Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1993 (details in table note)  
 
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 20,568 12,441,521 774,615 1,020,538 6.2 8.2
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public administration 19 11,662 579 2,507 5.0 21.5
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 953 567,241 84,837 121,084 15.0 21.3
6 Administrators, protective services 95 55,332 15,520 17,854 28.0 32.3
7 Financial managers 868 522,505 6,807 12,577 1.3 2.4
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 162 94,559 3,100 4,077 3.3 4.3
9 Purchasing managers 192 124,494 6,643 9,044 5.3 7.3
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 737 451,477 1,862 4,612 0.4 1.0
14 Administrators, education and related fields 1,049 610,355 111,634 152,689 18.3 25.0
15 Managers, medicine and health 729 420,533 20,634 26,359 4.9 6.3
17 Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 1,362 840,649 20,560 25,965 2.4 3.1
18 Managers, properties and real estate 541 341,993 13,970 16,837 4.1 4.9
19 Funeral directors 51 37,837 1,543 2,761 4.1 7.3
21 Managers, service organizations, n.e.c. 839 475,366 43,825 52,369 9.2 11.0
22 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 6,759 4,160,723 152,878 201,097 3.7 4.8
23 Accountants and auditors 2,009 1,211,207 73,339 105,180 6.1 8.7
24 Underwriters 173 111,574 0 0 0.0 0.0
25 Other financial officers 1,046 626,727 17,614 26,771 2.8 4.3
26 Management analysts 168 101,074 1,397 2,968 1.4 2.9
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 639 392,122 44,141 47,723 11.3 12.2
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 15 4,873 0 133 0.0 2.7
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 319 193,865 3,335 6,305 1.7 3.3
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 423 255,904 18,940 26,011 7.4 10.2
34 Business and promotion agents 26 13,282 276 276 2.1 2.1
35 Construction inspectors 104 61,336 15,476 17,070 25.2 27.8
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 366 214,702 70,809 82,594 33.0 38.5
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 822 493,664 26,267 31,391 5.3 6.4
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS, EXC. TEACHERS 16,267 9,677,565 1,091,796 1,361,819 11.3 14.1
43 Architects 123 74,975 3,700 3,795 4.9 5.1
44 Aerospace engineers 103 74,658 4,567 8,653 6.1 11.6
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 37 24,720 1,861 2,905 7.5 11.8
46 Mining engineers 11 5,637 0 0 0.0 0.0
47 Petroleum engineers 28 14,764 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 92 56,960 2,550 2,550 4.5 4.5
49 Nuclear engineers 15 6,423 940 940 14.6 14.6
53 Civil engineers 345 194,428 30,978 35,423 15.9 18.2
54 Agricultural engineers 5 3,174 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 783 509,315 47,342 58,001 9.3 11.4
56 Industrial engineers 318 195,662 13,851 15,706 7.1 8.0
57 Mechanical engineers 458 274,161 14,754 17,609 5.4 6.4
58 Marine and naval architects 17 10,784 5,592 5,592 51.9 51.9
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 367 223,120 14,005 19,951 6.3 8.9
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 28 13,490 3,084 3,084 22.9 22.9
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 1,086 693,972 32,464 50,897 4.7 7.3
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 367 233,372 27,929 35,555 12.0 15.2
66 Actuaries 22 13,212 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 35 24,600 1,891 3,486 7.7 14.2
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 5 4,687 496 496 10.6 10.6
69 Physicists and astronomers 50 28,460 1,496 3,170 5.3 11.1
73 Chemists, except biochemists 226 129,127 7,174 9,086 5.6 7.0
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 26 11,414 814 1,561 7.1 13.7
75 Geologists and geodesists 82 49,080 1,757 2,406 3.6 4.9
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 75 40,995 6,136 6,565 15.0 16.0
77 Agricultural and food scientists 58 29,143 843 1,982 2.9 6.8
78 Biological and life scientists 186 102,486 6,926 10,654 6.8 10.4
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 69 29,277 2,130 3,164 7.3 10.8
83 Medical scientists 116 68,684 4,639 5,483 6.8 8.0
84 Physicians 520 316,741 19,262 32,250 6.1 10.2
85 Dentists 27 15,515 0 185 0.0 1.2
86 Veterinarians 50 29,718 867 1,510 2.9 5.1
87 Optometrists 14 6,413 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 1 932 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 12 7,647 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 3,190 1,839,560 295,650 350,381 16.1 19.0
96 Pharmacists 290 172,927 15,912 19,898 9.2 11.5
