 6.3 6.3
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 37 19,790 5,436 6,646 27.5 33.6
417 Firefighting occupations 325 198,262 137,886 145,430 69.5 73.4
418 Police and detectives, public service 820 491,683 295,019 319,109 60.0 64.9
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 188 117,436 54,134 58,439 46.1 49.8
424 Correctional institution officers 429 268,930 142,181 151,330 52.9 56.3
425 Crossing guards 62 37,994 6,630 7,872 17.5 20.7
426 Guards and police, exc. public service 1,129 668,579 93,731 109,930 14.0 16.4
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 147 83,132 0 2,981 0.0 3.6
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXC. PROTECTIVE & HOUSEHOLD 21,196 11,790,050 1,224,195 1,374,938 10.4 11.7
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 566 317,378 22,402 27,500 7.1 8.7
434 Bartenders 508 272,011 13,519 13,519 5.0 5.0
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,452 1,327,874 35,949 39,450 2.7 3.0
436 Cooks, except short order 3,008 1,704,731 91,414 108,244 5.4 6.3
437 Short-order cooks 157 86,635 1,711 1,711 2.0 2.0
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 590 314,995 3,817 5,864 1.2 1.9
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 255 133,801 14,636 16,258 10.9 12.2
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 651 385,971 20,603 26,338 5.3 6.8
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,303 708,773 89,388 101,055 12.6 14.3
445 Dental assistants 333 180,245 3,367 4,664 1.9 2.6
446 Health aides, except nursing 856 492,602 60,437 66,899 12.3 13.6
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,632 1,475,956 218,214 238,940 14.8 16.2
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 300 180,481 20,366 26,083 11.3 14.5
449 Maids and housemen 1,170 637,601 80,088 85,359 12.6 13.4
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,532 1,995,888 404,237 449,227 20.3 22.5
454 Elevator operators 16 7,754 2,137 2,596 27.6 33.5
455 Pest control occupations 53 36,150 461 461 1.3 1.3
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 80 38,022 668 806 1.8 2.1
457 Barbers 45 29,350 2,704 2,704 9.2 9.2
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 715 414,618 7,812 10,782 1.9 2.6
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 332 143,480 5,501 8,140 3.8 5.7
463 Guides 59 32,066 685 955 2.1 3.0
464 Ushers 34 22,980 736 1,570 3.2 6.8
465 Public transportation attendants 140 85,635 58,700 61,845 68.5 72.2
466 Baggage porters and bellhops 69 40,634 12,142 13,456 29.9 33.1
467 Welfare service aides 197 119,249 9,134 9,728 7.7 8.2
468 Child care workers, except private household 858 456,571 28,825 34,838 6.3 7.6
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 285 148,598 14,543 15,946 9.8 10.7
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 3,098 1,790,312 90,273 102,549 5.0 5.7
473 Farmers, except horticultural 15 8,818 0 0 0.0 0.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 1 810 810 810 100.0 100.0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 106 58,341 1,616 1,616 2.8 2.8
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 3 1,234 503 503 40.7 40.7
477 Supervisors, farm workers 52 33,605 235 588 0.7 1.7
479 Farm workers 1,328 728,203 8,302 9,838 1.1 1.4
483 Marine life cultivation workers 2 1,296 0 0 0.0 0.0
484 Nursery workers 68 41,693 644 644 1.5 1.5
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 93 55,249 4,868 6,240 8.8 11.3
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 1,115 689,479 66,815 74,498 9.7 10.8
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 125 71,345 1,699 2,862 2.4 4.0
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 19 12,872 0 0 0.0 0.0
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 2 822 221 221 26.9 26.9
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 12 7,343 280 280 3.8 3.8
495 Forestry workers, except logging 30 12,436 1,582 1,694 12.7 13.6
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 87 49,000 2,698 2,698 5.5 5.5
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 5 2,931 0 57 0.0 1.9
498 Fishers 33 13,807 0 0 0.0 0.0
499 Hunters and trappers 2 1,028 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 13,107 7,605,047 1,863,524 2,009,665 24.5 26.4
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 434 242,670 32,576 38,014 13.4 15.7
505 Automobile mechanics 1,097 657,089 44,917 49,310 6.8 7.5
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 5 2,447 0 0 0.0 0.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 510 291,136 77,408 84,488 26.6 29.0
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 196 130,569 59,071 65,409 45.2 50.1
509 Small engine repairers 100 58,625 4,283 4,528 7.3 7.7
514 Automobile body and related repairers 246 138,860 7,191 8,342 5.2 6.0
515 Aircraft mechanics, exc. engine 30 18,193 10,787 10,787 59.3 59.3
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 312 166,204 67,774 71,329 40.8 42.9
517 Farm equipment mechanics 55 30,504 522 522 1.7 1.7
518 Industry machinery repairers 879 508,315 171,137 178,159 33.7 35.0
