Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1994 (details in table note)  
 
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 20,834 13,102,876 827,731 1,073,199 6.3 8.2
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public administration 21 13,765 1,032 1,032 7.5 7.5
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 1,036 627,825 113,190 153,584 18.0 24.5
6 Administrators, protective services 95 52,575 13,398 13,730 25.5 26.1
7 Financial managers 903 588,202 9,758 15,145 1.7 2.6
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 162 102,994 4,106 5,822 4.0 5.7
9 Purchasing managers 175 118,451 5,200 6,808 4.4 5.7
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 822 534,461 2,724 5,667 0.5 1.1
14 Administrators, education and related fields 1,043 631,793 111,793 144,861 17.7 22.9
15 Managers, medicine and health 941 574,385 27,826 33,290 4.8 5.8
17 Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 1,307 829,599 20,229 25,955 2.4 3.1
18 Managers, properties and real estate 500 329,281 17,214 19,895 5.2 6.0
19 Funeral directors 48 31,821 1,110 1,110 3.5 3.5
21 Managers, service organizations, n.e.c. 821 503,118 39,680 50,360 7.9 10.0
22 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 6,778 4,253,844 136,454 178,190 3.2 4.2
23 Accountants and auditors 2,062 1,313,321 89,655 120,389 6.8 9.2
24 Underwriters 138 86,062 0 0 0.0 0.0
25 Other financial officers 1,048 668,381 20,757 27,010 3.1 4.0
26 Management analysts 192 126,466 4,739 8,525 3.7 6.7
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 619 390,099 44,663 51,268 11.4 13.1
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 28 15,393 108 108 0.7 0.7
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 319 200,944 2,204 2,705 1.1 1.3
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 354 222,854 18,168 25,217 8.2 11.3
34 Business and promotion agents 28 17,036 763 763 4.5 4.5
35 Construction inspectors 101 63,468 21,540 23,976 33.9 37.8
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 353 224,946 66,702 80,479 29.7 35.8
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 828 527,052 29,308 46,940 5.6 8.9
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS, EXC. TEACHERS 16,947 10,464,731 1,154,108 1,429,573 11.0 13.7
43 Architects 134 84,784 2,488 5,102 2.9 6.0
44 Aerospace engineers 97 74,572 6,435 10,854 8.6 14.6
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 53 32,972 1,758 1,758 5.3 5.3
46 Mining engineers 14 6,597 0 0 0.0 0.0
47 Petroleum engineers 39 26,245 962 1,247 3.7 4.8
48 Chemical engineers 96 53,319 872 1,566 1.6 2.9
49 Nuclear engineers 18 8,978 237 237 2.6 2.6
53 Civil engineers 366 209,320 30,336 35,125 14.5 16.8
54 Agricultural engineers 5 2,377 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 832 535,161 26,182 39,352 4.9 7.4
56 Industrial engineers 371 245,772 10,893 16,524 4.4 6.7
57 Mechanical engineers 506 324,222 17,031 25,726 5.3 7.9
58 Marine and naval architects 17 10,133 2,656 3,189 26.2 31.5
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 374 235,155 9,955 12,235 4.2 5.2
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 32 17,005 1,028 1,028 6.0 6.0
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 1,247 846,428 23,619 48,876 2.8 5.8
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 341 225,297 17,899 23,467 7.9 10.4
66 Actuaries 17 10,798 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 42 26,785 2,989 3,673 11.2 13.7
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 11 7,007 0 0 0.0 0.0
69 Physicists and astronomers 46 24,569 930 1,752 3.8 7.1
73 Chemists, except biochemists 233 143,316 7,296 9,871 5.1 6.9
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 21 11,946 857 2,105 7.2 17.6
75 Geologists and geodesists 89 48,128 2,427 2,427 5.0 5.0
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 57 33,834 1,465 1,465 4.3 4.3
77 Agricultural and food scientists 62 30,556 3,217 3,217 10.5 10.5
78 Biological and life scientists 203 124,218 10,976 11,939 8.8 9.6
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 72 37,925 5,231 8,216 13.8 21.7
83 Medical scientists 99 64,411 2,558 3,136 4.0 4.9
84 Physicians 635 385,690 18,373 31,027 4.8 8.0
85 Dentists 45 24,501 1,965 2,751 8.0 11.2
86 Veterinarians 41 26,516 1,645 2,306 6.2 8.7
87 Optometrists 17 10,626 441 441 4.2 4.2
88 Podiatrists 2 1,316 0 703 0.0 53.4
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 11 7,037 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 3,214 1,933,338 333,553 388,533 17.3 20.1
96 Pharmacists 254 158,353 12,876 16,770 8.1 10.6
97 Dietitians 132 78,971 8,562 12,438 10.8 15.8
