Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1995 (details in table note)  
 
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 21,776 13,825,589 803,197 1,016,646 5.8 7.4
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public administration 23 17,098 1,124 1,124 6.6 6.6
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 1,085 613,694 103,771 145,259 16.9 23.7
6 Administrators, protective services 101 56,885 13,668 15,518 24.0 27.3
7 Financial managers 921 574,945 3,686 6,935 0.6 1.2
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 187 122,802 4,157 5,785 3.4 4.7
9 Purchasing managers 196 127,391 6,231 7,597 4.9 6.0
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 960 634,595 8,976 11,640 1.4 1.8
14 Administrators, education and related fields 1,057 638,257 103,092 130,228 16.2 20.4
15 Managers, medicine and health 1,017 624,597 21,311 25,586 3.4 4.1
17 Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 1,370 882,893 24,223 30,135 2.7 3.4
18 Managers, properties and real estate 529 342,880 18,401 19,882 5.4 5.8
19 Funeral directors 55 33,612 0 0 0.0 0.0
21 Managers, service organizations, n.e.c. 835 534,467 39,292 50,497 7.4 9.4
22 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 7,309 4,717,679 163,194 199,485 3.5 4.2
23 Accountants and auditors 2,150 1,365,850 79,318 103,523 5.8 7.6
24 Underwriters 156 101,570 1,151 1,772 1.1 1.7
25 Other financial officers 1,010 655,704 18,265 29,231 2.8 4.5
26 Management analysts 255 151,235 6,060 7,670 4.0 5.1
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 628 394,849 37,259 46,258 9.4 11.7
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 16 7,827 541 541 6.9 6.9
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 326 208,487 3,301 5,782 1.6 2.8
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 381 251,651 16,746 23,430 6.7 9.3
34 Business and promotion agents 24 14,839 0 0 0.0 0.0
35 Construction inspectors 103 65,831 21,580 23,553 32.8 35.8
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 328 224,993 65,352 74,411 29.0 33.1
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 682 423,478 25,000 31,993 5.9 7.6
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS, EXC. TEACHERS 17,273 10,841,199 1,157,174 1,427,427 10.7 13.2
43 Architects 169 107,026 5,961 5,961 5.6 5.6
44 Aerospace engineers 99 75,447 7,092 7,092 9.4 9.4
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 33 19,991 142 142 0.7 0.7
46 Mining engineers 19 6,861 0 0 0.0 0.0
47 Petroleum engineers 31 21,829 1,215 1,215 5.6 5.6
48 Chemical engineers 109 72,958 2,977 5,776 4.1 7.9
49 Nuclear engineers 26 15,943 359 1,164 2.2 7.3
53 Civil engineers 358 216,313 29,833 36,397 13.8 16.8
54 Agricultural engineers 5 2,709 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 878 602,344 35,302 46,705 5.9 7.8
56 Industrial engineers 369 244,459 7,282 11,585 3.0 4.7
57 Mechanical engineers 492 313,076 16,991 22,983 5.4 7.3
58 Marine and naval architects 22 14,329 1,183 1,714 8.3 12.0
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 390 253,760 10,614 14,228 4.2 5.6
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 32 16,519 1,852 1,998 11.2 12.1
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 1,273 834,866 21,753 48,217 2.6 5.8
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 322 204,860 16,535 24,649 8.1 12.0
66 Actuaries 25 17,706 417 417 2.4 2.4
67 Statisticians 32 19,618 1,323 2,157 6.7 11.0
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 9 6,921 0 550 0.0 7.9
69 Physicists and astronomers 47 29,198 1,147 1,874 3.9 6.4
73 Chemists, except biochemists 222 137,334 8,104 10,790 5.9 7.9
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 20 9,600 996 1,168 10.4 12.2
75 Geologists and geodesists 78 52,854 2,949 4,324 5.6 8.2
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 76 40,981 4,767 6,227 11.6 15.2
77 Agricultural and food scientists 62 38,237 3,101 4,333 8.1 11.3
78 Biological and life scientists 175 97,894 8,307 10,514 8.5 10.7
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 50 20,418 1,637 2,014 8.0 9.9
83 Medical scientists 95 61,054 3,752 6,650 6.1 10.9
84 Physicians 736 451,761 26,028 39,847 5.8 8.8
85 Dentists 52 29,158 289 1,380 1.0 4.7
86 Veterinarians 49 31,538 146 1,655 0.5 5.2
87 Optometrists 17 10,503 1,534 2,280 14.6 21.7
88 Podiatrists 1 364 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 16 11,688 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 3,179 1,949,020 300,931 360,766 15.4 18.5
96 Pharmacists 252 151,982 11,499 15,079 7.6 9.9
97 Dietitians 136 83,496 15,165 16,063 18.2 19.2
