Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1996 (details in table note)  
 
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 19,717 14,262,489 785,390 1,004,876 5.5 7.0
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public administration 20 12,613 1,101 1,101 8.7 8.7
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 968 629,993 107,648 148,101 17.1 23.5
6 Administrators, protective services 87 54,600 14,497 15,968 26.6 29.2
7 Financial managers 829 585,612 3,592 5,044 0.6 0.9
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 165 121,326 4,245 4,592 3.5 3.8
9 Purchasing managers 169 128,453 6,137 6,500 4.8 5.1
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 799 604,030 7,556 12,858 1.3 2.1
14 Administrators, education and related fields 897 621,974 100,832 134,859 16.2 21.7
15 Managers, medicine and health 944 667,751 21,824 26,130 3.3 3.9
17 Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 1,372 1,012,372 20,341 31,071 2.0 3.1
18 Managers, properties and real estate 495 367,337 17,307 20,422 4.7 5.6
19 Funeral directors 53 37,061 0 0 0.0 0.0
21 Managers, service organizations, n.e.c. 806 561,107 40,269 44,223 7.2 7.9
22 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 6,747 4,949,875 175,196 213,571 3.5 4.3
23 Accountants and auditors 1,824 1,358,625 79,377 95,990 5.8 7.1
24 Underwriters 127 102,237 1,253 2,517 1.2 2.5
25 Other financial officers 946 656,823 16,839 30,762 2.6 4.7
26 Management analysts 240 171,008 4,260 9,222 2.5 5.4
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 552 398,606 38,698 44,417 9.7 11.1
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 14 7,984 756 756 9.5 9.5
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 274 189,645 4,158 5,557 2.2 2.9
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 335 242,041 12,725 18,071 5.3 7.5
34 Business and promotion agents 27 22,230 0 725 0.0 3.3
35 Construction inspectors 83 64,520 15,734 21,166 24.4 32.8
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 326 243,284 70,018 85,165 28.8 35.0
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 618 451,384 21,026 26,085 4.7 5.8
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS, EXC. TEACHERS 15,442 11,265,527 1,145,485 1,383,597 10.2 12.3
43 Architects 143 97,199 6,109 7,034 6.3 7.2
44 Aerospace engineers 89 76,360 6,963 10,564 9.1 13.8
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 35 26,674 2,043 2,811 7.7 10.5
46 Mining engineers 15 5,915 0 797 0.0 13.5
47 Petroleum engineers 28 18,503 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 120 92,806 854 3,509 0.9 3.8
49 Nuclear engineers 18 12,528 697 1,785 5.6 14.2
53 Civil engineers 313 226,800 27,661 32,209 12.2 14.2
54 Agricultural engineers 3 2,466 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 744 577,938 23,376 29,732 4.0 5.1
56 Industrial engineers 325 249,751 17,074 24,017 6.8 9.6
57 Mechanical engineers 440 341,982 13,614 17,055 4.0 5.0
58 Marine and naval architects 15 12,667 1,491 1,491 11.8 11.8
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 308 240,127 12,516 13,813 5.2 5.8
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 35 21,734 3,547 3,547 16.3 16.3
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 1,254 999,866 37,410 57,627 3.7 5.8
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 251 198,944 15,177 15,857 7.6 8.0
66 Actuaries 20 13,499 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 31 19,523 1,646 3,709 8.4 19.0
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 2 1,875 0 0 0.0 0.0
69 Physicists and astronomers 33 25,204 0 332 0.0 1.3
73 Chemists, except biochemists 193 141,880 13,124 14,933 9.3 10.5
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 15 8,644 3,103 3,310 35.9 38.3
75 Geologists and geodesists 57 35,843 3,590 4,811 10.0 13.4
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 62 47,651 1,133 1,260 2.4 2.6
77 Agricultural and food scientists 57 32,590 5,050 5,169 15.5 15.9
78 Biological and life scientists 157 111,261 7,461 11,386 6.7 10.2
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 48 23,723 3,831 4,050 16.1 17.1
83 Medical scientists 90 65,568 3,937 6,063 6.0 9.2
84 Physicians 616 457,393 26,554 40,671 5.8 8.9
85 Dentists 34 25,199 1,337 1,337 5.3 5.3
86 Veterinarians 42 28,156 0 370 0.0 1.3
87 Optometrists 21 16,930 694 1,011 4.1 6.0
88 Podiatrists 3 2,131 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 16 9,928 149 149 1.5 1.5
95 Registered nurses 2,841 1,966,621 304,832 351,880 15.5 17.9
96 Pharmacists 229 165,642 10,533 10,533 6.4 6.4
97 Dietitians 131 96,879 13,598 16,860 14.0 17.4