98 Respiratory therapists 148 97,418 7,356 9,057 7.6 9.3
99 Occupational therapists 67 41,336 2,778 2,778 6.7 6.7
103 Physical therapists 153 92,096 5,677 8,048 6.2 8.7
104 Speech therapists 146 87,294 37,702 43,647 43.2 50.0
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 116 74,510 14,941 15,276 20.1 20.5
106 Physicians' assistants 86 51,763 1,460 4,547 2.8 8.8
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational 395 232,739 84,938 104,769 36.5 45.0
164 Librarians 360 201,126 43,616 51,367 21.7 25.5
165 Archivists and curators 38 23,383 1,634 3,132 7.0 13.4
166 Economists 154 92,411 5,674 8,428 6.1 9.1
167 Psychologists 334 205,178 38,464 47,414 18.7 23.1
168 Sociologists 5 3,126 2,082 3,126 66.6 100.0
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 41 26,147 2,952 2,952 11.3 11.3
173 Urban planners 25 18,656 4,079 4,079 21.9 21.9
174 Social workers 1,058 633,225 170,507 191,204 26.9 30.2
175 Recreation workers 177 111,147 4,966 5,996 4.5 5.4
176 Clergy 593 372,096 9,299 11,520 2.5 3.1
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 108 69,515 0 1,778 0.0 2.6
178 Lawyers and Judges 771 472,988 26,676 35,947 5.6 7.6
183 Authors 70 39,077 3,919 5,163 10.0 13.2
184 Technical writers 103 70,567 2,626 3,168 3.7 4.5
185 Designers 650 410,785 20,770 22,034 5.1 5.4
186 Musicians and composers 133 84,629 12,440 13,463 14.7 15.9
187 Actors and directors 98 60,717 12,595 12,595 20.7 20.7
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers 159 91,768 7,753 10,140 8.4 11.0
189 Photographers 124 82,792 4,088 5,572 4.9 6.7
193 Dancers 30 20,404 1,201 1,201 5.9 5.9
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 94 58,990 6,320 7,311 10.7 12.4
195 Editors and reporters 395 232,836 25,392 30,660 10.9 13.2
197 Public relations specialists 236 138,200 7,064 11,337 5.1 8.2
198 Announcers 77 41,615 6,823 6,823 16.4 16.4
199 Athletes 99 60,437 7,842 11,491 13.0 19.0
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,449 840,601 143,154 196,975 17.0 23.4
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 12 5,443 885 885 16.3 16.3
114 Biological science teachers 60 33,588 6,174 8,760 18.4 26.1
115 Chemistry teachers 34 21,016 1,756 4,339 8.4 20.6
116 Physics teachers 26 15,828 1,793 2,023 11.3 12.8
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 3 1,527 0 0 0.0 0.0
118 Psychology teachers 35 17,257 3,276 4,281 19.0 24.8
119 Economics teachers 39 22,524 3,048 3,792 13.5 16.8
123 History teachers 21 15,107 2,411 3,265 16.0 21.6
124 Political science teachers 17 9,086 1,839 3,023 20.2 33.3
125 Sociology teachers 13 12,039 1,259 1,259 10.5 10.5
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 20 15,230 3,915 5,721 25.7 37.6
127 Engineering teachers 59 31,836 6,113 9,188 19.2 28.9
128 Mathematical science teachers 82 47,940 5,040 11,784 10.5 24.6
129 Computer science teachers 34 17,307 2,258 3,255 13.0 18.8
133 Medical science teachers 24 14,100 1,687 3,776 12.0 26.8
134 Health specialties teachers 68 35,539 7,570 11,193 21.3 31.5
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 44 22,222 5,958 6,419 26.8 28.9
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 9 4,234 408 1,201 9.6 28.4
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 58 33,137 7,714 8,098 23.3 24.4
138 Physical education teachers 11 6,333 579 1,528 9.1 24.1
139 Education teachers 24 13,379 3,798 4,403 28.4 32.9
143 English teachers 107 65,838 17,676 18,819 26.8 28.6
144 Foreign language teachers 31 17,125 1,098 3,112 6.4 18.2
145 Law teachers 20 12,560 0 375 0.0 3.0
146 Social work teachers 4 2,059 1,641 1,641 79.7 79.7
147 Theology teachers 22 12,889 1,115 1,115 8.6 8.6
148 Trade and industrial teachers 9 4,186 1,465 1,465 35.0 35.0
149 Home economics teachers 3 807 0 0 0.0 0.0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 15 8,354 556 1,687 6.7 20.2
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 545 322,112 52,125 70,570 16.2 21.9
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,926 4,134,704 1,976,670 2,239,216 47.8 54.2
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 766 480,379 111,228 125,343 23.2 26.1
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,702 1,635,108 931,531 1,052,956 57.0 64.4
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,067 1,189,715 696,675 790,729 58.6 66.5
158 Teachers, special education 518 300,931 189,810 214,572 63.1 71.3
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 873 528,571 47,425 55,617 9.0 10.5
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 6,086 3,765,520 428,189 505,439 11.4 13.4
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 547 332,803 30,606 38,828 9.2 11.7