98 Respiratory therapists 146 96,151 4,811 5,114 5.0 5.3
99 Occupational therapists 74 43,704 3,741 5,152 8.6 11.8
103 Physical therapists 196 121,261 9,261 12,416 7.6 10.2
104 Speech therapists 147 80,750 33,080 38,426 41.0 47.6
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 140 88,916 10,722 11,014 12.1 12.4
106 Physicians' assistants 85 53,369 2,998 3,550 5.6 6.7
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational 381 235,955 88,129 100,535 37.3 42.6
164 Librarians 335 192,510 56,693 63,707 29.4 33.1
165 Archivists and curators 25 15,547 607 739 3.9 4.8
166 Economists 211 130,854 3,860 8,083 2.9 6.2
167 Psychologists 309 191,090 37,927 48,304 19.8 25.3
168 Sociologists 7 4,174 1,540 1,540 36.9 36.9
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 45 21,468 1,413 2,147 6.6 10.0
173 Urban planners 23 17,064 3,178 3,178 18.6 18.6
174 Social workers 1,143 716,558 190,615 214,461 26.6 29.9
175 Recreation workers 163 99,455 1,940 4,337 2.0 4.4
176 Clergy 566 362,054 7,443 7,968 2.1 2.2
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 167 108,034 0 966 0.0 0.9
178 Lawyers and Judges 874 555,769 35,684 40,658 6.4 7.3
183 Authors 64 37,904 3,700 3,700 9.8 9.8
184 Technical writers 73 47,577 1,886 2,348 4.0 4.9
185 Designers 626 395,209 20,800 23,882 5.3 6.0
186 Musicians and composers 134 87,276 11,493 11,964 13.2 13.7
187 Actors and directors 131 81,775 9,948 10,672 12.2 13.1
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers 164 111,742 8,250 10,319 7.4 9.2
189 Photographers 121 78,643 7,278 8,701 9.3 11.1
193 Dancers 39 21,014 741 1,394 3.5 6.6
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 95 63,099 5,786 8,120 9.2 12.9
195 Editors and reporters 400 240,143 18,826 23,480 7.8 9.8
197 Public relations specialists 208 123,165 6,347 8,920 5.2 7.2
198 Announcers 73 40,125 6,010 6,010 15.0 15.0
199 Athletes 114 79,487 10,160 15,889 12.8 20.0
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,446 846,433 140,891 179,350 16.6 21.2
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 10 6,698 656 2,318 9.8 34.6
114 Biological science teachers 62 35,000 2,923 4,696 8.4 13.4
115 Chemistry teachers 34 19,568 2,720 3,632 13.9 18.6
116 Physics teachers 21 14,347 3,669 5,030 25.6 35.1
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 6 3,063 1,610 1,610 52.6 52.6
118 Psychology teachers 42 25,039 3,341 4,842 13.3 19.3
119 Economics teachers 32 18,824 4,917 6,163 26.1 32.7
123 History teachers 17 10,832 468 2,754 4.3 25.4
124 Political science teachers 15 7,600 2,409 2,883 31.7 37.9
125 Sociology teachers 12 7,250 1,218 1,717 16.8 23.7
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 10 6,043 0 0 0.0 0.0
127 Engineering teachers 57 31,572 6,624 9,661 21.0 30.6
128 Mathematical science teachers 75 42,250 5,679 7,045 13.4 16.7
129 Computer science teachers 41 26,563 5,277 7,739 19.9 29.1
133 Medical science teachers 17 9,652 1,153 1,153 11.9 11.9
134 Health specialties teachers 71 44,023 11,440 14,262 26.0 32.4
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 50 30,163 8,442 8,442 28.0 28.0
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 4 1,562 0 0 0.0 0.0
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 49 28,412 4,281 5,763 15.1 20.3
138 Physical education teachers 10 7,231 1,886 1,886 26.1 26.1
139 Education teachers 15 8,370 3,361 3,361 40.2 40.2
143 English teachers 113 71,267 12,151 13,411 17.0 18.8
144 Foreign language teachers 51 35,297 7,702 7,702 21.8 21.8
145 Law teachers 10 3,762 162 162 4.3 4.3
146 Social work teachers 6 4,152 1,829 1,829 44.0 44.0
147 Theology teachers 17 9,993 1,103 1,103 11.0 11.0
148 Trade and industrial teachers 7 3,132 1,931 1,931 61.7 61.7
149 Home economics teachers 3 961 676 676 70.3 70.3
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 11 7,599 2,363 2,363 31.1 31.1
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 578 326,207 40,901 55,214 12.5 16.9
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,982 4,299,525 2,014,296 2,285,130 46.8 53.1
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 744 488,227 89,531 108,687 18.3 22.3
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,815 1,714,555 958,529 1,087,378 55.9 63.4
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,012 1,228,983 717,862 801,881 58.4 65.2
158 Teachers, special education 526 317,591 195,166 222,485 61.5 70.1
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 885 550,169 53,208 64,699 9.7 11.8
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 5,874 3,794,748 447,845 526,244 11.8 13.9
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 592 370,727 43,354 51,650 11.7 13.9