98 Respiratory therapists 130 95,568 11,186 12,443 11.7 13.0
99 Occupational therapists 77 60,080 4,869 4,869 8.1 8.1
103 Physical therapists 144 104,613 4,621 6,841 4.4 6.5
104 Speech therapists 142 89,598 33,383 37,272 37.3 41.6
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 125 85,466 11,064 15,504 12.9 18.1
106 Physicians' assistants 87 66,345 6,899 9,389 10.4 14.2
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational 381 260,750 84,397 102,165 32.4 39.2
164 Librarians 269 184,015 59,221 64,740 32.2 35.2
165 Archivists and curators 33 20,750 816 2,301 3.9 11.1
166 Economists 189 134,118 3,856 5,827 2.9 4.3
167 Psychologists 232 165,929 25,614 27,107 15.4 16.3
168 Sociologists 5 4,028 1,307 1,307 32.5 32.5
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 38 21,723 2,554 3,245 11.8 14.9
173 Urban planners 15 12,228 1,385 1,385 11.3 11.3
174 Social workers 993 733,054 177,370 209,327 24.2 28.6
175 Recreation workers 154 110,746 5,419 8,019 4.9 7.2
176 Clergy 499 359,000 2,381 3,057 0.7 0.9
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 175 129,085 2,069 2,889 1.6 2.2
178 Lawyers and Judges 832 609,807 26,854 33,747 4.4 5.5
183 Authors 65 45,124 3,756 4,792 8.3 10.6
184 Technical writers 77 59,919 3,686 4,467 6.2 7.5
185 Designers 593 441,506 16,731 19,407 3.8 4.4
186 Musicians and composers 114 89,451 9,279 9,279 10.4 10.4
187 Actors and directors 133 90,810 9,670 12,101 10.6 13.3
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers 143 105,383 2,403 4,066 2.3 3.9
189 Photographers 85 65,378 7,138 9,361 10.9 14.3
193 Dancers 41 24,187 1,753 1,953 7.2 8.1
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 99 74,972 12,565 15,903 16.8 21.2
195 Editors and reporters 347 249,380 26,747 26,865 10.7 10.8
197 Public relations specialists 220 150,135 7,662 10,843 5.1 7.2
198 Announcers 70 49,355 1,812 2,469 3.7 5.0
199 Athletes 101 74,625 7,913 10,974 10.6 14.7
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,262 882,724 154,879 195,281 17.5 22.1
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 7 3,106 697 1,493 22.5 48.1
114 Biological science teachers 41 31,765 4,194 4,841 13.2 15.2
115 Chemistry teachers 23 14,121 1,473 2,978 10.4 21.1
116 Physics teachers 15 9,508 3,145 3,145 33.1 33.1
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 5 3,979 1,371 1,371 34.5 34.5
118 Psychology teachers 34 21,746 1,209 2,792 5.6 12.8
119 Economics teachers 26 20,155 5,453 8,427 27.1 41.8
123 History teachers 29 20,150 6,710 9,239 33.3 45.9
124 Political science teachers 13 10,274 771 1,244 7.5 12.1
125 Sociology teachers 16 10,600 5,330 7,051 50.3 66.5
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 5 2,368 690 1,239 29.1 52.4
127 Engineering teachers 46 31,424 7,446 9,733 23.7 31.0
128 Mathematical science teachers 75 55,100 8,978 10,530 16.3 19.1
129 Computer science teachers 29 21,203 4,727 6,220 22.3 29.3
133 Medical science teachers 31 24,274 4,686 4,686 19.3 19.3
134 Health specialties teachers 74 47,783 6,666 9,221 13.9 19.3
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 44 25,868 6,188 6,566 23.9 25.4
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 4 2,152 921 921 42.8 42.8
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 56 37,159 7,391 9,986 19.9 26.9
138 Physical education teachers 11 8,549 111 111 1.3 1.3
139 Education teachers 20 15,234 2,331 2,331 15.3 15.3
143 English teachers 83 58,818 8,557 8,557 14.5 14.5
144 Foreign language teachers 34 21,654 7,425 7,425 34.3 34.3
145 Law teachers 10 7,142 141 141 2.0 2.0
146 Social work teachers 6 2,808 1,175 1,175 41.8 41.8
147 Theology teachers 22 15,405 3,231 4,123 21.0 26.8
148 Trade and industrial teachers 9 7,010 1,013 2,108 14.5 30.1
149 Home economics teachers 0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 12 7,736 1,823 1,823 23.6 23.6
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 482 345,635 51,026 65,801 14.8 19.0
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,411 4,530,501 2,110,107 2,393,306 46.6 52.8
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 679 515,184 100,121 120,623 19.4 23.4
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,604 1,852,724 1,029,374 1,170,372 55.6 63.2
157 Teachers, secondary school 1,785 1,233,267 712,474 798,695 57.8 64.8
158 Teachers, special education 502 333,900 210,369 236,290 63.0 70.8
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 841 595,426 57,769 67,326 9.7 11.3
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 5,202 3,828,414 409,203 491,610 10.7 12.8
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 505 363,371 33,800 42,695 9.3 11.7