204 Dental hygienists 154 91,540 1,724 2,850 1.9 3.1
205 Health record technologists and technicians 57 32,233 3,851 4,433 11.9 13.8
206 Radiologic technicians 249 154,224 12,868 15,809 8.3 10.3
207 Licensed practical nurses 657 390,471 53,448 64,244 13.7 16.5
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 879 562,829 57,235 67,947 10.2 12.1
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 492 306,371 56,938 68,373 18.6 22.3
214 Industrial engineering technicians 7 5,183 2,706 2,706 52.2 52.2
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 26 16,882 2,749 2,749 16.3 16.3
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 436 264,819 30,730 38,506 11.6 14.5
217 Drafting occupations 349 221,391 15,766 18,474 7.1 8.3
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 103 59,896 8,908 10,293 14.9 17.2
223 Biological technicians 135 82,735 6,045 6,358 7.3 7.7
224 Chemical technicians 126 77,993 11,831 11,831 15.2 15.2
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 165 99,921 14,556 15,671 14.6 15.7
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 159 105,426 55,367 56,425 52.5 53.5
227 Air traffic controllers 44 23,723 14,513 17,912 61.2 75.5
228 Broadcast equipment operators 42 24,352 5,780 5,780 23.7 23.7
229 Computer programmers 827 529,936 20,560 30,549 3.9 5.8
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 8 4,699 0 0 0.0 0.0
234 Legal assistants 432 259,893 10,200 11,955 3.9 4.6
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 192 118,203 11,809 13,748 10.0 11.6
SALES OCCUPATIONS 18,858 11,982,418 583,816 661,275 4.9 5.5
243 Supervisors and Proprietors, Sales Occupations 4,787 3,001,164 140,394 156,375 4.7 5.2
253 Insurance sales occupations 622 407,743 17,949 24,529 4.4 6.0
254 Real estate sales occupations 599 386,781 9,747 14,157 2.5 3.7
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 482 313,347 3,122 4,033 1.0 1.3
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 219 132,772 7,625 9,425 5.7 7.1
257 Sales occupations, other business services 686 450,219 21,007 25,483 4.7 5.7
258 Sales engineers 41 26,173 0 0 0.0 0.0
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 1,950 1,246,711 25,762 30,413 2.1 2.4
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 382 247,926 1,389 1,389 0.6 0.6
264 Sales workers, apparel 627 407,174 13,420 14,251 3.3 3.5
265 Sales workers, shoes 167 111,182 2,890 3,855 2.6 3.5
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 225 135,866 1,438 2,890 1.1 2.1
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 298 210,770 706 706 0.3 0.3
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 396 243,310 3,406 5,494 1.4 2.3
269 Sales workers, parts 254 157,618 3,762 5,386 2.4 3.4
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,005 1,249,812 37,958 40,875 3.0 3.3
275 Sales counter clerks 303 198,817 4,428 5,885 2.2 3.0
276 Cashiers 4,271 2,716,437 279,943 305,210 10.3 11.2
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 285 177,063 5,213 6,813 2.9 3.8
278 News vendors 155 91,219 1,995 2,444 2.2 2.7
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 80 55,622 1,662 1,662 3.0 3.0
284 Auctioneers 4 2,137 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 20 12,556 0 0 0.0 0.0
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL 28,433 17,755,135 2,452,862 2,874,129 13.8 16.2
303 Supervisors, general office 734 461,453 61,109 75,532 13.2 16.4
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 40 25,662 893 1,984 3.5 7.7
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 166 96,646 3,263 5,450 3.4 5.6
306 Chief communications operators 5 3,340 0 0 0.0 0.0
307 Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 255 166,105 32,800 39,200 19.7 23.6
308 Computer operators 861 544,695 56,205 68,129 10.3 12.5
309 Peripheral equipment operators 7 4,289 0 0 0.0 0.0
313 Secretaries 5,340 3,200,788 271,615 326,897 8.5 10.2
314 Stenographers 121 74,846 8,879 9,193 11.9 12.3
315 Typists 1,007 623,274 85,761 99,540 13.8 16.0
316 Interviewers 233 155,981 8,393 9,154 5.4 5.9
317 Hotel clerks 189 114,917 4,617 4,617 4.0 4.0
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 364 226,897 31,871 34,352 14.0 15.1
319 Receptionists 1,425 918,480 44,328 54,668 4.8 6.0
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 410 268,244 21,010 26,482 7.8 9.9
325 Classified-ad clerks 4 1,578 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 21 11,794 674 1,153 5.7 9.8
327 Order clerks 308 203,057 62,131 70,487 30.6 34.7
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 105 71,867 10,228 14,530 14.2 20.2
329 Library clerks 245 147,089 19,677 26,852 13.4 18.3