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 45 24,691 10,529 12,009 42.6 48.6
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 238 146,712 33,565 38,341 22.9 26.1
525 Data processing equipment repairers 238 138,737 13,746 17,343 9.9 12.5
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 71 45,831 10,527 10,527 23.0 23.0
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 99 62,279 44,121 44,838 70.8 72.0
529 Telephone Installers and repairers 331 194,888 126,048 134,450 64.7 69.0
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 118 71,477 28,626 30,278 40.0 42.4
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 338 201,708 51,369 55,646 25.5 27.6
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 33 18,924 4,418 4,418 23.3 23.3
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 29 15,188 2,716 3,294 17.9 21.7
538 Office machine repairers 107 64,081 3,461 4,486 5.4 7.0
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 38 23,563 8,904 8,904 37.8 37.8
543 Elevator installers and repairers 43 26,245 23,293 23,996 88.8 91.4
544 Millwrights 132 71,439 44,806 46,192 62.7 64.7
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 635 366,239 84,793 95,164 23.2 26.0
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 336 195,357 55,878 59,761 28.6 30.6
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 91 42,089 857 2,683 2.0 6.4
614 Drillers, oil well 66 32,586 2,076 2,076 6.4 6.4
615 Explosives workers 21 9,526 2,959 2,959 31.1 31.1
616 Mining machine operators 63 30,809 15,322 16,825 49.7 54.6
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 53 26,129 9,163 9,598 35.1 36.7
633 Supervisors, production occupations 2,115 1,219,181 151,342 172,953 12.4 14.2
634 Tool and die makers 226 135,771 56,638 57,508 41.7 42.4
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 5 2,529 597 750 23.6 29.6
636 Precision assemblers, metal 26 16,769 7,117 7,117 42.4 42.4
637 Machinists 778 470,883 142,533 153,073 30.3 32.5
639 Machinist apprentices 5 2,011 231 231 11.5 11.5
643 Boilermakers 61 35,246 15,252 16,180 43.3 45.9
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 23 11,101 6,611 7,104 59.6 64.0
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 7 3,647 1,511 1,511 41.4 41.4
646 Lay-out workers 14 9,146 4,998 4,998 54.6 54.6
647 Precious stones and metals workers (jewelers) 54 23,547 1,531 1,531 6.5 6.5
649 Engravers, metal 28 16,901 2,900 2,900 17.2 17.2
653 Sheet metal workers 191 113,690 45,054 48,333 39.6 42.5
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 7 5,048 3,593 3,593 71.2 71.2
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 2 849 0 0 0.0 0.0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 5 3,323 484 484 14.6 14.6
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 52 34,767 2,784 2,784 8.0 8.0
658 Furniture and wood finishers 47 25,179 6,510 6,794 25.9 27.0
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 2 832 0 0 0.0 0.0
666 Dressmakers 76 50,868 1,844 2,251 3.6 4.4
667 Tailors 65 34,029 9,437 9,437 27.7 27.7
668 Upholsterers 75 37,931 5,506 5,910 14.5 15.6
669 Shoe repairers 8 3,247 873 873 26.9 26.9
673 Apparel and fabric patternmakers 6 3,652 630 630 17.2 17.2
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 5 2,565 0 0 0.0 0.0
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 21 15,281 3,890 3,890 25.5 25.5
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 29 17,816 3,940 3,940 22.1 22.1
677 Optical goods workers 106 60,908 3,117 3,117 5.1 5.1
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 74 44,102 724 724 1.6 1.6
679 Bookbinders 51 32,890 10,796 10,796 32.8 32.8
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 491 295,679 64,440 71,230 21.8 24.1
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 49 27,137 5,215 5,750 19.2 21.2
686 Butchers and meat cutters 455 264,943 83,655 88,352 31.6 33.3
687 Bakers 198 111,987 24,234 26,628 21.6 23.8
688 Food batchmakers 62 35,086 9,399 10,192 26.8 29.1
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 208 117,218 38,232 40,796 32.6 34.8
693 Adjusters and calibrators 16 9,027 2,999 2,999 33.2 33.2
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 95 57,486 18,396 21,188 32.0 36.9
695 Power plant operators 84 44,116 25,808 26,326 58.5 59.7
696 Stationary engineers 200 105,673 29,767 32,721 28.2 31.0
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 96 49,877 18,087 19,392 36.3 38.9
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 6,075 3,583,787 1,035,601 1,095,410 28.9 30.6
553 Supervisors; brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 8 5,885 1,200 1,200 20.4 20.4
554 Supervisors; carpenters and related workers 36 20,759 7,946 9,120 38.3 43.9
555 Supervisors; electricians and power transmission installers 45 26,179 5,343 5,896 20.4 22.5
556 Supervisors; painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 9 6,969 0 0 0.0 0.0
557 Supervisors; plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 14 8,893 4,372 4,731 49.2 53.2