204 Dental hygienists 155 94,170 2,583 2,948 2.7 3.1
205 Health record technologists and technicians 35 19,974 2,197 2,197 11.0 11.0
206 Radiologic technicians 232 148,215 14,029 15,452 9.5 10.4
207 Licensed practical nurses 630 394,863 53,845 64,285 13.6 16.3
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 901 608,101 74,887 87,219 12.3 14.3
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 474 323,092 50,749 56,875 15.7 17.6
214 Industrial engineering technicians 5 2,411 1,287 1,287 53.4 53.4
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 27 17,567 1,588 2,382 9.0 13.6
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 353 229,409 35,651 45,761 15.5 19.9
217 Drafting occupations 325 213,007 11,629 12,704 5.5 6.0
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 88 57,219 5,675 6,819 9.9 11.9
223 Biological technicians 159 96,888 10,428 11,446 10.8 11.8
224 Chemical technicians 129 79,466 12,099 13,444 15.2 16.9
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 140 90,239 11,052 14,022 12.2 15.5
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 156 107,156 57,305 60,032 53.5 56.0
227 Air traffic controllers 49 33,621 15,100 20,882 44.9 62.1
228 Broadcast equipment operators 57 34,488 5,546 6,963 16.1 20.2
229 Computer programmers 815 527,678 21,715 28,277 4.1 5.4
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 3 2,130 835 835 39.2 39.2
234 Legal assistants 411 266,266 10,699 13,892 4.0 5.2
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 138 78,061 5,593 6,872 7.2 8.8
SALES OCCUPATIONS 19,138 12,427,401 560,956 650,778 4.5 5.2
243 Supervisors and Proprietors, Sales Occupations 4,962 3,136,065 142,827 168,355 4.6 5.4
253 Insurance sales occupations 589 384,631 9,637 14,651 2.5 3.8
254 Real estate sales occupations 587 383,827 10,990 15,893 2.9 4.1
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 466 299,273 3,565 5,425 1.2 1.8
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 218 130,323 4,485 5,086 3.4 3.9
257 Sales occupations, other business services 756 513,395 25,054 29,864 4.9 5.8
258 Sales engineers 52 36,818 695 1,445 1.9 3.9
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 1,961 1,300,403 27,029 33,021 2.1 2.5
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 435 285,578 2,943 3,706 1.0 1.3
264 Sales workers, apparel 637 433,318 5,116 6,860 1.2 1.6
265 Sales workers, shoes 189 134,121 3,664 4,291 2.7 3.2
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 233 155,267 3,349 4,070 2.2 2.6
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 328 215,270 1,877 2,564 0.9 1.2
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 386 236,730 2,498 2,498 1.1 1.1
269 Sales workers, parts 223 146,603 2,603 3,113 1.8 2.1
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,189 1,406,193 37,640 44,531 2.7 3.2
275 Sales counter clerks 278 190,983 9,602 10,245 5.0 5.4
276 Cashiers 4,096 2,680,283 265,238 289,298 9.9 10.8
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 306 187,395 918 2,550 0.5 1.4
278 News vendors 133 91,433 1,224 3,313 1.3 3.6
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 95 65,222 0 0 0.0 0.0
284 Auctioneers 3 1,165 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 16 13,102 0 0 0.0 0.0
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL 27,539 17,619,971 2,355,114 2,705,528 13.4 15.4
303 Supervisors, general office 723 449,943 59,240 73,043 13.2 16.2
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 24 15,948 1,022 1,022 6.4 6.4
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 136 84,831 3,922 5,326 4.6 6.3
306 Chief communications operators 10 6,602 1,233 1,233 18.7 18.7
307 Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 233 162,534 28,135 33,312 17.3 20.5
308 Computer operators 727 480,819 47,326 55,103 9.8 11.5
309 Peripheral equipment operators 8 4,916 606 606 12.3 12.3
313 Secretaries 5,192 3,192,813 266,789 314,897 8.4 9.9
314 Stenographers 114 68,907 9,113 9,505 13.2 13.8
315 Typists 1,002 650,521 83,470 98,366 12.8 15.1
316 Interviewers 273 179,896 9,168 12,370 5.1 6.9
317 Hotel clerks 162 90,791 1,005 1,372 1.1 1.5
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 429 282,721 39,172 42,055 13.9 14.9
319 Receptionists 1,422 909,942 32,383 39,753 3.6 4.4
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 463 300,440 16,149 18,127 5.4 6.0
325 Classified-ad clerks 4 3,093 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 26 14,042 169 169 1.2 1.2
327 Order clerks 358 238,418 58,152 68,051 24.4 28.5
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 99 62,220 9,561 13,045 15.4 21.0