204 Dental hygienists 127 91,834 4,501 4,501 4.9 4.9
205 Health record technologists and technicians 22 16,585 737 737 4.4 4.4
206 Radiologic technicians 191 138,253 6,119 7,807 4.4 5.6
207 Licensed practical nurses 554 393,094 51,490 60,709 13.1 15.4
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 770 579,092 51,827 63,807 8.9 11.0
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 478 359,381 55,302 65,903 15.4 18.3
214 Industrial engineering technicians 7 4,797 1,292 1,292 26.9 26.9
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 25 18,247 5,378 5,378 29.5 29.5
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 298 219,494 29,925 35,513 13.6 16.2
217 Drafting occupations 292 224,675 13,307 20,374 5.9 9.1
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 88 63,186 4,787 5,327 7.6 8.4
223 Biological technicians 119 77,592 10,128 12,940 13.1 16.7
224 Chemical technicians 108 82,634 11,463 12,879 13.9 15.6
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 124 87,948 10,135 13,404 11.5 15.2
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 154 113,654 59,001 63,299 51.9 55.7
227 Air traffic controllers 49 31,740 15,527 16,685 48.9 52.6
228 Broadcast equipment operators 44 32,607 5,940 5,940 18.2 18.2
229 Computer programmers 713 546,994 23,874 30,009 4.4 5.5
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 2 1,848 887 887 48.0 48.0
234 Legal assistants 407 287,289 6,764 11,838 2.4 4.1
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 125 94,100 7,020 9,688 7.5 10.3
SALES OCCUPATIONS 17,162 12,657,796 540,975 616,071 4.3 4.9
243 Supervisors and Proprietors, Sales Occupations 4,313 3,148,647 108,905 126,050 3.5 4.0
253 Insurance sales occupations 604 449,098 12,206 16,265 2.7 3.6
254 Real estate sales occupations 521 382,489 14,981 19,467 3.9 5.1
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 411 297,666 3,873 7,202 1.3 2.4
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 189 145,145 7,054 8,484 4.9 5.8
257 Sales occupations, other business services 710 533,803 29,184 31,021 5.5 5.8
258 Sales engineers 51 39,469 0 1,376 0.0 3.5
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 1,812 1,376,421 28,588 34,937 2.1 2.5
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 365 267,974 3,619 4,470 1.4 1.7
264 Sales workers, apparel 580 436,771 7,227 10,399 1.7 2.4
265 Sales workers, shoes 130 96,243 1,936 1,936 2.0 2.0
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 217 159,030 1,786 1,786 1.1 1.1
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 271 207,997 3,820 4,592 1.8 2.2
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 337 235,328 3,210 4,581 1.4 1.9
269 Sales workers, parts 217 152,636 3,176 3,354 2.1 2.2
274 Sales workers, other commodities 1,885 1,380,123 38,029 45,990 2.8 3.3
275 Sales counter clerks 261 184,319 5,202 6,063 2.8 3.3
276 Cashiers 3,787 2,802,947 262,276 280,803 9.4 10.0
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 266 188,060 1,655 3,049 0.9 1.6
278 News vendors 131 96,376 3,209 3,209 3.3 3.3
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 80 56,683 1,037 1,037 1.8 1.8
284 Auctioneers 2 1,735 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 22 18,836 0 0 0.0 0.0
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL 24,283 17,700,645 2,280,843 2,633,831 12.9 14.9
303 Supervisors, general office 526 369,212 50,434 67,090 13.7 18.2
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 33 25,674 1,383 3,508 5.4 13.7
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 108 80,004 2,203 2,552 2.8 3.2
306 Chief communications operators 6 5,642 1,021 1,021 18.1 18.1
307 Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 234 175,496 28,811 37,032 16.4 21.1
308 Computer operators 505 386,143 32,695 40,393 8.5 10.5
309 Peripheral equipment operators 5 3,843 188 188 4.9 4.9
313 Secretaries 4,407 3,072,585 260,184 317,230 8.5 10.3
314 Stenographers 112 78,052 4,964 7,471 6.4 9.6
315 Typists 797 587,099 77,900 94,139 13.3 16.0
316 Interviewers 218 172,810 10,983 13,702 6.4 7.9
317 Hotel clerks 149 105,386 1,556 1,556 1.5 1.5
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 370 267,944 35,371 37,784 13.2 14.1
319 Receptionists 1,283 945,088 28,738 34,044 3.0 3.6
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 496 378,359 21,572 25,298 5.7 6.7
325 Classified-ad clerks 4 3,272 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 11 7,310 1,819 1,819 24.9 24.9
327 Order clerks 279 215,644 51,670 57,134 24.0 26.5
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 84 60,211 4,172 5,251 6.9 8.7
329 Library clerks 199 141,551 20,616 24,190 14.6 17.1
