Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1992 (details in table note)  
 
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 20,543 11,996,799 722,051 982,082 6.0 8.2
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public administration 25 13,937 2,656 2,656 19.1 19.1
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 971 539,760 81,826 115,409 15.2 21.4
6 Administrators, protective services 85 45,449 8,932 10,069 19.7 22.2
7 Financial managers 856 497,608 3,974 10,241 0.8 2.1
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 184 104,112 4,045 5,100 3.9 4.9
9 Purchasing managers 179 105,300 2,814 5,419 2.7 5.1
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 826 504,227 7,484 11,848 1.5 2.3
14 Administrators, education and related fields 985 543,776 96,667 139,052 17.8 25.6
15 Managers, medicine and health 595 342,135 16,403 24,272 4.8 7.1
17 Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 1,343 779,201 16,406 27,297 2.1 3.5
18 Managers, properties and real estate 489 300,160 11,875 15,037 4.0 5.0
19 Funeral directors 48 32,445 907 3,254 2.8 10.0
21 Managers, service organizations, n.e.c. 782 423,064 45,562 51,335 10.8 12.1
22 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 7,013 4,163,626 136,156 182,003 3.3 4.4
23 Accountants and auditors 2,063 1,216,304 66,882 99,134 5.5 8.2
24 Underwriters 150 87,868 0 0 0.0 0.0
25 Other financial officers 1,026 600,620 16,116 27,461 2.7 4.6
26 Management analysts 165 98,897 2,167 5,322 2.2 5.4
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 679 404,502 44,538 54,048 11.0 13.4
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 14 5,478 469 469 8.6 8.6
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 289 176,114 1,248 2,885 0.7 1.6
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 380 212,576 12,159 16,991 5.7 8.0
34 Business and promotion agents 44 22,044 602 1,116 2.7 5.1
35 Construction inspectors 94 59,581 14,275 17,809 24.0 29.9
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 420 242,718 79,940 91,333 32.9 37.6
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 736 421,533 21,299 33,354 5.1 7.9
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS, EXC. TEACHERS 16,202 9,435,867 1,062,988 1,331,522 11.3 14.1
43 Architects 146 88,682 2,344 2,344 2.6 2.6
44 Aerospace engineers 117 83,731 10,049 14,432 12.0 17.2
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 37 23,636 2,408 2,408 10.2 10.2
46 Mining engineers 9 4,428 993 993 22.4 22.4
47 Petroleum engineers 34 16,928 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 105 64,690 2,031 2,031 3.1 3.1
49 Nuclear engineers 14 6,320 1,017 1,017 16.1 16.1
53 Civil engineers 354 202,696 22,750 29,592 11.2 14.6
54 Agricultural engineers 5 2,197 623 623 28.4 28.4
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 765 482,661 36,039 47,822 7.5 9.9
56 Industrial engineers 337 205,184 14,049 17,454 6.8 8.5
57 Mechanical engineers 480 289,700 12,542 13,516 4.3 4.7
58 Marine and naval architects 23 14,037 5,289 5,559 37.7 39.6
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 383 235,674 9,423 14,309 4.0 6.1
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 21 11,200 2,988 3,655 26.7 32.6
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 1,037 654,972 32,219 44,078 4.9 6.7
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 312 189,492 18,278 28,335 9.6 15.0
66 Actuaries 30 17,413 632 632 3.6 3.6
67 Statisticians 35 23,024 3,066 5,210 13.3 22.6
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 6 5,837 504 504 8.6 8.6
69 Physicists and astronomers 39 25,124 1,925 1,925 7.7 7.7
73 Chemists, except biochemists 217 123,532 7,611 8,338 6.2 6.7
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 12 7,266 1,191 2,006 16.4 27.6
75 Geologists and geodesists 92 51,073 2,977 2,977 5.8 5.8
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 54 32,941 2,707 3,333 8.2 10.1
77 Agricultural and food scientists 45 21,129 1,941 2,347 9.2 11.1
78 Biological and life scientists 161 87,811 6,540 8,411 7.4 9.6
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 59 21,808 3,944 5,028 18.1 23.1
83 Medical scientists 108 62,175 5,717 7,988 9.2 12.8
84 Physicians 518 315,964 10,715 27,237 3.4 8.6
85 Dentists 32 22,990 0 0 0.0 0.0
86 Veterinarians 38 18,134 0 0 0.0 0.0
87 Optometrists 18 11,111 1,015 1,015 9.1 9.1
88 Podiatrists 1 399 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 11 5,249 0 851 0.0 16.2
95 Registered nurses 3,152 1,778,071 283,722 339,478 16.0 19.1
96 Pharmacists 299 168,267 13,384 17,281 8.0 10.3
97 Dietitians 137 80,535 11,753 14,204 14.6 17.6