329 Library clerks 228 145,089 31,322 34,075 21.6 23.5
335 File clerks 474 316,515 19,037 22,839 6.0 7.2
336 Records clerks 269 164,893 23,142 26,214 14.0 15.9
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,250 1,405,545 67,531 80,611 4.8 5.7
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 247 155,028 28,636 30,328 18.5 19.6
339 Billing clerks 268 174,915 13,014 15,217 7.4 8.7
343 Cost and rate clerks 85 52,124 6,461 7,090 12.4 13.6
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 127 84,426 6,727 7,974 8.0 9.4
345 Duplicating machine operators 54 38,296 1,842 1,842 4.8 4.8
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 12 7,731 1,784 1,784 23.1 23.1
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 34 21,618 559 1,763 2.6 8.2
348 Telephone operators 256 169,487 44,284 46,541 26.1 27.5
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 14 8,283 1,610 1,610 19.4 19.4
354 Postal clerks, except mail carriers 480 300,714 223,611 245,853 74.4 81.8
355 Mail carriers, postal service 567 374,194 303,903 320,888 81.2 85.8
356 Mail clerks, except postal service 276 183,233 17,912 21,738 9.8 11.9
357 Messengers 221 141,516 7,503 8,796 5.3 6.2
359 Dispatchers 368 239,437 49,533 55,774 20.7 23.3
363 Production coordinators 312 201,459 21,712 25,879 10.8 12.8
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 931 653,708 107,338 112,261 16.4 17.2
365 Stock and inventory clerks 700 462,142 76,497 91,492 16.6 19.8
366 Meter readers 74 51,443 21,028 22,259 40.9 43.3
368 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers 93 54,202 14,951 16,156 27.6 29.8
373 Expediters 308 195,946 19,277 21,911 9.8 11.2
374 Material recording, scheduling, and distributing clerks, n.e.c. 32 23,161 4,709 4,709 20.3 20.3
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 564 367,101 11,049 13,706 3.0 3.7
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 1,242 810,730 46,099 59,912 5.7 7.4
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 140 87,779 27,826 33,333 31.7 38.0
378 Bill and account collectors 226 145,732 8,978 11,026 6.2 7.6
379 General office clerks 1,036 648,203 82,852 95,628 12.8 14.8
383 Bank tellers 680 442,884 8,328 10,337 1.9 2.3
384 Proofreaders 40 27,298 168 168 0.6 0.6
385 Data-entry keyers 973 641,694 62,915 74,822 9.8 11.7
386 Statistical clerks 140 91,397 10,803 12,153 11.8 13.3
387 Teachers' aides 979 638,572 194,273 242,131 30.4 37.9
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,434 894,082 121,285 139,352 13.6 15.6
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD OCCUPATIONS 1,246 818,322 3,835 7,467 0.5 0.9
403 Launderers and ironers 2 1,061 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 14 7,679 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 16 10,972 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 496 319,465 1,793 4,263 0.6 1.3
407 Private household cleaners and servants 718 479,144 2,041 3,204 0.4 0.7
PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 3,308 2,235,787 899,534 977,978 40.2 43.7
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 56 36,033 26,077 26,077 72.4 72.4
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 148 99,098 56,358 61,158 56.9 61.7
415 Supervisors, guards 79 55,105 2,138 4,753 3.9 8.6
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 15 8,661 3,434 3,941 39.6 45.5
417 Firefighting occupations 358 236,819 165,421 172,948 69.9 73.0
418 Police and detectives, public service 777 517,869 317,085 348,377 61.2 67.3
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 221 157,562 58,260 62,766 37.0 39.8
424 Correctional institution officers 407 287,893 158,808 168,776 55.2 58.6
425 Crossing guards 67 42,129 10,669 11,890 25.3 28.2
426 Guards and police, except public service 1,028 696,640 96,887 110,192 13.9 15.8
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 152 97,977 4,397 7,098 4.5 7.2
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PROTECTIVE AND HOUSEHOLD 19,771 12,593,486 1,209,105 1,370,429 9.6 10.9
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 597 377,218 22,373 26,739 5.9 7.1
434 Bartenders 467 272,375 8,967 10,453 3.3 3.8
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,231 1,424,489 37,834 40,009 2.7 2.8
436 Cooks 2,991 1,973,881 103,930 126,821 5.3 6.4
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 507 328,386 6,888 7,853 2.1 2.4
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 403 274,720 46,688 49,077 17.0 17.9
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 708 472,166 32,579 38,441 6.9 8.1
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,003 623,972 72,545 83,486 11.6 13.4