335 File clerks 413 272,036 20,640 25,992 7.6 9.6
336 Records clerks 278 177,363 22,938 30,717 12.9 17.3
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,383 1,414,057 72,686 88,691 5.1 6.3
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 244 152,947 20,239 23,906 13.2 15.6
339 Billing clerks 260 166,802 15,078 17,108 9.0 10.3
343 Cost and rate clerks 77 49,909 6,929 7,805 13.9 15.6
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 114 67,315 4,934 6,022 7.3 8.9
345 Duplicating machine operators 40 27,822 1,457 1,457 5.2 5.2
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 13 7,360 1,802 1,802 24.5 24.5
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 46 28,195 3,473 3,473 12.3 12.3
348 Telephone operators 270 163,028 53,411 55,127 32.8 33.8
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 17 14,461 1,443 1,443 10.0 10.0
354 Postal clerks, except mail carriers 496 303,589 234,087 259,828 77.1 85.6
355 Mail carriers, postal service 563 359,807 294,228 310,928 81.8 86.4
356 Mail clerks, except postal service 275 166,066 23,385 26,447 14.1 15.9
357 Messengers 215 137,972 5,867 5,867 4.3 4.3
359 Dispatchers 344 221,970 37,152 44,777 16.7 20.2
363 Production coordinators 292 192,791 25,363 29,171 13.2 15.1
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 870 571,084 100,083 107,563 17.5 18.8
365 Stock and inventory clerks 688 443,233 73,277 85,442 16.5 19.3
366 Meter readers 84 52,554 23,761 24,217 45.2 46.1
368 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers 102 65,200 12,901 15,925 19.8 24.4
373 Expediters 294 176,947 23,209 26,663 13.1 15.1
374 Material recording, scheduling, and distributing clerks, n.e.c. 33 21,394 3,984 4,942 18.6 23.1
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 538 345,440 14,460 19,375 4.2 5.6
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 1,219 789,522 42,728 53,668 5.4 6.8
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 173 108,333 35,661 41,364 32.9 38.2
378 Bill and account collectors 246 155,531 9,658 10,521 6.2 6.8
379 General office clerks 1,049 672,251 85,800 101,776 12.8 15.1
383 Bank tellers 676 424,291 4,709 12,590 1.1 3.0
384 Proofreaders 35 22,978 1,606 1,960 7.0 8.5
385 Data-entry keyers 978 633,355 63,714 79,696 10.1 12.6
386 Statistical clerks 108 75,223 10,814 13,566 14.4 18.0
387 Teachers' aides 944 574,814 183,006 221,813 31.8 38.6
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 2,216 1,378,491 194,923 244,267 14.1 17.7
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD OCCUPATIONS 1,228 796,577 6,058 8,710 0.8 1.1
403 Launderers and ironers 1 622 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 14 8,557 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 24 16,130 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 424 271,892 2,842 4,324 1.0 1.6
407 Private household cleaners and servants 765 499,376 3,215 4,386 0.6 0.9
PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 3,370 2,232,568 925,289 984,140 41.4 44.1
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 76 50,625 33,947 37,326 67.1 73.7
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 158 106,626 60,613 64,033 56.8 60.1
415 Supervisors, guards 86 62,328 3,060 3,060 4.9 4.9
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 35 18,005 8,398 8,398 46.6 46.6
417 Firefighting occupations 309 198,501 151,739 154,759 76.4 78.0
418 Police and detectives, public service 825 529,567 354,798 369,233 67.0 69.7
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 195 127,946 49,270 54,006 38.5 42.2
424 Correctional institution officers 428 303,581 159,007 170,774 52.4 56.3
425 Crossing guards 67 39,881 9,657 10,038 24.2 25.2
426 Guards and police, except public service 1,039 694,296 84,651 99,762 12.2 14.4
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 152 101,212 10,149 12,751 10.0 12.6
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PROTECTIVE AND HOUSEHOLD 20,242 12,564,619 1,290,636 1,446,763 10.3 11.5
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 585 371,951 23,052 27,723 6.2 7.5
434 Bartenders 518 293,475 8,846 9,089 3.0 3.1
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,290 1,420,733 34,660 41,136 2.4 2.9
436 Cooks 3,083 1,965,616 109,989 126,097 5.6 6.4
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 554 341,390 6,469 6,727 1.9 2.0
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 419 260,405 38,237 40,073 14.7 15.4
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 646 431,193 38,130 43,851 8.8 10.2
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,059 655,157 70,641 81,455 10.8 12.4