98 Respiratory therapists 120 72,124 6,073 9,853 8.4 13.7
99 Occupational therapists 71 42,753 4,209 5,566 9.8 13.0
103 Physical therapists 168 93,875 7,699 10,471 8.2 11.2
104 Speech therapists 126 68,469 25,877 32,870 37.8 48.0
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 110 67,251 8,396 9,937 12.5 14.8
106 Physicians' assistants 74 45,263 4,824 5,119 10.7 11.3
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational 436 241,101 88,351 105,244 36.6 43.7
164 Librarians 346 184,157 59,909 71,150 32.5 38.6
165 Archivists and curators 50 29,021 4,266 4,543 14.7 15.7
166 Economists 171 99,474 4,538 5,233 4.6 5.3
167 Psychologists 238 128,743 28,353 32,552 22.0 25.3
168 Sociologists 3 1,944 0 0 0.0 0.0
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 42 23,262 1,886 4,127 8.1 17.7
173 Urban planners 24 13,279 361 361 2.7 2.7
174 Social workers 1,026 591,741 149,893 177,727 25.3 30.0
175 Recreation workers 166 94,144 4,639 7,129 4.9 7.6
176 Clergy 577 319,024 4,834 7,252 1.5 2.3
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 106 63,273 1,053 1,053 1.7 1.7
178 Lawyers and Judges 722 405,604 15,854 19,993 3.9 4.9
183 Authors 72 39,610 4,341 4,341 11.0 11.0
184 Technical writers 89 50,651 2,480 3,709 4.9 7.3
185 Designers 621 373,845 17,490 23,516 4.7 6.3
186 Musicians and composers 140 88,623 15,693 18,449 17.7 20.8
187 Actors and directors 117 67,905 11,363 13,384 16.7 19.7
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers 169 106,271 6,666 8,676 6.3 8.2
189 Photographers 122 76,870 6,437 8,005 8.4 10.4
193 Dancers 33 19,789 692 1,697 3.5 8.6
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 85 52,811 4,217 6,681 8.0 12.7
195 Editors and reporters 433 237,769 24,379 31,801 10.3 13.4
197 Public relations specialists 256 139,664 6,163 11,043 4.4 7.9
198 Announcers 88 48,706 3,505 3,505 7.2 7.2
199 Athletes 98 59,081 3,774 6,728 6.4 11.4
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,370 730,546 146,577 180,665 20.1 24.7
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 11 4,237 1,590 1,590 37.5 37.5
114 Biological science teachers 46 29,753 2,230 2,489 7.5 8.4
115 Chemistry teachers 42 25,035 2,307 5,312 9.2 21.2
116 Physics teachers 23 9,998 2,842 3,392 28.4 33.9
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 4 2,196 1,215 1,215 55.3 55.3
118 Psychology teachers 37 20,958 6,066 6,066 28.9 28.9
119 Economics teachers 38 19,758 2,847 4,716 14.4 23.9
123 History teachers 34 16,681 5,265 6,525 31.6 39.1
124 Political science teachers 21 9,674 2,137 2,747 22.1 28.4
125 Sociology teachers 19 11,730 1,391 1,783 11.9 15.2
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 6 2,103 1,315 1,315 62.6 62.6
127 Engineering teachers 55 24,967 6,311 8,231 25.3 33.0
128 Mathematical science teachers 86 45,831 9,308 12,077 20.3 26.4
129 Computer science teachers 34 17,034 3,693 5,295 21.7 31.1
133 Medical science teachers 16 7,259 1,630 2,742 22.4 37.8
134 Health specialties teachers 81 42,169 10,034 12,454 23.8 29.5
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 42 19,856 4,815 5,305 24.2 26.7
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 11 6,847 1,347 1,347 19.7 19.7
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 65 32,441 3,716 6,100 11.5 18.8
138 Physical education teachers 17 9,297 2,472 3,063 26.6 33.0
139 Education teachers 15 8,994 3,929 4,479 43.7 49.8
143 English teachers 105 56,902 12,491 15,564 22.0 27.4
144 Foreign language teachers 50 31,003 6,143 6,822 19.8 22.0
145 Law teachers 17 8,306 234 454 2.8 5.5
146 Social work teachers 2 872 278 278 31.9 31.9
147 Theology teachers 22 12,002 3,002 3,002 25.0 25.0
148 Trade and industrial teachers 9 4,912 707 707 14.4 14.4
149 Home economics teachers 2 856 437 437 51.1 51.1
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 12 5,833 0 0 0.0 0.0
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 448 243,044 46,827 55,158 19.3 22.7
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 7,269 4,100,941 1,891,516 2,191,144 46.1 53.4
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 828 472,568 105,218 117,967 22.3 25.0
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,942 1,679,913 906,848 1,045,664 54.0 62.2
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,128 1,161,400 663,128 774,478 57.1 66.7
158 Teachers, special education 492 266,376 156,758 180,856 58.8 67.9
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 879 520,683 59,565 72,178 11.4 13.9
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 7,094 4,147,159 511,454 589,323 12.3 14.2
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 521 299,472 26,275 30,700 8.8 10.3