445 Dental assistants 339 210,979 5,030 6,691 2.4 3.2
446 Health aides, except nursing 550 350,193 41,997 48,305 12.0 13.8
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,695 1,703,367 205,358 234,327 12.1 13.8
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 269 176,414 19,422 23,032 11.0 13.1
449 Maids and housemen 981 579,742 78,753 86,239 13.6 14.9
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,029 1,946,476 336,409 369,516 17.3 19.0
454 Elevator operators 15 6,697 2,971 2,971 44.4 44.4
455 Pest control occupations 54 43,210 2,571 2,571 6.0 6.0
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 88 56,598 5,805 6,697 10.3 11.8
457 Barbers 47 30,681 493 493 1.6 1.6
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 672 420,205 2,891 4,976 0.7 1.2
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 330 191,614 5,692 7,222 3.0 3.8
461 Guides 87 48,458 14,096 14,665 29.1 30.3
462 Ushers 48 33,003 3,186 3,186 9.7 9.7
463 Public transportation attendants 141 93,894 70,229 74,573 74.8 79.4
464 Baggage porters and bellhops 63 43,861 18,973 20,191 43.3 46.0
465 Welfare service aides 150 93,263 13,963 16,971 15.0 18.2
466 Family child care providers 33 21,326 0 0 0.0 0.0
467 Early childhood teacher's assistants 645 405,533 6,067 9,944 1.5 2.5
468 Child care workers, n.e.c. 369 229,529 22,299 32,873 9.7 14.3
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 259 161,234 21,096 22,106 13.1 13.7
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 2,657 1,854,702 91,129 103,626 4.9 5.6
473 Farmers, except horticulture 26 15,181 633 633 4.2 4.2
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 85 55,838 139 1,503 0.2 2.7
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 4 1,885 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 54 37,478 146 146 0.4 0.4
479 Farm workers 1,012 715,416 12,940 15,433 1.8 2.2
483 Marine life cultivation workers 0
484 Nursery workers 38 23,480 0 0 0.0 0.0
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 98 69,356 737 1,157 1.1 1.7
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 974 687,351 49,074 51,892 7.1 7.5
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 130 81,727 5,602 5,602 6.9 6.9
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 72 67,626 12,295 15,383 18.2 22.7
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 2 1,830 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 10 4,926 0 150 0.0 3.0
495 Forestry workers, except logging 25 12,819 2,640 4,351 20.6 33.9
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 96 62,153 5,257 5,709 8.5 9.2
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 7 3,724 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 22 12,454 1,665 1,665 13.4 13.4
499 Hunters and trappers 2 1,458 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR, EXC. CONSTRUCTION 11,834 7,729,277 1,660,763 1,788,083 21.5 23.1
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 372 249,677 31,775 34,393 12.7 13.8
505 Automobile mechanics 997 655,345 63,175 67,748 9.6 10.3
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 4 3,223 0 0 0.0 0.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 457 290,701 99,115 105,276 34.1 36.2
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 173 116,847 55,984 61,214 47.9 52.4
509 Small engine repairers 89 54,113 6,049 7,147 11.2 13.2
514 Automobile body and related repairers 204 130,002 7,569 8,767 5.8 6.7
515 Aircraft mechanics, except engine 30 24,186 12,838 13,331 53.1 55.1
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 248 144,328 51,454 54,489 35.7 37.8
517 Farm equipment mechanics 50 27,922 1,292 1,292 4.6 4.6
518 Industrial machinery repairers 829 547,801 156,210 158,908 28.5 29.0
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 31 19,464 5,460 5,460 28.1 28.1
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 235 158,061 43,488 50,304 27.5 31.8
525 Data processing equipment repairers 208 137,016 11,304 14,140 8.3 10.3
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 47 29,935 2,448 2,448 8.2 8.2
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 82 53,919 38,341 39,409 71.1 73.1
529 Telephone installers and repairers 251 155,285 90,944 95,083 58.6 61.2
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 92 60,981 24,219 24,219 39.7 39.7
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 346 231,264 35,310 40,810 15.3 17.6
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 30 21,688 3,272 3,272 15.1 15.1
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 25 18,319 1,949 4,041 10.6 22.1
538 Office machine repairers 90 59,853 3,244 4,736 5.4 7.9