445 Dental assistants 302 183,710 2,320 2,781 1.3 1.5
446 Health aides, except nursing 556 340,650 56,902 64,052 16.7 18.8
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,657 1,613,929 231,759 257,469 14.4 16.0
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 253 156,793 22,531 26,889 14.4 17.1
449 Maids and housemen 1,057 635,155 79,800 85,296 12.6 13.4
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,052 1,922,148 360,865 407,288 18.8 21.2
454 Elevator operators 16 10,491 4,243 4,243 40.4 40.4
455 Pest control occupations 61 44,733 5,398 5,398 12.1 12.1
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 105 58,205 5,014 5,014 8.6 8.6
457 Barbers 64 49,228 2,287 2,287 4.6 4.6
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 692 437,116 5,978 6,438 1.4 1.5
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 347 196,311 15,375 15,375 7.8 7.8
461 Guides 62 35,479 1,737 1,737 4.9 4.9
462 Ushers 46 32,198 2,982 2,982 9.3 9.3
463 Public transportation attendants 165 111,710 79,502 81,644 71.2 73.1
464 Baggage porters and bellhops 56 35,566 10,581 10,581 29.7 29.7
465 Welfare service aides 151 82,420 9,731 11,992 11.8 14.6
466 Family child care providers 38 22,466 505 505 2.2 2.2
467 Early childhood teacher's assistants 739 425,305 10,665 15,215 2.5 3.6
468 Child care workers, n.e.c. 390 243,872 36,787 41,752 15.1 17.1
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 279 187,215 15,651 21,676 8.4 11.6
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 2,694 1,821,287 103,203 121,529 5.7 6.7
473 Farmers, except horticulture 18 10,083 0 0 0.0 0.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 2 1,944 0 0 0.0 0.0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 78 43,293 1,487 1,487 3.4 3.4
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 3 1,549 111 111 7.2 7.2
477 Supervisors, farm workers 56 41,317 1,138 1,138 2.8 2.8
479 Farm workers 999 667,927 10,035 10,133 1.5 1.5
483 Marine life cultivation workers 5 2,181 520 520 23.9 23.9
484 Nursery workers 40 26,916 133 133 0.5 0.5
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 116 77,203 5,704 8,854 7.4 11.5
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 991 691,109 62,926 71,150 9.1 10.3
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 128 84,930 3,347 3,347 3.9 3.9
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 69 61,323 11,780 14,356 19.2 23.4
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 4 2,911 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 17 8,546 476 476 5.6 5.6
495 Forestry workers, except logging 39 26,877 2,092 3,875 7.8 14.4
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 96 56,047 3,275 5,081 5.8 9.1
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 5 3,450 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 27 12,995 179 179 1.4 1.4
499 Hunters and trappers 1 688 0 688 0.0 100.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR, EXC. CONSTRUCTION 11,892 7,666,459 1,723,406 1,865,895 22.5 24.3
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 368 228,476 22,591 27,892 9.9 12.2
505 Automobile mechanics 1,040 672,937 73,333 78,058 10.9 11.6
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 6 5,329 0 0 0.0 0.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 475 296,657 81,543 87,774 27.5 29.6
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 179 126,152 60,973 66,605 48.3 52.8
509 Small engine repairers 51 35,178 1,302 1,842 3.7 5.2
514 Automobile body and related repairers 188 128,374 12,941 13,771 10.1 10.7
515 Aircraft mechanics, except engine 14 12,350 6,823 10,049 55.2 81.4
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 254 150,782 51,677 53,147 34.3 35.2
517 Farm equipment mechanics 52 27,358 0 0 0.0 0.0
518 Industrial machinery repairers 850 545,971 161,646 166,221 29.6 30.4
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 33 20,047 11,258 11,766 56.2 58.7
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 208 139,776 31,156 36,221 22.3 25.9
525 Data processing equipment repairers 226 158,973 14,742 14,836 9.3 9.3
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 54 35,487 3,812 4,634 10.7 13.1
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 73 44,989 37,417 38,949 83.2 86.6
529 Telephone installers and repairers 271 177,912 108,123 118,230 60.8 66.5
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 96 58,929 21,294 22,578 36.1 38.3
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 365 239,947 45,460 52,765 18.9 22.0
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 29 19,059 3,358 3,358 17.6 17.6
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 28 19,317 5,096 7,121 26.4 36.9