204 Dental hygienists 134 71,026 2,211 2,211 3.1 3.1
205 Health record technologists and technicians 90 51,937 4,324 4,707 8.3 9.1
206 Radiologic technicians 249 138,371 14,918 17,525 10.8 12.7
207 Licensed practical nurses 772 448,682 68,089 75,032 15.2 16.7
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 801 487,032 53,674 57,059 11.0 11.7
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 517 308,752 48,587 58,552 15.7 19.0
214 Industrial engineering technicians 8 4,772 1,078 1,718 22.6 36.0
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 25 13,043 2,562 2,562 19.6 19.6
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 405 242,225 26,445 31,977 10.9 13.2
217 Drafting occupations 417 253,476 19,404 21,883 7.7 8.6
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 113 61,143 4,221 4,649 6.9 7.6
223 Biological technicians 136 66,406 1,390 2,825 2.1 4.3
224 Chemical technicians 141 80,412 8,503 9,434 10.6 11.7
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 159 95,800 12,010 13,553 12.5 14.1
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 160 93,663 48,206 49,262 51.5 52.6
227 Air traffic controllers 44 25,601 12,695 16,756 49.6 65.5
228 Broadcast equipment operators 49 30,098 7,153 9,732 23.8 32.3
229 Computer programmers 895 539,213 23,174 31,522 4.3 5.8
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 5 2,918 797 797 27.3 27.3
234 Legal assistants 372 213,964 9,210 14,799 4.3 6.9
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 1,081 619,154 116,528 132,069 18.8 21.3
SALES OCCUPATIONS 19,061 11,262,858 562,160 638,821 5.0 5.7
243 Supervisors and Proprietors, Sales Occupations 4,387 2,585,568 119,407 146,064 4.6 5.6
253 Insurance sales occupations 671 401,285 14,320 21,088 3.6 5.3
254 Real estate sales occupations 635 389,402 9,491 10,359 2.4 2.7
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 430 255,400 2,679 2,679 1.0 1.0
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 243 145,987 6,232 8,009 4.3 5.5
257 Sales occupations, other business services 661 414,786 27,711 31,570 6.7 7.6
258 Sales engineers 42 26,334 627 627 2.4 2.4
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,227 1,324,946 22,542 29,053 1.7 2.2
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 399 237,141 1,354 1,354 0.6 0.6
264 Sales workers, apparel 780 460,324 7,023 7,398 1.5 1.6
265 Sales workers, shoes 175 106,617 2,692 3,619 2.5 3.4
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 230 135,763 1,156 1,156 0.9 0.9
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 259 161,336 2,688 2,688 1.7 1.7
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 358 207,739 1,248 2,584 0.6 1.2
269 Sales workers, parts 254 144,659 3,871 3,871 2.7 2.7
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,216 1,296,337 31,819 38,726 2.5 3.0
275 Sales counter clerks 306 173,364 10,755 10,755 6.2 6.2
276 Cashiers 4,206 2,442,409 283,799 303,675 11.6 12.4
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 312 186,849 365 365 0.2 0.2
278 News vendors 148 88,939 6,009 6,810 6.8 7.7
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 95 59,651 5,905 5,905 9.9 9.9
284 Auctioneers 1 171 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 26 17,851 467 467 2.6 2.6
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL 30,901 18,035,479 2,388,461 2,823,747 13.2 15.7
303 Supervisors, general office 797 473,651 51,891 64,831 11.0 13.7
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 40 25,825 1,132 2,039 4.4 7.9
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 131 82,212 4,633 5,541 5.6 6.7
306 Chief communications operators 7 4,618 0 0 0.0 0.0
307 Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 273 169,479 24,104 29,902 14.2 17.6
308 Computer operators 1,057 651,302 60,621 74,543 9.3 11.4
309 Peripheral equipment operators 4 1,360 361 361 26.5 26.5
313 Secretaries 6,219 3,558,707 295,423 374,160 8.3 10.5
314 Stenographers 78 47,669 3,006 3,625 6.3 7.6
315 Typists 871 515,859 72,134 83,780 14.0 16.2
316 Interviewers 280 164,765 19,639 22,952 11.9 13.9
317 Hotel clerks 209 99,723 1,400 1,400 1.4 1.4
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 377 223,583 30,935 34,985 13.8 15.6
319 Receptionists 1,496 862,308 32,007 44,747 3.7 5.2
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 402 240,027 20,732 21,154 8.6 8.8
325 Classified-ad clerks 6 2,434 566 566 23.2 23.2
326 Correspondence clerks 16 8,153 2,559 3,165 31.4 38.8
327 Order clerks 369 226,416 72,112 81,552 31.8 36.0
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 109 67,109 2,885 7,934 4.3 11.8