97 Dietitians 145 89,243 13,452 17,588 15.1 19.7
98 Respiratory therapists 153 97,366 9,974 14,336 10.2 14.7
99 Occupational therapists 73 43,097 5,190 6,770 12.0 15.7
103 Physical therapists 165 96,863 4,852 9,359 5.0 9.7
104 Speech therapists 127 70,652 27,403 32,808 38.8 46.4
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 128 77,957 10,675 11,714 13.7 15.0
106 Physicians' assistants 70 42,751 2,909 3,461 6.8 8.1
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational 348 206,173 72,172 88,849 35.0 43.1
164 Librarians 354 191,498 49,794 61,663 26.0 32.2
165 Archivists and curators 46 28,117 5,750 6,845 20.4 24.3
166 Economists 167 101,015 5,126 7,567 5.1 7.5
167 Psychologists 285 152,835 26,414 29,769 17.3 19.5
168 Sociologists 6 4,454 1,055 1,055 23.7 23.7
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 38 19,678 1,958 3,997 10.0 20.3
173 Urban planners 19 12,248 1,411 1,411 11.5 11.5
174 Social workers 990 580,833 137,879 161,919 23.7 27.9
175 Recreation workers 151 89,596 3,594 6,202 4.0 6.9
176 Clergy 591 339,768 7,526 11,509 2.2 3.4
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 101 60,826 678 762 1.1 1.3
178 Lawyers and Judges 724 421,710 18,879 23,287 4.5 5.5
183 Authors 80 47,846 3,303 4,005 6.9 8.4
184 Technical writers 93 59,443 790 790 1.3 1.3
185 Designers 629 393,617 22,836 31,161 5.8 7.9
186 Musicians and composers 134 89,220 19,074 20,163 21.4 22.6
187 Actors and directors 110 66,510 6,964 7,315 10.5 11.0
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers 146 89,009 5,464 7,637 6.1 8.6
189 Photographers 117 75,457 7,100 8,029 9.4 10.6
193 Dancers 21 13,185 760 1,347 5.8 10.2
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 77 45,194 5,292 7,143 11.7 15.8
195 Editors and reporters 435 248,996 25,988 35,442 10.4 14.2
197 Public relations specialists 260 147,310 11,387 14,073 7.7 9.6
198 Announcers 70 42,508 1,650 2,299 3.9 5.4
199 Athletes 116 66,933 3,659 6,945 5.5 10.4
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,445 791,348 147,904 184,791 18.7 23.4
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 14 5,378 1,620 1,868 30.1 34.7
114 Biological science teachers 53 34,181 9,801 9,801 28.7 28.7
115 Chemistry teachers 39 23,505 4,716 7,102 20.1 30.2
116 Physics teachers 21 11,129 811 811 7.3 7.3
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 2 778 0 0 0.0 0.0
118 Psychology teachers 32 16,876 3,097 3,610 18.4 21.4
119 Economics teachers 41 21,134 3,505 3,505 16.6 16.6
123 History teachers 28 13,630 3,436 3,436 25.2 25.2
124 Political science teachers 24 10,613 2,278 3,599 21.5 33.9
125 Sociology teachers 21 10,611 2,784 3,505 26.2 33.0
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 10 5,558 1,186 1,186 21.3 21.3
127 Engineering teachers 58 28,748 3,090 4,378 10.7 15.2
128 Mathematical science teachers 87 47,450 10,655 15,326 22.5 32.3
129 Computer science teachers 39 18,130 3,064 5,390 16.9 29.7
133 Medical science teachers 22 15,504 1,201 2,131 7.7 13.7
134 Health specialties teachers 68 36,516 6,217 8,202 17.0 22.5
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 49 23,770 5,668 7,697 23.8 32.4
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 7 3,002 0 118 0.0 3.9
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 63 34,345 6,007 8,169 17.5 23.8
138 Physical education teachers 15 7,916 606 2,230 7.7 28.2
139 Education teachers 20 12,837 6,608 7,139 51.5 55.6
143 English teachers 110 58,419 14,399 15,704 24.6 26.9
144 Foreign language teachers 40 25,447 3,842 4,132 15.1 16.2
145 Law teachers 15 8,411 1,019 1,019 12.1 12.1
146 Social work teachers 6 2,533 1,707 1,707 67.4 67.4
147 Theology teachers 19 9,961 2,245 2,245 22.5 22.5
148 Trade and industrial teachers 4 2,958 0 0 0.0 0.0
149 Home economics teachers 1 408 0 0 0.0 0.0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 13 5,315 0 0 0.0 0.0
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 524 296,282 48,340 60,781 16.3 20.5
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 7,281 4,245,908 2,036,343 2,330,071 48.0 54.9
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 826 502,838 103,793 127,224 20.6 25.3
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,909 1,691,004 984,387 1,115,883 58.2 66.0
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,182 1,247,064 711,523 822,187 57.1 65.9
158 Teachers, special education 512 284,323 179,641 198,566 63.2 69.8
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 852 520,679 56,999 66,211 10.9 12.7
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 6,549 3,950,813 451,136 525,890 11.4 13.3