538 Office machine repairers 83 60,314 5,380 5,380 8.9 8.9
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 21 14,941 6,340 6,340 42.4 42.4
543 Elevator installers and repairers 34 22,653 20,515 20,515 90.6 90.6
544 Millwrights 127 75,336 50,404 50,404 66.9 66.9
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 669 425,503 97,541 108,826 22.9 25.6
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 285 179,864 41,162 44,760 22.9 24.9
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 77 39,280 2,213 3,328 5.6 8.5
614 Drillers, oil well 41 23,421 978 978 4.2 4.2
615 Explosives workers 12 9,302 265 1,292 2.9 13.9
616 Mining machine operators 74 37,664 19,118 20,392 50.8 54.1
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 52 27,977 4,684 4,684 16.7 16.7
628 Supervisors, production occupations 1,864 1,207,245 125,174 147,239 10.4 12.2
634 Tool and die makers 226 134,640 46,949 49,731 34.9 36.9
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 5 3,288 1,431 1,431 43.5 43.5
636 Precision assemblers, metal 29 19,096 5,415 5,415 28.4 28.4
637 Machinists 695 470,497 124,594 133,346 26.5 28.3
639 Machinist apprentices 5 2,666 0 0 0.0 0.0
643 Boilermakers 38 24,794 16,688 17,168 67.3 69.2
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 19 9,424 3,086 3,086 32.7 32.7
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 13 7,132 2,905 2,905 40.7 40.7
646 Lay-out workers 9 6,107 2,234 3,128 36.6 51.2
647 Precious stones and metals workers (Jewelers) 67 35,633 1,131 1,131 3.2 3.2
649 Engravers, metal 13 8,052 473 473 5.9 5.9
653 Sheet metal workers 180 120,889 46,995 53,325 38.9 44.1
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 0
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 1 233 0 0 0.0 0.0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 5 2,983 1,007 1,007 33.7 33.7
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 79 50,978 5,613 5,613 11.0 11.0
658 Furniture and wood finishers 42 26,021 2,578 2,578 9.9 9.9
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 2 733 331 331 45.1 45.1
666 Dressmakers 62 34,961 1,405 1,405 4.0 4.0
667 Tailors 48 30,446 6,277 6,277 20.6 20.6
668 Upholsterers 62 38,494 3,588 3,588 9.3 9.3
669 Shoe repairers 11 7,018 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 18 12,105 0 456 0.0 3.8
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 20 14,331 3,996 3,996 27.9 27.9
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 13 8,032 2,421 2,421 30.1 30.1
677 Optical goods workers 95 66,415 2,437 2,437 3.7 3.7
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 66 43,208 1,208 1,208 2.8 2.8
679 Bookbinders 37 25,757 2,098 3,125 8.1 12.1
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 512 342,877 49,243 57,079 14.4 16.6
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 23 17,394 3,718 3,718 21.4 21.4
686 Butchers and meat cutters 393 252,381 66,865 70,011 26.5 27.7
687 Bakers 190 125,024 23,450 24,708 18.8 19.8
688 Food batchmakers 80 55,144 10,828 11,486 19.6 20.8
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 182 122,285 40,475 40,475 33.1 33.1
693 Adjusters and calibrators 11 8,197 760 1,948 9.3 23.8
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 104 68,937 24,646 26,806 35.8 38.9
695 Power plant operators 76 39,905 18,481 20,581 46.3 51.6
696 Stationary engineers 200 127,871 59,601 61,053 46.6 47.7
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 62 35,011 12,160 12,493 34.7 35.7
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 5,659 3,690,684 992,986 1,043,513 26.9 28.3
553 Supervisors, brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 5 3,692 1,235 1,235 33.4 33.4
554 Supervisors, carpenters and related workers 21 13,166 4,974 6,104 37.8 46.4
555 Supervisors, electricians and power transmission installers 67 43,216 14,398 14,398 33.3 33.3
556 Supervisors, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 8 4,778 991 991 20.7 20.7
557 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 24 13,742 6,404 6,404 46.6 46.6
558 Supervisors, construction, n.e.c. 609 390,909 84,727 88,279 21.7 22.6
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 221 140,439 35,709 36,287 25.4 25.8
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 5 4,763 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 49 33,128 8,938 8,938 27.0 27.0
566 Carpet installers 92 65,381 6,740 6,740 10.3 10.3
567 Carpenters 1,365 877,913 161,144 172,075 18.4 19.6
569 Carpenter apprentices 8 4,630 385 385 8.3 8.3
573 Drywall installers 143 103,258 22,592 24,986 21.9 24.2
575 Electricians 838 544,953 229,896 242,215 42.2 44.4