329 Library clerks 293 161,189 17,452 21,446 10.8 13.3
335 File clerks 482 288,835 20,540 26,299 7.1 9.1
336 Records clerks 303 170,998 22,956 28,621 13.4 16.7
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,780 1,569,451 75,269 91,787 4.8 5.8
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 303 176,405 25,533 28,440 14.5 16.1
339 Billing clerks 311 175,738 9,457 12,364 5.4 7.0
343 Cost and rate clerks 111 69,762 6,539 7,669 9.4 11.0
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 128 80,238 6,440 6,440 8.0 8.0
345 Duplicating machine operators 64 39,636 4,128 4,738 10.4 12.0
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 16 11,511 6,051 6,622 52.6 57.5
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 47 23,456 2,572 2,838 11.0 12.1
348 Telephone operators 357 214,855 75,794 79,851 35.3 37.2
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 21 13,122 4,364 4,364 33.3 33.3
354 Postal clerks, except mail carriers 447 244,601 172,006 193,333 70.3 79.0
355 Mail carriers, postal service 567 336,885 272,277 286,827 80.8 85.1
356 Mail clerks, except postal service 309 177,738 21,521 27,284 12.1 15.4
357 Messengers 232 132,315 5,154 8,381 3.9 6.3
359 Dispatchers 360 204,645 54,941 61,760 26.8 30.2
363 Production coordinators 324 204,352 31,315 35,811 15.3 17.5
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 875 543,684 92,512 100,525 17.0 18.5
365 Stock and inventory clerks 907 547,929 103,924 122,079 19.0 22.3
366 Meter readers 89 51,570 22,507 23,892 43.6 46.3
368 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers 114 68,268 14,044 16,426 20.6 24.1
373 Expediters 345 205,454 15,743 20,317 7.7 9.9
374 Material recording, scheduling, and distributing clerks, n.e.c. 39 23,317 4,384 4,384 18.8 18.8
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 607 373,841 9,177 15,164 2.5 4.1
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 1,137 677,214 40,604 52,210 6.0 7.7
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 131 78,422 21,245 25,330 27.1 32.3
378 Bill and account collectors 251 153,424 7,117 9,870 4.6 6.4
379 General office clerks 1,170 672,237 94,032 113,438 14.0 16.9
383 Bank tellers 841 471,977 5,385 6,920 1.1 1.5
384 Proofreaders 32 18,769 685 685 3.6 3.6
385 Data-entry keyers 985 593,200 86,675 104,282 14.6 17.6
386 Statistical clerks 115 62,355 12,018 17,071 19.3 27.4
387 Teachers' aides 862 487,316 143,053 180,783 29.4 37.1
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 2,205 1,285,567 184,905 218,258 14.4 17.0
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD OCCUPATIONS 1,458 851,903 4,011 6,067 0.5 0.7
403 Launderers and ironers 2 959 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 22 11,113 643 643 5.8 5.8
405 Housekeepers and butlers 52 28,528 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 595 328,266 0 0 0.0 0.0
407 Private household cleaners and servants 787 483,036 3,368 5,424 0.7 1.1
PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 3,357 2,068,660 800,895 878,073 38.7 42.4
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 60 36,637 21,437 22,560 58.5 61.6
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 138 78,686 38,346 43,908 48.7 55.8
415 Supervisors, guards 83 51,504 2,991 4,529 5.8 8.8
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 30 13,420 2,534 3,142 18.9 23.4
417 Firefighting occupations 304 183,848 129,074 136,363 70.2 74.2
418 Police and detectives, public service 740 457,087 278,588 299,517 60.9 65.5
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 184 109,311 43,198 49,443 39.5 45.2
424 Correctional institution officers 448 298,290 159,406 173,978 53.4 58.3
425 Crossing guards 69 41,478 9,132 9,703 22.0 23.4
426 Guards and police, except public service 1,157 712,250 112,737 128,937 15.8 18.1
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 144 86,149 3,451 5,993 4.0 7.0
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PROTECTIVE AND HOUSEHOLD 20,895 11,977,774 1,265,611 1,437,492 10.6 12.0
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 560 327,503 21,150 27,432 6.5 8.4
434 Bartenders 515 271,382 8,777 9,989 3.2 3.7
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,399 1,378,742 33,249 36,636 2.4 2.7
436 Cooks 3,163 1,809,575 120,085 142,943 6.6 7.9
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 574 320,493 4,580 5,579 1.4 1.7
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 408 236,473 45,183 48,412 19.1 20.5
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 590 362,447 31,491 35,385 8.7 9.8
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,134 635,955 67,326 74,994 10.6 11.8