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 26 14,777 4,869 4,869 32.9 32.9
543 Elevator installers and repairers 31 20,512 18,852 18,852 91.9 91.9
544 Millwrights 128 81,024 42,707 43,052 52.7 53.1
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 622 408,825 73,150 79,728 17.9 19.5
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 379 252,901 56,814 61,223 22.5 24.2
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 89 47,393 2,793 2,884 5.9 6.1
614 Drillers, oil well 48 26,137 327 327 1.2 1.2
615 Explosives workers 10 6,149 1,883 4,258 30.6 69.2
616 Mining machine operators 75 33,227 11,033 11,419 33.2 34.4
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 45 23,615 1,528 1,670 6.5 7.1
628 Supervisors, production occupations 1,836 1,212,665 129,155 146,362 10.7 12.1
634 Tool and die makers 211 135,471 45,185 47,635 33.4 35.2
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 7 4,842 2,888 3,477 59.6 71.8
636 Precision assemblers, metal 30 20,615 7,184 7,184 34.8 34.8
637 Machinists 733 485,535 128,316 135,268 26.4 27.9
639 Machinist apprentices 7 4,234 190 190 4.5 4.5
643 Boilermakers 48 28,851 16,599 18,844 57.5 65.3
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 32 16,738 3,878 3,878 23.2 23.2
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 9 6,520 1,571 1,860 24.1 28.5
646 Lay-out workers 18 14,275 6,027 6,027 42.2 42.2
647 Precious stones and metals workers (Jewelers) 56 26,394 0 0 0.0 0.0
649 Engravers, metal 16 11,946 0 0 0.0 0.0
653 Sheet metal workers 159 108,890 37,463 39,444 34.4 36.2
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 5 2,714 2,515 2,515 92.7 92.7
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 1 680 0 0 0.0 0.0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 7 4,518 613 613 13.6 13.6
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 76 50,760 5,051 5,051 10.0 10.0
658 Furniture and wood finishers 44 24,395 1,146 1,464 4.7 6.0
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 2 1,856 0 0 0.0 0.0
666 Dressmakers 88 54,663 4,371 4,371 8.0 8.0
667 Tailors 54 39,434 6,761 6,761 17.1 17.1
668 Upholsterers 64 46,113 2,484 4,303 5.4 9.3
669 Shoe repairers 14 10,003 1,321 1,321 13.2 13.2
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 13 7,216 1,496 1,496 20.7 20.7
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 14 10,155 0 0 0.0 0.0
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 17 12,403 4,651 5,107 37.5 41.2
677 Optical goods workers 91 57,985 3,179 3,712 5.5 6.4
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 73 51,274 1,205 2,231 2.4 4.4
679 Bookbinders 44 33,415 8,372 9,672 25.1 28.9
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 468 320,837 49,573 59,084 15.5 18.4
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 26 17,441 3,746 4,233 21.5 24.3
686 Butchers and meat cutters 365 233,921 65,221 68,394 27.9 29.2
687 Bakers 168 113,454 17,482 18,166 15.4 16.0
688 Food batchmakers 71 46,833 9,667 9,667 20.6 20.6
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 182 128,505 42,280 43,029 32.9 33.5
693 Adjusters and calibrators 13 9,773 3,313 3,313 33.9 33.9
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 110 69,578 16,229 20,811 23.3 29.9
695 Power plant operators 67 38,032 19,956 21,554 52.5 56.7
696 Stationary engineers 183 121,140 42,894 44,007 35.4 36.3
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 69 40,717 9,384 12,268 23.0 30.1
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 5,691 3,833,980 1,031,721 1,077,533 26.9 28.1
553 Supervisors, brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 8 3,152 1,466 1,466 46.5 46.5
554 Supervisors, carpenters and related workers 22 13,240 5,389 5,389 40.7 40.7
555 Supervisors, electricians and power transmission installers 44 26,002 4,720 4,720 18.2 18.2
556 Supervisors, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 15 9,183 2,179 2,179 23.7 23.7
557 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 13 7,738 2,633 2,633 34.0 34.0
558 Supervisors, construction, n.e.c. 645 428,079 87,766 95,098 20.5 22.2
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 201 130,470 32,907 33,848 25.2 25.9
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 2 1,801 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 53 32,464 3,625 3,625 11.2 11.2
566 Carpet installers 91 69,573 6,307 9,247 9.1 13.3
567 Carpenters 1,325 864,877 171,327 177,818 19.8 20.6
569 Carpenter apprentices 17 13,652 3,903 3,903 28.6 28.6
573 Drywall installers 134 101,450 20,732 22,416 20.4 22.1
575 Electricians 908 603,418 260,989 269,511 43.3 44.7