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 541 317,912 32,069 38,192 10.1 12.0
204 Dental hygienists 138 78,272 578 578 0.7 0.7
205 Health record technologists and technicians 112 71,211 6,445 6,800 9.1 9.5
206 Radiologic technicians 237 144,379 10,343 15,544 7.2 10.8
207 Licensed practical nurses 727 437,444 66,100 70,720 15.1 16.2
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 819 492,191 49,119 56,606 10.0 11.5
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 484 300,239 48,693 61,867 16.2 20.6
214 Industrial engineering technicians 6 3,546 88 88 2.5 2.5
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 17 9,677 1,616 1,616 16.7 16.7
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 384 229,722 33,437 37,723 14.6 16.4
217 Drafting occupations 385 241,163 18,136 21,773 7.5 9.0
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 116 66,943 8,724 11,909 13.0 17.8
223 Biological technicians 148 83,560 5,569 5,912 6.7 7.1
224 Chemical technicians 133 76,983 7,717 7,717 10.0 10.0
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 175 100,730 12,846 15,332 12.8 15.2
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 156 94,397 48,833 52,776 51.7 55.9
227 Air traffic controllers 38 22,156 9,001 10,563 40.6 47.7
228 Broadcast equipment operators 50 31,633 9,150 9,662 28.9 30.5
229 Computer programmers 884 564,554 23,381 31,240 4.1 5.5
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 2 753 0 0 0.0 0.0
234 Legal assistants 398 231,309 5,099 6,849 2.2 3.0
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 599 352,038 54,193 62,422 15.4 17.7
SALES OCCUPATIONS 18,901 11,442,488 536,051 621,217 4.7 5.4
243 Supervisors and Proprietors, Sales Occupations 4,423 2,676,189 126,586 149,266 4.7 5.6
253 Insurance sales occupations 617 390,190 8,999 15,706 2.3 4.0
254 Real estate sales occupations 614 380,360 7,945 9,585 2.1 2.5
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 444 273,972 4,287 6,073 1.6 2.2
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 236 143,119 3,598 5,618 2.5 3.9
257 Sales occupations, other business services 713 456,971 19,243 24,829 4.2 5.4
258 Sales engineers 31 18,758 0 0 0.0 0.0
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,074 1,285,304 22,336 35,846 1.7 2.8
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 395 239,004 2,055 3,213 0.9 1.3
264 Sales workers, apparel 717 449,055 4,682 7,049 1.0 1.6
265 Sales workers, shoes 162 102,582 1,955 3,118 1.9 3.0
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 235 138,125 1,802 2,325 1.3 1.7
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 290 187,238 918 918 0.5 0.5
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 389 232,152 4,449 4,720 1.9 2.0
269 Sales workers, parts 256 143,855 2,959 4,111 2.1 2.9
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,226 1,296,120 35,091 39,450 2.7 3.0
275 Sales counter clerks 290 180,433 4,693 5,370 2.6 3.0
276 Cashiers 4,258 2,528,194 283,178 301,385 11.2 11.9
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 286 175,889 0 246 0.0 0.1
278 News vendors 125 74,466 0 104 0.0 0.1
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 86 49,140 759 1,764 1.5 3.6
284 Auctioneers 5 2,747 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 29 18,628 517 517 2.8 2.8
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL 30,084 18,035,532 2,490,628 2,907,105 13.8 16.1
303 Supervisors, general office 764 470,212 62,930 71,144 13.4 15.1
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 37 25,895 858 858 3.3 3.3
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 160 98,810 5,157 6,732 5.2 6.8
306 Chief communications operators 5 2,828 0 0 0.0 0.0
307 Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 266 160,464 24,953 29,876 15.6 18.6
308 Computer operators 933 568,507 72,859 84,574 12.8 14.9
309 Peripheral equipment operators 9 6,016 0 0 0.0 0.0
313 Secretaries 6,009 3,482,713 317,010 399,932 9.1 11.5
314 Stenographers 123 74,537 7,379 9,469 9.9 12.7
315 Typists 800 480,488 76,232 91,010 15.9 18.9
316 Interviewers 250 150,938 3,580 4,291 2.4 2.8
317 Hotel clerks 188 99,604 5,514 6,745 5.5 6.8
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 339 211,073 36,629 39,854 17.4 18.9
319 Receptionists 1,470 896,397 37,474 46,492 4.2 5.2
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 386 243,074 17,531 20,334 7.2 8.4
325 Classified-ad clerks 4 2,130 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 21 11,510 1,133 1,867 9.8 16.2
327 Order clerks 361 226,125 77,282 85,925 34.2 38.0
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 105 59,794 5,298 7,362 8.9 12.3