445 Dental assistants 310 162,896 3,609 3,711 2.2 2.3
446 Health aides, except nursing 617 360,744 66,010 72,665 18.3 20.1
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,666 1,535,886 214,853 242,029 14.0 15.8
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 275 164,124 23,439 29,523 14.3 18.0
449 Maids and housemen 1,091 608,037 78,792 89,143 13.0 14.7
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,410 2,010,260 389,590 433,832 19.4 21.6
454 Elevator operators 14 9,064 5,016 5,016 55.3 55.3
455 Pest control occupations 57 37,192 0 1,474 0.0 4.0
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 100 53,567 3,365 5,105 6.3 9.5
457 Barbers 45 30,076 2,429 3,431 8.1 11.4
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 679 404,707 1,914 4,159 0.5 1.0
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 338 157,656 4,874 5,113 3.1 3.2
461 Guides 55 33,356 2,117 2,724 6.3 8.2
462 Ushers 49 31,528 1,011 1,535 3.2 4.9
463 Public transportation attendants 140 88,628 58,743 61,074 66.3 68.9
464 Baggage porters and bellhops 75 38,806 8,357 8,357 21.5 21.5
465 Welfare service aides 156 89,097 14,229 16,044 16.0 18.0
466 Family child care providers 29 14,756 789 789 5.3 5.3
467 Early childhood teacher's assistants 726 409,226 16,278 23,296 4.0 5.7
468 Child care workers, n.e.c. 417 228,237 22,010 27,943 9.6 12.2
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 303 167,363 16,347 19,161 9.8 11.4
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 3,032 1,824,978 91,686 103,980 5.0 5.7
473 Farmers, except horticulture 13 7,900 0 0 0.0 0.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 92 47,443 546 932 1.2 2.0
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 7 3,387 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 53 38,194 629 629 1.6 1.6
479 Farm workers 1,226 699,136 16,601 17,769 2.4 2.5
483 Marine life cultivation workers 2 909 0 0 0.0 0.0
484 Nursery workers 52 33,729 2,229 2,638 6.6 7.8
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 84 54,637 5,590 6,757 10.2 12.4
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 1,137 732,114 56,912 63,797 7.8 8.7
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 139 79,326 1,692 1,788 2.1 2.3
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 51 40,572 2,155 4,147 5.3 10.2
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 4 1,913 773 773 40.4 40.4
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 13 5,438 293 483 5.4 8.9
495 Forestry workers, except logging 34 16,939 263 263 1.6 1.6
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 84 43,441 3,308 3,308 7.6 7.6
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 8 3,768 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 32 16,012 695 695 4.3 4.3
499 Hunters and trappers 1 119 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR, EXC. CONSTRUCTION 12,605 7,529,161 1,769,802 1,905,646 23.5 25.3
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 390 223,236 15,529 22,558 7.0 10.1
505 Automobile mechanics 1,101 674,079 56,607 65,101 8.4 9.7
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 3 1,021 286 286 28.0 28.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 531 303,060 73,743 80,374 24.3 26.5
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 205 145,118 62,436 69,255 43.0 47.7
509 Small engine repairers 74 44,111 3,464 4,823 7.9 10.9
514 Automobile body and related repairers 243 140,321 8,157 8,987 5.8 6.4
515 Aircraft mechanics, except engine 24 18,850 5,967 8,223 31.7 43.6
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 259 146,275 54,165 57,702 37.0 39.4
517 Farm equipment mechanics 58 32,003 1,307 1,307 4.1 4.1
518 Industrial machinery repairers 892 537,126 174,257 188,048 32.4 35.0
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 45 24,855 10,261 10,370 41.3 41.7
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 202 124,979 32,378 37,184 25.9 29.8
525 Data processing equipment repairers 230 147,420 9,131 9,342 6.2 6.3
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 59 43,209 6,563 7,083 15.2 16.4
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 94 64,983 46,536 47,005 71.6 72.3
529 Telephone installers and repairers 269 165,536 109,642 113,168 66.2 68.4
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 104 64,276 26,240 27,913 40.8 43.4
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 328 187,767 41,357 42,991 22.0 22.9
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 36 21,560 3,560 3,560 16.5 16.5
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 25 12,160 3,054 3,054 25.1 25.1
538 Office machine repairers 88 61,348 2,638 3,640 4.3 5.9