335 File clerks 398 312,387 28,392 34,715 9.1 11.1
336 Records clerks 247 175,583 25,270 31,212 14.4 17.8
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,100 1,474,943 80,294 97,634 5.4 6.6
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 228 166,847 20,907 26,089 12.5 15.6
339 Billing clerks 228 162,485 12,335 14,528 7.6 8.9
343 Cost and rate clerks 77 57,870 8,606 9,094 14.9 15.7
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 142 104,669 4,685 5,645 4.5 5.4
345 Duplicating machine operators 54 38,325 974 974 2.5 2.5
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 10 7,389 0 496 0.0 6.7
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 33 30,317 3,514 4,167 11.6 13.7
348 Telephone operators 226 165,584 42,916 47,092 25.9 28.4
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 15 14,465 3,440 4,135 23.8 28.6
354 Postal clerks, except mail carriers 418 303,188 218,876 240,282 72.2 79.3
355 Mail carriers, postal service 414 315,671 259,691 271,101 82.3 85.9
356 Mail clerks, except postal service 238 187,464 28,143 31,976 15.0 17.1
357 Messengers 215 164,425 8,017 8,296 4.9 5.0
359 Dispatchers 350 238,076 54,840 61,034 23.0 25.6
363 Production coordinators 280 208,321 31,091 34,864 14.9 16.7
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 769 611,249 88,475 96,424 14.5 15.8
365 Stock and inventory clerks 644 490,678 87,452 97,961 17.8 20.0
366 Meter readers 72 53,851 18,966 20,661 35.2 38.4
368 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers 74 55,490 9,655 9,655 17.4 17.4
373 Expediters 293 215,048 21,825 22,356 10.1 10.4
374 Material recording, scheduling, and distributing clerks, n.e.c. 24 18,098 7,161 7,798 39.6 43.1
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 541 396,541 17,313 17,933 4.4 4.5
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 1,213 882,555 39,667 49,086 4.5 5.6
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 143 111,017 29,392 31,300 26.5 28.2
378 Bill and account collectors 218 154,536 10,710 12,899 6.9 8.3
379 General office clerks 991 724,350 86,694 103,827 12.0 14.3
383 Bank tellers 595 433,672 11,944 16,343 2.8 3.8
384 Proofreaders 29 22,183 1,391 1,391 6.3 6.3
385 Data-entry keyers 940 718,049 74,208 89,161 10.3 12.4
386 Statistical clerks 131 96,041 6,600 9,108 6.9 9.5
387 Teachers' aides 883 626,013 191,498 225,565 30.6 36.0
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,224 881,942 109,622 127,631 12.4 14.5
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD OCCUPATIONS 1,084 812,425 5,363 6,743 0.7 0.8
403 Launderers and ironers 1 1,079 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 13 8,082 677 677 8.4 8.4
405 Housekeepers and butlers 19 14,706 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 364 279,237 963 963 0.3 0.3
407 Private household cleaners and servants 687 509,321 3,723 5,103 0.7 1.0
PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 2,840 2,153,802 851,550 909,277 39.5 42.2
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 55 39,629 24,285 26,068 61.3 65.8
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 121 92,938 51,507 52,594 55.4 56.6
415 Supervisors, guards 63 45,006 3,517 3,517 7.8 7.8
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 19 13,410 7,650 7,650 57.0 57.0
417 Firefighting occupations 292 215,870 146,566 151,250 67.9 70.1
418 Police and detectives, public service 738 560,764 335,401 356,315 59.8 63.5
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 182 129,855 48,948 51,439 37.7 39.6
424 Correctional institution officers 341 270,268 146,836 157,445 54.3 58.3
425 Crossing guards 43 32,454 8,648 8,648 26.6 26.6
426 Guards and police, except public service 867 664,034 72,361 88,519 10.9 13.3
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 119 89,574 5,831 5,831 6.5 6.5
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PROTECTIVE AND HOUSEHOLD 17,886 12,930,546 1,245,969 1,414,608 9.6 10.9
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 533 402,322 11,355 12,942 2.8 3.2
434 Bartenders 442 302,498 12,909 14,421 4.3 4.8
435 Waiters and waitresses 1,891 1,354,915 25,624 30,404 1.9 2.2
436 Cooks 2,740 2,011,586 96,795 121,062 4.8 6.0
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 413 305,275 3,860 5,158 1.3 1.7
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 335 242,497 46,732 49,955 19.3 20.6
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 690 530,647 33,267 39,676 6.3 7.5
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 924 665,509 64,745 74,650 9.7 11.2
445 Dental assistants 294 205,524 2,544 4,138 1.2 2.0