329 Library clerks 241 136,118 16,946 21,089 12.4 15.5
335 File clerks 464 280,137 24,311 27,639 8.7 9.9
336 Records clerks 283 175,506 28,169 36,591 16.1 20.8
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,620 1,511,633 70,999 89,041 4.7 5.9
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 297 175,245 30,787 34,622 17.6 19.8
339 Billing clerks 264 155,475 14,254 18,155 9.2 11.7
343 Cost and rate clerks 91 56,892 3,030 3,300 5.3 5.8
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 126 70,451 3,427 3,427 4.9 4.9
345 Duplicating machine operators 49 28,539 2,188 2,783 7.7 9.8
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 19 10,438 3,891 4,058 37.3 38.9
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 41 23,546 2,281 2,906 9.7 12.3
348 Telephone operators 337 202,074 66,567 77,701 32.9 38.5
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 22 14,245 4,233 5,843 29.7 41.0
354 Postal clerks, except mail carriers 517 299,553 212,726 239,435 71.0 79.9
355 Mail carriers, postal service 545 336,182 265,290 279,903 78.9 83.3
356 Mail clerks, except postal service 275 155,037 24,084 26,520 15.5 17.1
357 Messengers 252 162,101 12,676 14,088 7.8 8.7
359 Dispatchers 371 228,298 47,530 61,070 20.8 26.8
363 Production coordinators 296 198,871 24,853 28,231 12.5 14.2
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 919 582,301 101,778 109,627 17.5 18.8
365 Stock and inventory clerks 842 516,833 95,754 103,978 18.5 20.1
366 Meter readers 105 61,336 26,215 26,836 42.7 43.8
368 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers 110 71,467 17,278 18,755 24.2 26.2
373 Expediters 363 231,759 23,996 27,510 10.4 11.9
374 Material recording, scheduling, and distributing clerks, n.e.c. 44 22,255 3,019 3,019 13.6 13.6
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 580 370,962 13,503 17,481 3.6 4.7
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 1,247 768,766 40,038 47,203 5.2 6.1
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 149 91,342 29,349 34,785 32.1 38.1
378 Bill and account collectors 283 174,243 12,794 15,454 7.3 8.9
379 General office clerks 1,119 672,387 85,054 94,758 12.6 14.1
383 Bank tellers 790 458,462 7,158 10,809 1.6 2.4
384 Proofreaders 46 31,819 3,273 3,273 10.3 10.3
385 Data-entry keyers 1,053 643,762 76,723 93,231 11.9 14.5
386 Statistical clerks 85 52,492 9,807 12,951 18.7 24.7
387 Teachers' aides 843 498,101 175,587 211,498 35.3 42.5
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 2,166 1,295,791 159,241 193,067 12.3 14.9
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD OCCUPATIONS 1,456 886,296 4,869 6,579 0.5 0.7
403 Launderers and ironers 1 278 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 10 6,855 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 34 22,401 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 560 336,353 568 568 0.2 0.2
407 Private household cleaners and servants 851 520,408 4,301 6,011 0.8 1.2
PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 3,423 2,178,377 873,161 937,060 40.1 43.0
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 56 36,403 25,198 27,467 69.2 75.5
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 149 96,645 55,708 60,222 57.6 62.3
415 Supervisors, guards 72 48,597 3,183 5,032 6.5 10.4
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 42 20,786 11,533 11,533 55.5 55.5
417 Firefighting occupations 300 189,043 141,069 144,301 74.6 76.3
418 Police and detectives, public service 799 516,149 309,989 326,507 60.1 63.3
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 201 120,794 48,041 52,295 39.8 43.3
424 Correctional institution officers 460 317,927 167,534 180,733 52.7 56.8
425 Crossing guards 83 48,134 12,997 13,422 27.0 27.9
426 Guards and police, except public service 1,116 700,840 90,346 107,623 12.9 15.4
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 145 83,061 7,565 7,925 9.1 9.5
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PROTECTIVE AND HOUSEHOLD 20,987 12,306,317 1,249,159 1,411,239 10.2 11.5
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 554 320,608 20,094 26,314 6.3 8.2
434 Bartenders 535 303,271 9,375 11,407 3.1 3.8
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,443 1,396,367 42,210 46,464 3.0 3.3
436 Cooks 3,236 1,921,114 126,115 140,584 6.6 7.3
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 632 370,074 4,527 4,527 1.2 1.2
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 435 261,153 39,229 40,174 15.0 15.4
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 590 349,767 29,349 31,711 8.4 9.1
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,099 638,765 68,950 77,545 10.8 12.1