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 33 18,977 9,031 9,624 47.6 50.7
543 Elevator installers and repairers 24 16,130 15,658 15,658 97.1 97.1
544 Millwrights 162 94,013 60,149 60,372 64.0 64.2
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 626 388,269 86,271 94,039 22.2 24.2
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 374 220,867 52,505 61,860 23.8 28.0
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 86 42,917 0 0 0.0 0.0
614 Drillers, oil well 39 17,594 422 422 2.4 2.4
615 Explosives workers 18 6,239 1,942 1,942 31.1 31.1
616 Mining machine operators 71 30,474 13,593 13,698 44.6 45.0
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 47 24,651 9,943 10,066 40.3 40.8
628 Supervisors, production occupations 2,013 1,195,886 127,525 142,932 10.7 12.0
634 Tool and die makers 213 127,655 47,555 51,989 37.3 40.7
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 3 1,857 0 0 0.0 0.0
636 Precision assemblers, metal 24 16,029 6,970 6,970 43.5 43.5
637 Machinists 685 424,214 138,372 146,731 32.6 34.6
639 Machinist apprentices 8 4,808 0 222 0.0 4.6
643 Boilermakers 47 25,448 11,147 12,116 43.8 47.6
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 34 20,158 2,651 4,168 13.2 20.7
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 10 5,343 3,001 3,001 56.2 56.2
646 Lay-out workers 18 11,736 6,684 6,684 56.9 56.9
647 Precious stones and metals workers (Jewelers) 59 27,220 1,800 1,800 6.6 6.6
649 Engravers, metal 14 7,105 1,411 1,411 19.9 19.9
653 Sheet metal workers 152 88,490 38,893 42,728 44.0 48.3
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 2 856 856 856 100.0 100.0
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 1 482 0 0 0.0 0.0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 2 1,510 462 462 30.6 30.6
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 61 38,101 3,178 3,178 8.3 8.3
658 Furniture and wood finishers 34 18,819 2,533 2,533 13.5 13.5
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 1 939 0 0 0.0 0.0
666 Dressmakers 78 44,001 1,591 1,591 3.6 3.6
667 Tailors 46 26,458 5,385 5,385 20.4 20.4
668 Upholsterers 79 48,103 4,157 4,628 8.6 9.6
669 Shoe repairers 20 11,758 3,219 3,219 27.4 27.4
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 10 5,692 0 0 0.0 0.0
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 19 9,364 3,159 3,159 33.7 33.7
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 33 21,381 7,910 7,910 37.0 37.0
677 Optical goods workers 98 53,808 1,063 1,063 2.0 2.0
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 65 37,362 0 0 0.0 0.0
679 Bookbinders 64 41,868 6,301 6,301 15.0 15.0
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 506 316,466 76,709 80,738 24.2 25.5
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 30 16,605 2,658 3,657 16.0 22.0
686 Butchers and meat cutters 492 288,153 81,077 83,991 28.1 29.1
687 Bakers 198 118,104 29,210 30,095 24.7 25.5
688 Food batchmakers 69 42,572 8,576 9,272 20.1 21.8
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 199 121,733 40,602 42,223 33.4 34.7
693 Adjusters and calibrators 14 7,293 1,666 1,666 22.8 22.8
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 98 57,602 20,366 23,850 35.4 41.4
695 Power plant operators 77 41,285 27,516 29,210 66.6 70.8
696 Stationary engineers 208 113,191 42,632 43,703 37.7 38.6
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 81 46,283 16,173 16,549 34.9 35.8
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 5,778 3,509,173 997,869 1,051,981 28.4 30.0
553 Supervisors, brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 3 2,380 2,022 2,022 85.0 85.0
554 Supervisors, carpenters and related workers 32 17,971 4,915 6,410 27.3 35.7
555 Supervisors, electricians and power transmission installers 63 38,886 9,483 10,139 24.4 26.1
556 Supervisors, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 13 9,220 788 788 8.5 8.5
557 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 23 16,264 9,072 9,565 55.8 58.8
558 Supervisors, construction, n.e.c. 593 351,430 83,120 90,111 23.7 25.6
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 212 133,751 33,515 35,400 25.1 26.5
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 2 799 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 48 29,828 5,890 6,391 19.7 21.4
566 Carpet installers 95 58,857 7,190 8,868 12.2 15.1
567 Carpenters 1,304 811,519 150,564 160,069 18.6 19.7
569 Carpenter apprentices 12 7,412 1,183 1,183 16.0 16.0
573 Drywall installers 134 79,511 15,921 16,939 20.0 21.3
575 Electricians 959 571,129 244,869 255,905 42.9 44.8