446 Health aides, except nursing 480 323,341 48,636 50,972 15.0 15.8
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,488 1,800,093 257,190 284,187 14.3 15.8
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 223 159,729 18,829 23,241 11.8 14.6
449 Maids and housemen 929 648,541 90,338 99,978 13.9 15.4
453 Janitors and cleaners 2,858 2,108,470 376,968 423,137 17.9 20.1
454 Elevator operators 11 6,246 4,342 4,342 69.5 69.5
455 Pest control occupations 64 56,416 2,257 2,257 4.0 4.0
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 91 62,136 5,411 6,181 8.7 9.9
457 Barbers 44 34,490 2,170 2,170 6.3 6.3
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 630 449,757 3,922 6,362 0.9 1.4
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 281 187,562 4,178 4,605 2.2 2.5
461 Guides 68 45,685 6,057 6,057 13.3 13.3
462 Ushers 35 29,237 1,422 1,422 4.9 4.9
463 Public transportation attendants 123 94,567 58,901 64,091 62.3 67.8
464 Baggage porters and bellhops 63 46,554 9,471 9,878 20.3 21.2
465 Welfare service aides 145 92,429 10,962 12,206 11.9 13.2
466 Family child care providers 16 10,217 0 0 0.0 0.0
467 Early childhood teacher's assistants 545 379,604 8,191 12,701 2.2 3.3
468 Child care workers, n.e.c. 287 203,504 17,182 20,098 8.4 9.9
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 243 171,194 21,712 28,317 12.7 16.5
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 2,589 1,892,031 91,875 103,538 4.9 5.5
473 Farmers, except horticulture 46 24,186 0 0 0.0 0.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 1 1,430 0 0 0.0 0.0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 104 64,755 0 0 0.0 0.0
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 3 2,751 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 48 35,858 0 1,220 0.0 3.4
479 Farm workers 1,054 752,699 12,555 13,336 1.7 1.8
483 Marine life cultivation workers 1 937 0 0 0.0 0.0
484 Nursery workers 28 21,681 0 0 0.0 0.0
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 83 69,121 1,254 2,731 1.8 4.0
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 871 686,410 60,057 65,235 8.7 9.5
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 133 99,687 4,796 6,189 4.8 6.2
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 66 59,955 8,462 9,664 14.1 16.1
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 2 952 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 14 6,198 102 220 1.6 3.5
495 Forestry workers, except logging 25 10,207 70 236 0.7 2.3
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 84 45,656 4,579 4,579 10.0 10.0
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 6 4,190 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 19 5,186 0 128 0.0 2.5
499 Hunters and trappers 1 172 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR, EXC. CONSTRUCTION 10,406 7,741,627 1,620,829 1,729,694 20.9 22.3
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 301 214,998 24,049 25,134 11.2 11.7
505 Automobile mechanics 909 690,100 56,822 62,649 8.2 9.1
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 5 3,800 678 678 17.9 17.9
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 442 306,254 84,418 91,756 27.6 30.0
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 179 135,051 65,049 68,093 48.2 50.4
509 Small engine repairers 70 47,841 1,270 1,494 2.7 3.1
514 Automobile body and related repairers 223 152,751 8,395 8,395 5.5 5.5
515 Aircraft mechanics, except engine 15 12,651 4,054 4,054 32.0 32.0
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 234 145,454 45,069 47,302 31.0 32.5
517 Farm equipment mechanics 41 25,947 869 869 3.3 3.3
518 Industrial machinery repairers 681 537,833 142,711 146,798 26.5 27.3
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 25 18,974 7,834 7,834 41.3 41.3
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 204 156,006 26,828 30,864 17.2 19.8
525 Data processing equipment repairers 224 177,999 11,764 13,511 6.6 7.6
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 43 29,161 5,409 5,969 18.5 20.5
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 55 36,170 24,780 27,033 68.5 74.7
529 Telephone installers and repairers 232 168,256 95,295 102,360 56.6 60.8
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 84 64,100 28,298 29,305 44.1 45.7
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 327 247,216 50,788 52,500 20.5 21.2
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 18 13,537 3,707 3,707 27.4 27.4
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 20 15,136 2,617 4,764 17.3 31.5
538 Office machine repairers 73 52,135 2,806 4,632 5.4 8.9