445 Dental assistants 323 183,292 2,657 3,774 1.4 2.1
446 Health aides, except nursing 549 311,146 49,532 52,640 15.9 16.9
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,846 1,661,243 227,476 260,623 13.7 15.7
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 241 148,299 12,584 14,901 8.5 10.0
449 Maids and housemen 1,114 644,946 85,532 95,391 13.3 14.8
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,254 1,959,488 356,816 405,019 18.2 20.7
454 Elevator operators 20 12,142 4,041 4,041 33.3 33.3
455 Pest control occupations 62 42,184 2,046 2,126 4.8 5.0
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 117 70,264 5,403 6,205 7.7 8.8
457 Barbers 44 35,370 1,268 1,268 3.6 3.6
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 702 427,979 3,898 6,054 0.9 1.4
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 316 150,659 10,191 11,245 6.8 7.5
461 Guides 60 35,131 3,065 3,065 8.7 8.7
462 Ushers 40 28,589 1,273 1,273 4.5 4.5
463 Public transportation attendants 154 101,992 71,574 73,972 70.2 72.5
464 Baggage porters and bellhops 54 30,705 10,098 10,413 32.9 33.9
465 Welfare service aides 138 75,934 10,695 13,492 14.1 17.8
466 Family child care providers 16 11,376 0 0 0.0 0.0
467 Early childhood teacher's assistants 739 423,488 15,187 21,893 3.6 5.2
468 Child care workers, n.e.c. 394 220,210 21,322 26,866 9.7 12.2
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 280 170,762 14,653 18,249 8.6 10.7
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 2,894 1,759,308 90,152 99,795 5.1 5.7
473 Farmers, except horticulture 9 5,560 260 260 4.7 4.7
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 79 39,097 648 648 1.7 1.7
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 3 2,500 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 50 35,566 859 859 2.4 2.4
479 Farm workers 1,154 682,215 10,629 13,337 1.6 2.0
483 Marine life cultivation workers 6 2,152 67 67 3.1 3.1
484 Nursery workers 50 28,766 559 559 1.9 1.9
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 84 61,165 5,612 5,612 9.2 9.2
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 1,043 650,427 65,503 71,210 10.1 10.9
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 145 86,765 2,395 3,151 2.8 3.6
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 68 47,576 2,113 2,113 4.4 4.4
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 4 1,805 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 15 8,261 184 184 2.2 2.2
495 Forestry workers, except logging 31 16,513 564 564 3.4 3.4
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 111 66,242 207 207 0.3 0.3
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 5 2,794 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 36 21,332 550 1,024 2.6 4.8
499 Hunters and trappers 1 573 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR, EXC. CONSTRUCTION 12,201 7,472,443 1,813,023 1,939,886 24.3 26.0
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 364 212,222 22,083 28,449 10.4 13.4
505 Automobile mechanics 1,034 644,456 59,459 65,393 9.2 10.1
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 536 322,154 92,303 98,922 28.7 30.7
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 197 135,280 57,439 65,624 42.5 48.5
509 Small engine repairers 86 55,415 3,146 4,089 5.7 7.4
514 Automobile body and related repairers 225 136,725 9,286 9,286 6.8 6.8
515 Aircraft mechanics, except engine 21 17,414 9,001 11,295 51.7 64.9
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 250 147,903 46,095 47,595 31.2 32.2
517 Farm equipment mechanics 53 27,045 1,352 1,352 5.0 5.0
518 Industrial machinery repairers 862 546,712 175,255 180,846 32.1 33.1
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 46 25,970 8,963 11,207 34.5 43.2
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 212 128,904 32,339 33,933 25.1 26.3
525 Data processing equipment repairers 224 143,376 10,367 12,529 7.2 8.7
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 44 25,920 1,734 1,734 6.7 6.7
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 79 44,757 31,735 31,735 70.9 70.9
529 Telephone installers and repairers 310 193,755 120,138 124,741 62.0 64.4
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 98 61,796 23,075 27,306 37.3 44.2
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 340 213,111 54,306 55,717 25.5 26.1
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 36 22,457 2,883 2,883 12.8 12.8
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 13 10,383 3,539 3,539 34.1 34.1
538 Office machine repairers 91 56,587 4,732 5,291 8.4 9.3