576 Electrician apprentices 47 21,015 7,737 8,302 36.8 39.5
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 184 105,686 64,655 65,725 61.2 62.2
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 484 305,895 57,853 62,257 18.9 20.4
583 Paperhangers 17 9,332 2,271 2,271 24.3 24.3
584 Plasterers 36 24,308 5,440 5,440 22.4 22.4
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 575 347,106 142,327 145,892 41.0 42.0
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 13 8,130 2,154 2,713 26.5 33.4
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 80 52,573 12,578 12,578 23.9 23.9
589 Glaziers 63 36,765 10,292 10,292 28.0 28.0
593 Insulation workers 91 56,074 14,151 16,238 25.2 29.0
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 22 11,106 3,464 3,464 31.2 31.2
595 Roofers 215 137,783 19,720 20,356 14.3 14.8
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 55 35,401 14,915 15,529 42.1 43.9
597 Structural metal workers 81 43,128 23,641 24,273 54.8 56.3
598 Drillers, earth 31 15,029 1,996 1,996 13.3 13.3
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 291 170,884 46,144 50,865 27.0 29.8
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 12,237 7,272,563 1,927,730 2,033,115 26.5 28.0
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 38 23,488 8,981 8,981 38.2 38.2
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 72 43,110 14,866 16,034 34.5 37.2
705 Milling and planing machine operators 14 9,840 3,936 4,511 40.0 45.8
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 194 118,185 49,285 53,849 41.7 45.6
707 Rolling machine operators 17 10,532 5,523 5,523 52.4 52.4
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 43 25,585 8,837 8,837 34.5 34.5
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 216 124,884 43,656 44,113 35.0 35.3
713 Forging machine operators 18 10,130 7,163 7,163 70.7 70.7
714 Numerical control machine operators 9 5,575 1,481 2,298 26.6 41.2
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 53 29,182 9,291 9,291 31.8 31.8
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 32 17,537 5,241 5,521 29.9 31.5
719 Molding and casting machine operators 167 99,527 24,307 26,514 24.4 26.6
723 Metal plating machine operators 34 19,005 4,832 5,003 25.4 26.3
724 Heat treating equipment operators 18 9,826 6,479 6,479 65.9 65.9
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 31 20,196 3,886 4,232 19.2 21.0
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 18 6,483 247 247 3.8 3.8
727 Sawing machine operators 119 68,896 8,394 8,619 12.2 12.5
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 12 7,537 307 307 4.1 4.1
729 Nailing and tacking machine operators 7 3,922 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 53 29,059 2,690 2,690 9.3 9.3
734 Printing press operators 490 298,941 66,375 69,562 22.2 23.3
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 46 30,627 7,829 8,204 25.6 26.8
736 Typesetters and compositors 85 50,779 4,873 4,873 9.6 9.6
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 67 38,549 6,280 7,757 16.3 20.1
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 141 75,292 7,822 8,290 10.4 11.0
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 75 37,222 850 850 2.3 2.3
743 Textile cutting machine operators 10 5,992 948 948 15.8 15.8
744 Textile sewing machine operators 1,122 651,329 99,145 106,641 15.2 16.4
745 Shoe machine operators 34 18,584 3,886 3,886 20.9 20.9
747 Pressing machine operators 189 125,284 20,447 20,953 16.3 16.7
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 295 165,026 13,224 15,244 8.0 9.2
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 112 54,735 5,208 6,230 9.5 11.4
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 50 30,719 11,199 12,144 36.5 39.5
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 568 335,617 98,845 101,970 29.5 30.4
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 57 35,011 7,761 7,761 22.2 22.2
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 179 100,882 20,872 21,268 20.7 21.1
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 112 69,122 24,215 25,642 35.0 37.1
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 38 29,077 8,380 8,380 28.8 28.8
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 289 174,539 49,805 50,504 28.5 28.9
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 10 3,909 1,027 1,204 26.3 30.8
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 16 10,346 5,859 7,105 56.6 68.7
765 Folding machine operators 33 18,137 3,034 3,703 16.7 20.4
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food 123 71,051 36,343 39,281 51.2 55.3