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 23 18,856 7,609 8,687 40.4 46.1
543 Elevator installers and repairers 35 27,465 21,387 22,143 77.9 80.6
544 Millwrights 115 85,940 48,963 48,963 57.0 57.0
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 527 400,259 71,212 77,892 17.8 19.5
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 321 232,430 53,579 57,551 23.1 24.8
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 73 39,544 1,610 3,165 4.1 8.0
614 Drillers, oil well 36 22,899 1,186 1,186 5.2 5.2
615 Explosives workers 7 4,322 700 700 16.2 16.2
616 Mining machine operators 79 39,912 17,523 17,961 43.9 45.0
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 39 22,251 1,706 2,991 7.7 13.4
628 Supervisors, production occupations 1,532 1,158,690 127,285 137,110 11.0 11.8
634 Tool and die makers 171 131,314 37,342 38,061 28.4 29.0
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 7 5,282 2,315 2,315 43.8 43.8
636 Precision assemblers, metal 27 21,833 6,967 7,928 31.9 36.3
637 Machinists 645 492,800 126,138 130,461 25.6 26.5
639 Machinist apprentices 8 5,397 0 0 0.0 0.0
643 Boilermakers 41 28,452 15,080 15,080 53.0 53.0
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 23 14,787 3,428 3,428 23.2 23.2
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 5 3,989 2,301 3,349 57.7 83.9
646 Lay-out workers 18 13,436 3,613 4,848 26.9 36.1
647 Precious stones and metals workers (Jewelers) 60 37,816 1,082 1,767 2.9 4.7
649 Engravers, metal 23 17,228 1,992 1,992 11.6 11.6
653 Sheet metal workers 162 117,539 41,178 45,670 35.0 38.9
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 1 1,096 1,096 1,096 100.0 100.0
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 2 1,285 568 568 44.2 44.2
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 7 5,870 1,834 1,834 31.2 31.2
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 73 57,094 1,659 2,904 2.9 5.1
658 Furniture and wood finishers 30 23,064 1,564 1,564 6.8 6.8
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 2 1,164 0 0 0.0 0.0
666 Dressmakers 72 51,221 7,599 8,577 14.8 16.7
667 Tailors 46 38,513 3,978 3,978 10.3 10.3
668 Upholsterers 51 42,447 4,334 4,998 10.2 11.8
669 Shoe repairers 15 12,188 806 2,048 6.6 16.8
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 10 8,163 0 0 0.0 0.0
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 18 12,348 3,048 4,385 24.7 35.5
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 11 7,881 4,205 4,205 53.4 53.4
677 Optical goods workers 89 63,428 5,090 5,090 8.0 8.0
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 53 37,121 1,781 2,509 4.8 6.8
679 Bookbinders 42 36,418 7,272 8,153 20.0 22.4
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 408 335,988 65,636 69,809 19.5 20.8
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 15 11,973 0 0 0.0 0.0
686 Butchers and meat cutters 317 235,648 67,606 73,170 28.7 31.1
687 Bakers 185 133,126 24,797 25,621 18.6 19.2
688 Food batchmakers 57 40,809 5,754 5,754 14.1 14.1
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 168 130,629 31,994 32,631 24.5 25.0
693 Adjusters and calibrators 9 7,624 617 617 8.1 8.1
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 85 61,089 23,977 23,977 39.2 39.2
695 Power plant operators 55 33,397 15,487 16,140 46.4 48.3
696 Stationary engineers 158 121,790 40,208 44,907 33.0 36.9
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 45 36,438 12,211 12,211 33.5 33.5
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 5,177 3,873,403 1,026,974 1,074,456 26.5 27.7
553 Supervisors, brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 3 1,862 1,081 1,081 58.1 58.1
554 Supervisors, carpenters and related workers 34 26,184 12,601 12,601 48.1 48.1
555 Supervisors, electricians and power transmission installers 32 27,519 9,269 9,269 33.7 33.7
556 Supervisors, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 9 7,286 1,022 2,121 14.0 29.1
557 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 20 13,427 5,491 5,491 40.9 40.9
558 Supervisors, construction, n.e.c. 514 369,001 65,145 73,389 17.7 19.9
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 151 113,405 29,728 29,728 26.2 26.2
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 2 2,465 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 45 34,532 2,202 3,014 6.4 8.7
566 Carpet installers 74 58,223 5,142 6,401 8.9 11.0
567 Carpenters 1,183 863,386 143,716 154,909 16.6 17.9
569 Carpenter apprentices 15 10,078 7,339 7,339 72.8 72.8
573 Drywall installers 161 127,877 18,304 18,304 14.3 14.3
575 Electricians 851 638,481 272,796 281,325 42.7 44.1