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 26 19,630 10,785 10,785 54.9 54.9
543 Elevator installers and repairers 37 26,325 21,436 21,436 81.4 81.4
544 Millwrights 149 88,191 56,408 58,341 64.0 66.2
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 613 383,982 90,264 96,267 23.5 25.1
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 309 175,457 48,689 50,068 27.7 28.5
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 83 42,410 1,060 1,060 2.5 2.5
614 Drillers, oil well 45 25,709 1,980 2,863 7.7 11.1
615 Explosives workers 12 8,073 2,167 2,167 26.8 26.8
616 Mining machine operators 88 41,657 19,790 20,891 47.5 50.1
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 48 27,408 9,362 10,531 34.2 38.4
628 Supervisors, production occupations 1,928 1,201,917 162,569 185,106 13.5 15.4
634 Tool and die makers 196 118,816 41,762 42,976 35.1 36.2
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 5 2,855 559 559 19.6 19.6
636 Precision assemblers, metal 35 22,976 6,816 6,816 29.7 29.7
637 Machinists 660 426,809 126,372 134,950 29.6 31.6
639 Machinist apprentices 2 1,677 0 0 0.0 0.0
643 Boilermakers 30 19,403 12,378 12,919 63.8 66.6
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 26 14,367 3,284 3,284 22.9 22.9
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 11 6,425 4,236 4,236 65.9 65.9
646 Lay-out workers 21 10,987 5,220 6,439 47.5 58.6
647 Precious stones and metals workers (Jewelers) 80 40,230 1,444 1,444 3.6 3.6
649 Engravers, metal 11 5,954 480 480 8.1 8.1
653 Sheet metal workers 153 93,566 37,014 42,378 39.6 45.3
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 3 1,302 117 645 9.0 49.6
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 3 1,995 631 631 31.6 31.6
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 9 4,654 522 1,181 11.2 25.4
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 80 48,148 5,521 6,353 11.5 13.2
658 Furniture and wood finishers 41 23,460 5,889 6,431 25.1 27.4
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 1 116 0 0 0.0 0.0
666 Dressmakers 76 41,826 3,019 3,019 7.2 7.2
667 Tailors 43 23,229 4,213 4,213 18.1 18.1
668 Upholsterers 62 40,209 564 564 1.4 1.4
669 Shoe repairers 20 12,765 3,065 3,065 24.0 24.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 10 6,740 0 0 0.0 0.0
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 18 14,330 3,098 3,098 21.6 21.6
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 23 16,034 2,024 2,024 12.6 12.6
677 Optical goods workers 87 52,175 3,282 3,867 6.3 7.4
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 65 40,835 0 0 0.0 0.0
679 Bookbinders 53 31,191 6,028 6,028 19.3 19.3
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 503 311,962 75,783 76,720 24.3 24.6
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 13 8,924 2,355 2,355 26.4 26.4
686 Butchers and meat cutters 468 270,560 79,882 81,909 29.5 30.3
687 Bakers 153 90,053 21,221 21,613 23.6 24.0
688 Food batchmakers 78 43,726 11,884 11,884 27.2 27.2
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 203 127,420 36,337 39,643 28.5 31.1
693 Adjusters and calibrators 20 10,297 887 887 8.6 8.6
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 96 57,753 16,295 19,167 28.2 33.2
695 Power plant operators 100 51,323 28,675 30,602 55.9 59.6
696 Stationary engineers 214 126,343 54,493 58,274 43.1 46.1
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 70 37,908 13,937 16,254 36.8 42.9
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 5,721 3,551,856 1,011,943 1,057,377 28.5 29.8
553 Supervisors, brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 9 6,802 3,876 3,876 57.0 57.0
554 Supervisors, carpenters and related workers 21 12,885 5,963 5,963 46.3 46.3
555 Supervisors, electricians and power transmission installers 59 34,119 10,322 11,427 30.3 33.5
556 Supervisors, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 3 1,628 1,127 1,127 69.2 69.2
557 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 21 14,796 5,871 6,291 39.7 42.5
558 Supervisors, construction, n.e.c. 660 403,512 98,857 106,058 24.5 26.3
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 216 139,861 31,517 33,681 22.5 24.1
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 3 1,910 1,910 1,910 100.0 100.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 36 20,416 2,125 2,125 10.4 10.4
566 Carpet installers 93 59,885 8,902 10,618 14.9 17.7
567 Carpenters 1,337 803,628 160,364 166,373 20.0 20.7
569 Carpenter apprentices 7 3,372 909 909 27.0 27.0
573 Drywall installers 155 97,834 19,072 19,072 19.5 19.5
575 Electricians 885 541,893 242,009 247,897 44.7 45.7