558 Supervisors; n.e.c. 659 377,384 87,468 92,993 23.2 24.6
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 191 116,521 37,650 39,621 32.3 34.0
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 5 4,158 0 1,624 0.0 39.1
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 52 29,760 10,136 10,898 34.1 36.6
566 Carpet installers 105 61,594 4,817 5,769 7.8 9.4
567 Carpenters 1,412 838,620 180,081 189,993 21.5 22.7
569 Carpenter apprentices 9 5,270 395 395 7.5 7.5
573 Drywall installers 150 88,571 13,310 14,421 15.0 16.3
575 Electricians 999 591,103 252,444 263,637 42.7 44.6
576 Electrician apprentices 45 22,708 10,616 11,025 46.7 48.6
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 207 111,405 67,697 68,678 60.8 61.6
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 545 321,832 49,288 55,046 15.3 17.1
583 Paperhangers 15 9,035 394 394 4.4 4.4
584 Plasterers 31 16,770 6,758 7,406 40.3 44.2
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 589 354,062 142,674 148,620 40.3 42.0
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 12 5,676 2,484 3,398 43.8 59.9
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 94 65,536 13,974 16,065 21.3 24.5
589 Glaziers 59 32,498 9,032 9,032 27.8 27.8
593 Insulation workers 77 45,735 13,640 13,640 29.8 29.8
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 22 13,679 2,376 2,376 17.4 17.4
595 Roofers 228 143,406 22,226 24,175 15.5 16.9
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 58 38,241 14,110 14,224 36.9 37.2
597 Structural metal workers 76 46,375 32,106 33,586 69.2 72.4
598 Drillers, earth 25 10,581 2,107 2,107 19.9 19.9
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 298 164,579 40,956 45,341 24.9 27.5
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 12,762 7,480,169 2,000,949 2,109,500 26.8 28.2
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 47 26,777 10,621 10,767 39.7 40.2
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 106 63,593 18,967 19,380 29.8 30.5
705 Milling and planing machine operators 16 9,280 5,857 6,294 63.1 67.8
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 179 103,192 40,682 43,463 39.4 42.1
707 Rolling machine operators 25 14,090 9,611 9,931 68.2 70.5
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 45 28,604 9,940 9,940 34.8 34.8
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 231 133,158 51,002 51,985 38.3 39.0
713 Forging machine operators 22 16,152 8,017 8,017 49.6 49.6
714 Numerical control machine operators 17 12,446 2,957 2,957 23.8 23.8
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 65 37,968 16,718 16,923 44.0 44.6
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 36 21,364 7,296 7,296 34.2 34.2
719 Molding and casting machine operators 180 107,918 26,206 29,996 24.3 27.8
723 Metal plating machine operators 36 21,265 5,901 5,901 27.7 27.7
724 Heat treating equipment operators 28 19,189 11,423 11,423 59.5 59.5
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 27 14,929 3,354 3,354 22.5 22.5
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 18 8,396 927 1,208 11.0 14.4
727 Sawing machine operators 157 90,760 12,857 13,639 14.2 15.0
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 9 5,758 630 630 10.9 10.9
729 Nail and tacking machine operators 4 2,115 1,802 1,802 85.2 85.2
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 42 25,434 5,930 5,930 23.3 23.3
734 Printing machine operators 462 285,962 61,611 65,799 21.5 23.0
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 56 34,509 11,542 11,542 33.4 33.4
736 Typesetters and compositors 123 65,159 8,480 10,310 13.0 15.8
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 48 30,261 4,943 6,067 16.3 20.0
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 140 75,338 6,998 7,528 9.3 10.0
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 92 47,846 2,541 2,541 5.3 5.3
743 Textile cutting machine operators 13 6,687 359 359 5.4 5.4
744 Textile sewing machine operators 1,142 663,660 103,024 112,493 15.5 17.0
745 Shoe machine operators 53 31,083 4,757 6,463 15.3 20.8
747 Pressing machine operators 215 131,113 20,182 21,398 15.4 16.3
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 315 171,836 21,350 23,541 12.4 13.7
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 131 74,482 9,867 10,112 13.2 13.6
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 55 27,844 4,524 4,524 16.2 16.2
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 760 443,939 112,062 118,498 25.2 26.7
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 51 31,377 11,062 11,702 35.3 37.3
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 170 96,806 25,618 25,618 26.5 26.5
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 98 53,750 26,893 27,072 50.0 50.4
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 37 22,149 8,576 9,085 38.7 41.0
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 308 184,222 51,473 54,459 27.9 29.6
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 10 7,033 2,965 2,965 42.2 42.2
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 18 10,762 2,038 2,038 18.9 18.9