576 Electrician apprentices 47 28,523 6,543 7,691 22.9 27.0
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 181 127,131 71,182 72,919 56.0 57.4
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 482 347,952 55,610 57,404 16.0 16.5
583 Paperhangers 13 9,193 1,339 1,339 14.6 14.6
584 Plasterers 39 32,754 3,792 3,792 11.6 11.6
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 581 394,185 146,923 154,003 37.3 39.1
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 21 14,798 3,079 3,079 20.8 20.8
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 101 67,174 11,609 11,609 17.3 17.3
589 Glaziers 51 31,116 7,792 7,792 25.0 25.0
593 Insulation workers 83 58,140 15,127 16,932 26.0 29.1
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 4 1,723 0 0 0.0 0.0
595 Roofers 226 161,613 18,308 22,481 11.3 13.9
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 39 28,379 13,233 13,233 46.6 46.6
597 Structural metal workers 87 59,141 38,141 38,141 64.5 64.5
598 Drillers, earth 19 12,641 2,541 2,541 20.1 20.1
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 239 154,418 32,559 32,723 21.1 21.2
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 11,348 7,638,992 1,780,380 1,891,669 23.3 24.8
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 36 21,631 10,250 11,520 47.4 53.3
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 58 34,567 16,197 16,197 46.9 46.9
705 Milling and planing machine operators 16 10,855 2,637 2,637 24.3 24.3
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 149 103,208 33,414 34,796 32.4 33.7
707 Rolling machine operators 22 15,985 9,942 9,942 62.2 62.2
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 21 14,123 3,222 3,222 22.8 22.8
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 171 111,182 32,276 35,737 29.0 32.1
713 Forging machine operators 20 14,119 5,331 5,331 37.8 37.8
714 Numerical control machine operators 19 11,963 2,855 3,531 23.9 29.5
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 46 26,760 11,742 11,742 43.9 43.9
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 35 24,162 4,491 4,491 18.6 18.6
719 Molding and casting machine operators 142 99,960 28,015 30,076 28.0 30.1
723 Metal plating machine operators 32 22,756 5,214 5,214 22.9 22.9
724 Heat treating equipment operators 23 16,520 5,397 5,397 32.7 32.7
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 31 20,574 4,678 4,678 22.7 22.7
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 11 6,039 1,493 1,493 24.7 24.7
727 Sawing machine operators 127 78,156 7,981 8,805 10.2 11.3
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 8 5,257 0 0 0.0 0.0
729 Nailing and tacking machine operators 3 2,201 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 38 20,791 2,256 2,256 10.9 10.9
734 Printing press operators 432 293,005 43,321 45,134 14.8 15.4
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 56 40,253 5,301 5,301 13.2 13.2
736 Typesetters and compositors 47 30,095 5,136 5,942 17.1 19.7
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 63 41,298 5,094 6,123 12.3 14.8
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 121 76,313 4,759 5,201 6.2 6.8
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 54 34,452 4,082 4,082 11.8 11.8
743 Textile cutting machine operators 11 5,943 0 0 0.0 0.0
744 Textile sewing machine operators 942 578,888 82,123 84,044 14.2 14.5
745 Shoe machine operators 32 18,003 5,922 5,922 32.9 32.9
747 Pressing machine operators 183 129,204 12,123 12,123 9.4 9.4
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 265 166,439 19,136 22,381 11.5 13.4
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 101 64,626 4,130 4,130 6.4 6.4
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 52 37,645 7,818 8,282 20.8 22.0
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 601 415,106 92,393 95,638 22.3 23.0
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 55 38,575 10,396 11,151 26.9 28.9
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 157 99,250 29,717 30,435 29.9 30.7
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 77 53,435 23,748 26,763 44.4 50.1
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 30 19,575 4,257 4,257 21.7 21.7
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 238 176,838 37,820 37,820 21.4 21.4
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 10 7,061 1,489 1,489 21.1 21.1
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 20 13,913 4,479 4,479 32.2 32.2
765 Folding machine operators 26 17,230 2,087 2,742 12.1 15.9
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food 104 66,417 33,263 36,048 50.1 54.3