576 Electrician apprentices 35 19,547 8,839 8,839 45.2 45.2
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 188 112,473 74,677 77,228 66.4 68.7
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 480 313,553 58,513 60,713 18.7 19.4
583 Paperhangers 11 5,964 1,777 1,777 29.8 29.8
584 Plasterers 44 27,317 5,478 5,478 20.1 20.1
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 546 339,468 125,543 133,922 37.0 39.5
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 18 11,786 3,503 3,503 29.7 29.7
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 100 67,661 11,677 12,344 17.3 18.2
589 Glaziers 51 29,739 6,815 6,815 22.9 22.9
593 Insulation workers 84 54,541 17,657 18,787 32.4 34.4
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 14 8,709 2,060 2,060 23.6 23.6
595 Roofers 246 161,869 18,354 22,140 11.3 13.7
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 38 25,481 9,495 9,842 37.3 38.6
597 Structural metal workers 72 43,027 24,179 24,665 56.2 57.3
598 Drillers, earth 29 14,054 3,374 3,374 24.0 24.0
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 260 174,130 47,179 48,564 27.1 27.9
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 11,924 7,265,137 1,819,043 1,909,259 25.0 26.3
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 22 12,950 6,362 6,362 49.1 49.1
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 83 49,642 15,729 17,547 31.7 35.3
705 Milling and planing machine operators 13 7,547 1,533 2,477 20.3 32.8
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 157 94,644 31,985 34,876 33.8 36.8
707 Rolling machine operators 14 8,927 4,392 4,392 49.2 49.2
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 38 24,562 6,240 7,867 25.4 32.0
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 219 127,076 37,711 39,243 29.7 30.9
713 Forging machine operators 21 13,503 6,511 6,511 48.2 48.2
714 Numerical control machine operators 14 7,880 4,401 4,401 55.9 55.9
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 64 40,753 12,912 12,912 31.7 31.7
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 42 27,373 9,432 10,085 34.5 36.8
719 Molding and casting machine operators 147 91,539 17,748 18,461 19.4 20.2
723 Metal plating machine operators 34 19,733 3,928 3,928 19.9 19.9
724 Heat treating equipment operators 16 10,946 5,210 5,210 47.6 47.6
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 31 19,667 3,215 3,215 16.3 16.3
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 17 7,738 971 971 12.5 12.5
727 Sawing machine operators 144 84,420 8,563 8,563 10.1 10.1
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 3 1,314 0 0 0.0 0.0
729 Nailing and tacking machine operators 2 1,470 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 50 28,843 2,538 3,905 8.8 13.5
734 Printing press operators 436 267,668 64,844 65,661 24.2 24.5
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 49 32,301 4,073 4,073 12.6 12.6
736 Typesetters and compositors 84 55,165 2,701 3,567 4.9 6.5
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 47 28,247 3,570 4,341 12.6 15.4
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 92 49,400 7,771 7,771 15.7 15.7
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 80 41,453 1,419 1,419 3.4 3.4
743 Textile cutting machine operators 8 5,250 0 0 0.0 0.0
744 Textile sewing machine operators 1,006 602,182 80,296 84,242 13.3 14.0
745 Shoe machine operators 34 17,053 5,474 5,474 32.1 32.1
747 Pressing machine operators 234 153,395 18,321 19,558 11.9 12.8
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 331 194,928 26,461 29,453 13.6 15.1
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 102 57,620 10,566 10,861 18.3 18.8
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 35 20,924 4,878 4,878 23.3 23.3
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 576 351,785 96,685 100,796 27.5 28.7
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 47 30,451 7,653 9,322 25.1 30.6
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 188 110,612 27,665 28,002 25.0 25.3
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 86 49,991 23,585 25,221 47.2 50.5
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 31 17,451 4,599 5,164 26.4 29.6
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 300 199,362 48,163 48,704 24.2 24.4
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 11 7,353 1,120 1,120 15.2 15.2
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 17 9,156 3,291 3,658 35.9 39.9
765 Folding machine operators 30 17,445 2,550 2,550 14.6 14.6
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food 132 80,442 44,393 45,726 55.2 56.8