765 Folding machine operators 34 18,792 3,686 4,294 19.6 22.8
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, exc. food 181 98,133 47,432 48,878 48.3 49.8
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 77 37,463 7,637 7,755 20.4 20.7
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 311 178,827 37,905 41,372 21.2 23.1
773 Motion picture projectionists 13 6,658 626 626 9.4 9.4
774 Photographic process machine operators 135 81,521 6,706 8,206 8.2 10.1
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,568 924,663 322,207 337,308 34.8 36.5
779 Machine operators, not specified 589 348,752 108,198 116,583 31.0 33.4
783 Welders and cutters 878 509,239 171,852 179,669 33.7 35.3
784 Solderers and brazers 59 32,952 4,324 4,324 13.1 13.1
785 Assemblers 1,816 1,099,236 341,699 354,125 31.1 32.2
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 28 14,272 2,265 2,686 15.9 18.8
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 30 18,313 3,093 3,827 16.9 20.9
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 32 19,019 5,292 5,575 27.8 29.3
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 33 23,462 1,274 1,274 5.4 5.4
794 Hand grinding and polishing occupations 6 3,552 0 0 0.0 0.0
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 85 45,370 571 571 1.3 1.3
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 1,040 603,661 155,187 165,492 25.7 27.4
797 Production testers 90 55,584 12,742 15,298 22.9 27.5
798 Production samplers and weighers 19 9,667 3,407 3,407 35.2 35.2
799 Graders and sorters, exc. agricultural 151 92,829 13,282 13,282 14.3 14.3
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,735 4,512,688 1,281,502 1,371,557 28.4 30.4
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 119 78,750 7,286 9,889 9.3 12.6
804 Truck drivers, heavy 3,025 1,763,806 424,792 445,575 24.1 25.3
805 Truck drivers, light 1,075 642,025 109,952 118,414 17.1 18.4
806 Driver-sales workers 320 191,360 41,680 42,750 21.8 22.3
808 Bus drivers 785 460,060 168,684 200,837 36.7 43.7
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 251 142,214 21,024 21,864 14.8 15.4
813 Parking lot attendants 81 47,808 5,268 7,148 11.0 15.0
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 12 5,119 2,692 2,692 52.6 52.6
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 72 40,109 31,100 31,469 77.5 78.5
824 Locomotive operating occupations 91 45,917 44,237 44,237 96.3 96.3
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 58 23,936 22,801 23,127 95.3 96.6
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 12 6,208 5,560 5,560 89.6 89.6
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 48 29,881 8,037 8,359 26.9 28.0
829 Sailors and deckhands 22 15,631 6,873 6,873 44.0 44.0
833 Marine engineers 6 2,573 1,630 2,348 63.3 91.3
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 13 8,128 5,099 5,099 62.7 62.7
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 25 16,481 6,671 6,671 40.5 40.5
844 Operating engineers 401 211,479 81,924 84,806 38.7 40.1
845 Longshore equipment operators 2 1,759 880 880 50.0 50.0
848 Hoist and winch operators 42 19,371 5,407 5,571 27.9 28.8
849 Crane and tower operators 132 80,746 48,252 50,297 59.8 62.3
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 157 86,043 25,464 26,875 29.6 31.2
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 146 77,993 21,888 22,613 28.1 29.0
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 703 445,806 155,721 165,903 34.9 37.2
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 137 69,486 28,581 31,700 41.1 45.6
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, & LABORERS 7,743 4,498,710 1,063,007 1,138,303 23.6 25.3
863 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, & laborers, n.e.c. 23 12,161 1,780 2,405 14.6 19.8
864 Helpers, mechanics and repairers 48 31,306 4,971 4,971 15.9 15.9
865 Helpers, construction trades 177 109,988 8,036 8,036 7.3 7.3
866 Helpers, surveyor 11 4,999 1,211 1,211 24.2 24.2
867 Helpers, extractive occupations 6 4,314 3,050 3,050 70.7 70.7
869 Construction laborers 1,176 691,365 159,116 177,556 23.0 25.7
873 Production helpers 111 68,507 20,948 23,501 30.6 34.3
875 Garbage collectors 68 41,302 12,511 12,511 30.3 30.3
876 Stevedores 33 17,742 15,889 16,252 89.6 91.6
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,593 919,129 195,847 210,202 21.3 22.9
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 142 82,107 23,630 26,017 28.8 31.7
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,075 631,512 218,027 231,871 34.5 36.7
885 Garage and service station related occupations 378 201,703 7,798 9,200 3.9 4.6
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 333 191,006 21,253 24,880 11.1 13.0
888 Hand packers and packagers 481 276,703 66,047 66,844 23.9 24.2
889 Laborers, except construction 2,088 1,214,865 302,893 319,796 24.9 26.3
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1991. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1980 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.