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 90 65,303 16,965 16,965 26.0 26.0
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 300 207,358 45,325 51,169 21.9 24.7
773 Motion picture projectionists 6 4,141 1,420 1,420 34.3 34.3
774 Photographic process machine operators 118 78,857 4,680 7,049 5.9 8.9
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,586 1,081,389 296,403 311,493 27.4 28.8
779 Machine operators, not specified 603 411,620 107,987 117,155 26.2 28.5
783 Welders and cutters 812 573,588 171,590 182,604 29.9 31.8
784 Solderers and brazers 28 18,221 1,848 1,848 10.1 10.1
785 Assemblers 1,805 1,234,973 344,861 367,372 27.9 29.7
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 18 9,706 2,139 2,474 22.0 25.5
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 38 26,292 2,265 2,265 8.6 8.6
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 34 21,702 7,387 7,829 34.0 36.1
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 22 15,979 0 0 0.0 0.0
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 75 49,417 5,951 5,951 12.0 12.0
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 799 531,807 110,487 123,329 20.8 23.2
797 Production testers 90 61,511 11,818 12,348 19.2 20.1
798 Production samplers and weighers 11 6,573 1,409 1,409 21.4 21.4
799 Graders and sorters, except agricultural 228 156,179 21,860 22,437 14.0 14.4
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,121 4,735,859 1,224,455 1,293,819 25.9 27.3
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 136 80,305 6,553 9,561 8.2 11.9
804 Truck drivers 3,744 2,529,618 513,348 542,314 20.3 21.4
806 Driver-sales workers 222 145,013 47,136 48,811 32.5 33.7
808 Bus drivers 771 514,414 207,083 224,493 40.3 43.6
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 288 182,860 23,565 24,432 12.9 13.4
813 Parking lot attendants 77 50,155 6,801 7,287 13.6 14.5
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 11 7,635 707 707 9.3 9.3
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 68 36,473 32,025 32,025 87.8 87.8
824 Locomotive operating occupations 92 52,863 40,349 40,652 76.3 76.9
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 24 15,472 12,596 12,720 81.4 82.2
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 4 2,919 2,919 2,919 100.0 100.0
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 39 25,731 3,897 5,443 15.1 21.2
829 Sailors and deckhands 35 25,936 6,327 6,327 24.4 24.4
833 Marine engineers 2 1,525 1,525 1,525 100.0 100.0
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 7 4,017 1,418 1,418 35.3 35.3
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 26 13,088 1,145 1,145 8.8 8.8
844 Operating engineers 369 231,315 69,552 73,456 30.1 31.8
845 Longshore equipment operators 7 5,997 5,997 5,997 100.0 100.0
848 Hoist and winch operators 34 20,846 731 731 3.5 3.5
849 Crane and tower operators 97 67,399 34,557 36,581 51.3 54.3
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 148 81,275 21,607 21,952 26.6 27.0
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 112 68,475 17,717 18,350 25.9 26.8
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 690 499,372 144,971 150,546 29.0 30.1
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 118 73,154 21,929 24,427 30.0 33.4
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS 7,281 4,928,929 978,488 1,043,913 19.9 21.2
864 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c. 23 14,417 2,870 2,870 19.9 19.9
865 Helpers, mechanics, and repairers 40 27,834 3,946 3,946 14.2 14.2
866 Helpers, construction trades 146 103,415 8,666 9,805 8.4 9.5
867 Helpers, surveyor 8 2,920 622 622 21.3 21.3
868 Helpers, extractive occupations 5 2,434 1,494 1,494 61.4 61.4
869 Construction laborers 1,162 782,850 126,447 139,458 16.2 17.8
874 Production helpers 94 64,202 14,908 14,908 23.2 23.2
875 Garbage collectors 71 44,513 16,860 17,180 37.9 38.6
876 Stevedores 20 14,956 11,880 11,880 79.4 79.4
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,596 1,068,593 216,861 230,146 20.3 21.5
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 109 68,868 17,710 18,691 25.7 27.1
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,029 720,042 197,392 210,890 27.4 29.3
885 Garage and service station related occupations 275 172,470 4,852 5,801 2.8 3.4
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 373 261,381 35,409 37,919 13.5 14.5
888 Hand packers and packagers 410 271,334 49,302 54,547 18.2 20.1
889 Laborers, except construction 1,920 1,308,700 269,268 283,758 20.6 21.7
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1995. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.