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 63 35,191 10,363 13,373 29.4 38.0
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 314 184,902 43,275 45,791 23.4 24.8
773 Motion picture projectionists 15 10,231 1,473 1,473 14.4 14.4
774 Photographic process machine operators 133 80,555 5,752 6,298 7.1 7.8
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,570 930,447 347,890 361,018 37.4 38.8
779 Machine operators, not specified 553 338,424 99,018 105,356 29.3 31.1
783 Welders and cutters 904 551,268 175,083 178,972 31.8 32.5
784 Solderers and brazers 53 32,348 4,169 4,169 12.9 12.9
785 Assemblers 1,817 1,081,604 325,454 343,910 30.1 31.8
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 20 14,410 2,716 2,716 18.8 18.8
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 40 25,542 5,170 5,170 20.2 20.2
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 40 21,750 5,248 5,248 24.1 24.1
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 24 15,093 534 2,080 3.5 13.8
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 107 63,755 3,932 3,932 6.2 6.2
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 959 588,592 154,028 169,772 26.2 28.8
797 Production testers 85 49,396 12,394 12,520 25.1 25.3
798 Production samplers and weighers 15 8,578 2,717 2,717 31.7 31.7
799 Graders and sorters, except agricultural 219 127,211 14,886 15,988 11.7 12.6
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,528 4,463,906 1,227,960 1,300,667 27.5 29.1
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 130 80,047 2,968 4,012 3.7 5.0
804 Truck drivers 4,040 2,420,829 524,170 554,878 21.7 22.9
806 Driver-sales workers 269 158,549 39,402 39,402 24.9 24.9
808 Bus drivers 782 478,474 173,926 194,605 36.4 40.7
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 251 151,260 16,331 19,590 10.8 13.0
813 Parking lot attendants 66 39,898 11,755 12,295 29.5 30.8
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 8 3,499 1,173 1,173 33.5 33.5
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 82 39,792 35,562 36,302 89.4 91.2
824 Locomotive operating occupations 82 39,507 34,910 35,087 88.4 88.8
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 44 20,469 19,183 19,183 93.7 93.7
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 8 5,511 4,897 4,897 88.8 88.8
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 39 22,528 4,292 4,292 19.1 19.1
829 Sailors and deckhands 21 14,804 6,536 6,536 44.2 44.2
833 Marine engineers 6 5,036 2,223 2,223 44.1 44.1
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 11 7,797 2,069 3,187 26.5 40.9
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 24 13,737 2,329 2,329 17.0 17.0
844 Operating engineers 364 190,534 68,848 72,752 36.1 38.2
845 Longshore equipment operators 4 2,327 2,327 2,327 100.0 100.0
848 Hoist and winch operators 24 13,235 2,989 2,989 22.6 22.6
849 Crane and tower operators 133 77,016 39,839 40,709 51.7 52.9
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 175 95,588 23,182 24,659 24.3 25.8
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 154 86,524 30,735 31,497 35.5 36.4
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 683 428,569 154,678 159,886 36.1 37.3
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 128 68,374 23,633 25,855 34.6 37.8
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS 7,496 4,469,710 1,018,600 1,084,018 22.8 24.3
864 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c. 16 11,159 3,642 3,642 32.6 32.6
865 Helpers, mechanics, and repairers 54 30,384 4,889 4,889 16.1 16.1
866 Helpers, construction trades 184 113,041 12,838 13,547 11.4 12.0
867 Helpers, surveyor 7 4,606 0 0 0.0 0.0
868 Helpers, extractive occupations 3 2,224 0 0 0.0 0.0
869 Construction laborers 1,077 639,713 131,080 143,758 20.5 22.5
874 Production helpers 83 53,119 15,505 16,211 29.2 30.5
875 Garbage collectors 76 42,655 13,095 15,053 30.7 35.3
876 Stevedores 31 19,609 15,108 15,108 77.0 77.0
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,575 916,075 208,441 219,765 22.8 24.0
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 155 92,139 32,149 34,054 34.9 37.0
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,069 673,350 203,688 217,133 30.2 32.2
885 Garage and service station related occupations 356 197,062 8,255 8,255 4.2 4.2
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 368 225,865 29,662 32,258 13.1 14.3
888 Hand packers and packagers 522 310,426 68,099 72,339 21.9 23.3
889 Laborers, except construction 1,920 1,138,283 272,149 288,005 23.9 25.3
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1992. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.