576 Electrician apprentices 46 32,417 9,354 9,354 28.9 28.9
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 178 126,261 69,003 72,544 54.7 57.5
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 397 305,262 39,316 42,773 12.9 14.0
583 Paperhangers 26 19,914 3,000 3,000 15.1 15.1
584 Plasterers 39 31,283 4,801 4,801 15.3 15.3
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 581 433,116 168,203 172,014 38.8 39.7
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 24 17,364 7,130 7,130 41.1 41.1
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 91 70,718 13,574 13,927 19.2 19.7
589 Glaziers 40 30,987 7,305 7,305 23.6 23.6
593 Insulation workers 79 54,466 16,869 17,519 31.0 32.2
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 12 8,061 1,506 1,506 18.7 18.7
595 Roofers 183 144,097 13,685 15,877 9.5 11.0
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 43 34,438 18,381 18,381 53.4 53.4
597 Structural metal workers 77 59,836 30,779 30,779 51.4 51.4
598 Drillers, earth 25 15,769 1,101 1,101 7.0 7.0
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 242 195,688 49,131 51,474 25.1 26.3
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 9,757 7,584,256 1,751,858 1,837,954 23.1 24.2
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 26 20,783 8,144 8,144 39.2 39.2
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 55 45,543 11,252 11,252 24.7 24.7
705 Milling and planing machine operators 11 8,920 2,536 2,536 28.4 28.4
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 114 94,129 37,185 37,185 39.5 39.5
707 Rolling machine operators 13 8,582 4,585 4,585 53.4 53.4
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 25 18,071 6,680 6,680 37.0 37.0
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 162 127,614 38,188 40,140 29.9 31.5
713 Forging machine operators 24 19,407 6,054 7,111 31.2 36.6
714 Numerical control machine operators 20 15,875 3,998 4,346 25.2 27.4
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 40 33,233 12,558 12,558 37.8 37.8
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 24 18,983 5,361 5,833 28.2 30.7
719 Molding and casting machine operators 122 101,784 22,615 22,615 22.2 22.2
723 Metal plating machine operators 31 23,579 3,689 3,689 15.6 15.6
724 Heat treating equipment operators 18 16,027 6,476 6,776 40.4 42.3
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 21 17,953 4,274 4,274 23.8 23.8
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 6 2,982 0 0 0.0 0.0
727 Sawing machine operators 116 76,037 7,073 7,073 9.3 9.3
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 12 6,575 2,644 2,644 40.2 40.2
729 Nailing and tacking machine operators 2 2,155 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 36 26,195 1,076 1,076 4.1 4.1
734 Printing press operators 378 294,861 48,130 49,532 16.3 16.8
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 35 23,641 1,405 1,405 5.9 5.9
736 Typesetters and compositors 51 34,330 2,721 2,721 7.9 7.9
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 40 30,012 1,467 1,467 4.9 4.9
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 61 53,066 2,851 4,654 5.4 8.8
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 47 40,542 2,842 2,842 7.0 7.0
743 Textile cutting machine operators 10 8,710 890 890 10.2 10.2
744 Textile sewing machine operators 771 582,557 62,460 71,040 10.7 12.2
745 Shoe machine operators 27 13,223 3,260 3,729 24.7 28.2
747 Pressing machine operators 125 98,825 7,495 7,495 7.6 7.6
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 240 168,682 24,377 25,008 14.5 14.8
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 68 54,346 5,587 6,246 10.3 11.5
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 40 32,303 8,872 9,655 27.5 29.9
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 512 394,626 95,094 98,297 24.1 24.9
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 47 34,435 9,776 9,776 28.4 28.4
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 130 103,457 23,074 23,638 22.3 22.8
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 72 55,870 27,466 28,943 49.2 51.8
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 34 28,633 8,128 9,187 28.4 32.1
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 245 196,952 43,970 44,362 22.3 22.5
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 13 9,350 2,552 2,552 27.3 27.3
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 8 8,891 4,504 4,504 50.7 50.7
765 Folding machine operators 28 22,618 3,894 3,894 17.2 17.2
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food 79 57,001 24,762 24,762 43.4 43.4