576 Electrician apprentices 52 29,119 12,110 12,110 41.6 41.6
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 179 109,291 71,268 73,536 65.2 67.3
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 507 344,752 48,975 50,597 14.2 14.7
583 Paperhangers 7 4,387 1,138 1,138 25.9 25.9
584 Plasterers 47 39,994 5,764 6,049 14.4 15.1
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 596 399,720 142,855 149,921 35.7 37.5
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 15 8,566 1,850 2,476 21.6 28.9
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 99 57,689 9,795 10,915 17.0 18.9
589 Glaziers 41 26,483 2,853 2,853 10.8 10.8
593 Insulation workers 81 60,511 16,477 18,161 27.2 30.0
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 13 7,364 835 1,080 11.3 14.7
595 Roofers 175 118,858 18,715 20,589 15.7 17.3
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 48 28,011 10,649 11,086 38.0 39.6
597 Structural metal workers 73 50,455 30,944 30,944 61.3 61.3
598 Drillers, earth 30 18,351 1,994 2,071 10.9 11.3
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 241 143,166 38,632 40,951 27.0 28.6
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 11,608 7,517,247 1,831,357 1,949,888 24.4 25.9
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 32 19,802 7,151 7,711 36.1 38.9
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 79 47,012 13,790 15,085 29.3 32.1
705 Milling and planing machine operators 10 7,528 558 1,733 7.4 23.0
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 194 128,492 41,578 44,219 32.4 34.4
707 Rolling machine operators 21 17,082 10,054 10,452 58.9 61.2
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 26 16,896 6,021 6,021 35.6 35.6
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 202 133,819 48,021 50,015 35.9 37.4
713 Forging machine operators 29 16,934 7,422 9,048 43.8 53.4
714 Numerical control machine operators 17 9,831 2,264 2,264 23.0 23.0
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 57 36,348 12,786 12,786 35.2 35.2
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 26 22,469 6,047 6,487 26.9 28.9
719 Molding and casting machine operators 152 96,688 21,067 21,690 21.8 22.4
723 Metal plating machine operators 42 26,936 5,029 5,029 18.7 18.7
724 Heat treating equipment operators 24 18,776 5,598 6,385 29.8 34.0
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 27 18,754 4,255 4,255 22.7 22.7
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 14 5,663 1,636 1,636 28.9 28.9
727 Sawing machine operators 149 91,283 5,483 5,810 6.0 6.4
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 6 4,686 0 1,032 0.0 22.0
729 Nailing and tacking machine operators 4 2,747 1,111 1,111 40.4 40.4
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 38 23,195 1,536 1,908 6.6 8.2
734 Printing press operators 437 292,236 54,756 60,587 18.7 20.7
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 56 38,794 3,949 4,881 10.2 12.6
736 Typesetters and compositors 55 39,511 2,843 4,108 7.2 10.4
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 59 39,331 6,319 6,319 16.1 16.1
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 97 59,285 7,880 7,880 13.3 13.3
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 69 44,252 6,124 6,124 13.8 13.8
743 Textile cutting machine operators 8 4,049 0 599 0.0 14.8
744 Textile sewing machine operators 939 587,411 85,804 93,108 14.6 15.9
745 Shoe machine operators 43 21,518 4,024 4,024 18.7 18.7
747 Pressing machine operators 190 117,030 17,651 18,996 15.1 16.2
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 295 182,754 33,328 35,439 18.2 19.4
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 89 53,950 3,089 3,442 5.7 6.4
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 47 28,426 6,034 6,034 21.2 21.2
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 585 384,715 94,813 100,348 24.6 26.1
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 58 33,424 6,134 7,388 18.4 22.1
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 190 124,615 32,051 34,155 25.7 27.4
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 98 66,041 32,639 35,858 49.4 54.3
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 44 26,686 7,087 7,884 26.6 29.5
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 274 184,493 32,857 37,372 17.8 20.3
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 9 5,176 803 803 15.5 15.5
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 15 9,388 1,791 2,657 19.1 28.3
765 Folding machine operators 35 28,419 5,111 5,111 18.0 18.0
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food 112 73,417 28,718 30,756 39.1 41.9