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 58 37,993 8,998 10,185 23.7 26.8
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 305 186,479 37,788 39,608 20.3 21.2
773 Motion picture projectionists 11 7,270 561 561 7.7 7.7
774 Photographic process machine operators 130 77,794 6,074 7,545 7.8 9.7
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,644 1,000,112 328,666 340,339 32.9 34.0
779 Machine operators, not specified 505 299,393 91,822 102,018 30.7 34.1
783 Welders and cutters 820 519,025 156,419 164,464 30.1 31.7
784 Solderers and brazers 40 21,546 1,739 2,317 8.1 10.8
785 Assemblers 1,803 1,113,981 329,058 341,156 29.5 30.6
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 20 11,788 1,602 2,173 13.6 18.4
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 26 14,379 4,175 4,810 29.0 33.5
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 46 22,023 6,507 6,507 29.5 29.5
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 26 16,923 2,213 2,213 13.1 13.1
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 117 61,417 7,655 7,841 12.5 12.8
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 933 575,503 123,125 128,997 21.4 22.4
797 Production testers 78 54,488 16,124 16,124 29.6 29.6
798 Production samplers and weighers 20 9,772 3,832 3,832 39.2 39.2
799 Graders and sorters, except agricultural 255 155,090 23,227 26,080 15.0 16.8
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,526 4,552,418 1,220,445 1,290,710 26.8 28.4
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 117 77,100 6,646 9,581 8.6 12.4
804 Truck drivers 4,182 2,521,092 528,209 558,677 21.0 22.2
806 Driver-sales workers 282 160,662 37,845 39,073 23.6 24.3
808 Bus drivers 782 499,286 188,022 205,193 37.7 41.1
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 249 152,063 13,292 14,874 8.7 9.8
813 Parking lot attendants 65 39,953 9,389 11,208 23.5 28.1
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 8 5,862 0 0 0.0 0.0
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 80 39,754 33,587 33,587 84.5 84.5
824 Locomotive operating occupations 82 43,481 36,542 37,070 84.0 85.3
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 44 21,068 17,435 17,435 82.8 82.8
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 4 2,678 2,678 2,678 100.0 100.0
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 41 24,268 7,991 7,991 32.9 32.9
829 Sailors and deckhands 34 24,967 7,621 7,621 30.5 30.5
833 Marine engineers 4 2,248 460 940 20.5 41.8
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 11 7,030 4,347 5,045 61.8 71.8
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 12 8,641 3,345 3,345 38.7 38.7
844 Operating engineers 329 176,157 54,507 56,007 30.9 31.8
845 Longshore equipment operators 6 2,769 2,210 2,210 79.8 79.8
848 Hoist and winch operators 30 15,765 2,656 3,608 16.8 22.9
849 Crane and tower operators 126 81,122 51,919 52,490 64.0 64.7
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 150 82,183 19,038 20,538 23.2 25.0
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 131 76,345 18,096 18,929 23.7 24.8
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 651 423,881 149,991 157,358 35.4 37.1
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 106 64,043 24,619 25,251 38.4 39.4
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS 7,340 4,498,189 987,789 1,043,042 22.0 23.2
864 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c. 26 13,994 291 291 2.1 2.1
865 Helpers, mechanics, and repairers 56 35,197 4,610 6,075 13.1 17.3
866 Helpers, construction trades 169 111,902 15,101 15,101 13.5 13.5
867 Helpers, surveyor 17 9,554 0 320 0.0 3.4
868 Helpers, extractive occupations 4 909 773 773 85.1 85.1
869 Construction laborers 1,033 630,811 127,644 140,319 20.2 22.2
874 Production helpers 77 48,637 11,415 11,785 23.5 24.2
875 Garbage collectors 79 51,696 20,286 21,312 39.2 41.2
876 Stevedores 18 12,018 11,902 11,902 99.0 99.0
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,697 1,046,692 200,748 207,612 19.2 19.8
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 121 72,199 18,664 19,882 25.9 27.5
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,033 631,844 205,101 216,300 32.5 34.2
885 Garage and service station related occupations 316 190,460 8,501 11,310 4.5 5.9
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 345 227,824 33,965 35,453 14.9 15.6
888 Hand packers and packagers 533 330,710 64,536 66,463 19.5 20.1
889 Laborers, except construction 1,816 1,083,741 264,252 278,143 24.4 25.7
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1993. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.