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 53 34,490 5,073 5,073 14.7 14.7
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 203 161,887 38,213 40,609 23.6 25.1
773 Motion picture projectionists 9 7,606 1,538 1,538 20.2 20.2
774 Photographic process machine operators 101 76,605 4,470 5,115 5.8 6.7
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,472 1,170,642 354,008 369,563 30.2 31.6
779 Machine operators, not specified 523 410,871 107,955 114,962 26.3 28.0
783 Welders and cutters 741 563,962 152,115 161,384 27.0 28.6
784 Solderers and brazers 29 22,595 3,189 3,189 14.1 14.1
785 Assemblers 1,555 1,220,477 321,999 338,737 26.4 27.8
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 12 9,959 1,726 1,726 17.3 17.3
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 22 18,321 2,815 2,815 15.4 15.4
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 21 14,928 4,977 4,977 33.3 33.3
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 26 21,786 2,411 2,411 11.1 11.1
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 67 48,507 2,931 2,931 6.0 6.0
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 672 530,702 112,825 117,947 21.3 22.2
797 Production testers 68 51,930 5,199 7,047 10.0 13.6
798 Production samplers and weighers 10 6,773 1,785 1,785 26.4 26.4
799 Graders and sorters, except agricultural 234 180,859 28,663 31,032 15.8 17.2
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 6,518 4,862,060 1,243,135 1,313,226 25.6 27.0
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 113 82,593 7,640 7,640 9.3 9.3
804 Truck drivers 3,575 2,684,684 533,579 566,821 19.9 21.1
806 Driver-sales workers 201 154,603 37,906 42,422 24.5 27.4
808 Bus drivers 672 494,502 179,732 198,009 36.3 40.0
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 213 159,141 19,388 21,295 12.2 13.4
813 Parking lot attendants 62 46,433 2,316 2,316 5.0 5.0
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 4 4,730 867 867 18.3 18.3
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 68 44,516 36,759 37,580 82.6 84.4
824 Locomotive operating occupations 77 50,284 43,880 43,880 87.3 87.3
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 20 16,118 13,684 15,018 84.9 93.2
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 9 7,451 5,322 5,322 71.4 71.4
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 42 29,953 5,194 5,194 17.3 17.3
829 Sailors and deckhands 30 26,754 10,063 10,063 37.6 37.6
833 Marine engineers 8 7,800 4,128 4,128 52.9 52.9
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 7 4,511 2,882 2,882 63.9 63.9
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 14 8,389 697 1,584 8.3 18.9
844 Operating engineers 345 232,848 82,146 83,565 35.3 35.9
845 Longshore equipment operators 4 3,404 1,226 1,226 36.0 36.0
848 Hoist and winch operators 31 17,810 3,012 3,012 16.9 16.9
849 Crane and tower operators 92 77,517 45,283 45,861 58.4 59.2
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 106 69,350 17,837 17,837 25.7 25.7
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 88 49,497 9,828 9,945 19.9 20.1
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 633 515,509 158,272 165,265 30.7 32.1
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 104 73,662 21,493 21,493 29.2 29.2
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS 6,452 4,981,488 1,004,925 1,050,049 20.2 21.1
864 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c. 17 13,192 4,007 4,007 30.4 30.4
865 Helpers, mechanics, and repairers 43 31,208 5,118 6,047 16.4 19.4
866 Helpers, construction trades 133 109,993 8,837 8,837 8.0 8.0
867 Helpers, surveyor 8 6,559 890 890 13.6 13.6
868 Helpers, extractive occupations 5 2,550 2,320 2,320 91.0 91.0
869 Construction laborers 1,071 810,780 144,938 153,043 17.9 18.9
874 Production helpers 54 47,270 10,737 10,737 22.7 22.7
875 Garbage collectors 55 43,453 19,811 19,811 45.6 45.6
876 Stevedores 20 17,680 16,598 16,598 93.9 93.9
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,467 1,123,363 236,006 245,697 21.0 21.9
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 91 70,574 12,654 12,654 17.9 17.9
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 852 688,218 202,934 212,276 29.5 30.8
885 Garage and service station related occupations 235 166,882 10,852 11,671 6.5 7.0
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 313 256,179 23,673 24,453 9.2 9.5
888 Hand packers and packagers 349 269,215 54,036 56,588 20.1 21.0
889 Laborers, except construction 1,739 1,324,372 251,515 264,418 19.0 20.0
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1996. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.