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 70 44,072 6,775 8,517 15.4 19.3
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 302 193,045 49,065 49,538 25.4 25.7
773 Motion picture projectionists 8 5,072 844 844 16.6 16.6
774 Photographic process machine operators 124 82,141 10,891 11,738 13.3 14.3
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,564 1,030,074 313,716 332,763 30.5 32.3
779 Machine operators, not specified 532 341,125 105,600 109,761 31.0 32.2
783 Welders and cutters 811 535,390 159,339 164,673 29.8 30.8
784 Solderers and brazers 48 31,679 5,276 5,647 16.7 17.8
785 Assemblers 1,839 1,195,122 325,852 343,160 27.3 28.7
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 15 10,066 4,137 4,235 41.1 42.1
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 23 14,101 3,705 3,705 26.3 26.3
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 33 22,859 5,269 5,269 23.1 23.1
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 26 16,937 1,769 2,913 10.4 17.2
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 94 59,824 5,676 6,290 9.5 10.5
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 815 518,086 117,892 127,698 22.8 24.6
797 Production testers 83 57,322 14,100 15,355 24.6 26.8
798 Production samplers and weighers 13 9,038 1,439 1,439 15.9 15.9
799 Graders and sorters, except agricultural 255 161,433 24,802 27,795 15.4 17.2
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,286 4,740,443 1,228,121 1,301,563 25.9 27.5
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 135 95,199 7,909 13,033 8.3 13.7
804 Truck drivers 3,889 2,555,132 520,133 546,501 20.4 21.4
806 Driver-sales workers 247 155,082 40,778 42,976 26.3 27.7
808 Bus drivers 788 523,581 201,914 221,234 38.6 42.3
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 287 179,864 14,574 15,444 8.1 8.6
813 Parking lot attendants 66 47,063 6,075 6,075 12.9 12.9
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 4 3,155 1,549 1,549 49.1 49.1
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 76 39,075 35,013 35,627 89.6 91.2
824 Locomotive operating occupations 79 45,047 38,488 38,488 85.4 85.4
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 35 21,435 18,598 19,345 86.8 90.2
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 5 3,261 2,709 2,709 83.1 83.1
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 39 26,761 3,184 3,280 11.9 12.3
829 Sailors and deckhands 42 27,081 10,460 10,460 38.6 38.6
833 Marine engineers 8 5,572 2,787 2,787 50.0 50.0
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 11 6,300 3,060 3,538 48.6 56.2
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 24 15,269 2,093 2,979 13.7 19.5
844 Operating engineers 370 211,756 67,257 71,870 31.8 33.9
845 Longshore equipment operators 6 5,272 4,662 4,662 88.4 88.4
848 Hoist and winch operators 26 15,659 1,789 1,789 11.4 11.4
849 Crane and tower operators 93 64,192 35,960 36,826 56.0 57.4
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 133 80,387 17,179 18,951 21.4 23.6
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 131 75,133 15,220 15,651 20.3 20.8
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 676 465,965 152,317 159,600 32.7 34.3
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 116 73,204 24,415 26,191 33.4 35.8
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS 7,260 4,895,637 1,072,762 1,140,673 21.9 23.3
864 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c. 17 11,442 2,665 2,665 23.3 23.3
865 Helpers, mechanics, and repairers 44 32,889 2,802 2,802 8.5 8.5
866 Helpers, construction trades 153 106,880 7,298 8,341 6.8 7.8
867 Helpers, surveyor 9 3,000 0 0 0.0 0.0
868 Helpers, extractive occupations 4 2,056 876 876 42.6 42.6
869 Construction laborers 1,069 722,877 148,290 157,252 20.5 21.8
874 Production helpers 99 71,993 19,691 20,342 27.4 28.3
875 Garbage collectors 73 47,927 21,930 22,466 45.8 46.9
876 Stevedores 22 12,902 12,140 12,140 94.1 94.1
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,702 1,138,833 237,752 251,558 20.9 22.1
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 136 87,831 22,816 24,491 26.0 27.9
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,054 738,706 229,617 247,091 31.1 33.4
885 Garage and service station related occupations 274 168,482 4,448 5,471 2.6 3.2
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 362 253,746 36,100 36,790 14.2 14.5
888 Hand packers and packagers 440 288,425 50,265 58,354 17.4 20.2
889 Laborers, except construction 1,802 1,207,648 276,071 290,033 22.9 24.0
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1994. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.