Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1997 (details in table note)  
 
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 20,399 14,908,161 763,167 959,163 5.1 6.4
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public administration 22 15,789 799 1,703 5.1 10.8
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 942 612,766 110,693 136,546 18.1 22.3
6 Administrators, protective services 88 56,194 11,224 12,520 20.0 22.3
7 Financial managers 923 668,742 8,153 10,366 1.2 1.6
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 145 106,441 1,645 2,377 1.5 2.2
9 Purchasing managers 152 110,400 2,175 5,437 2.0 4.9
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 914 712,546 10,556 14,474 1.5 2.0
14 Administrators, education and related fields 980 685,358 106,673 135,658 15.6 19.8
15 Managers, medicine and health 962 672,431 12,884 19,613 1.9 2.9
17 Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 1,344 981,105 20,822 29,160 2.1 3.0
18 Managers, properties and real estate 498 372,348 14,776 16,563 4.0 4.4
19 Funeral directors 43 28,910 589 589 2.0 2.0
21 Managers, service organizations, n.e.c. 837 577,731 41,795 46,461 7.2 8.0
22 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 6,969 5,223,154 175,774 214,171 3.4 4.1
23 Accountants and auditors 1,968 1,460,403 73,689 93,082 5.0 6.4
24 Underwriters 117 96,557 1,110 1,715 1.1 1.8
25 Other financial officers 912 646,643 16,825 27,435 2.6 4.2
26 Management analysts 249 186,378 8,370 12,771 4.5 6.9
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 626 448,964 35,537 43,992 7.9 9.8
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 12 9,676 0 0 0.0 0.0
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 276 200,709 5,072 5,708 2.5 2.8
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 354 269,848 10,315 17,685 3.8 6.6
34 Business and promotion agents 27 22,038 0 0 0.0 0.0
35 Construction inspectors 68 51,642 15,265 15,976 29.6 30.9
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 305 210,976 51,781 60,359 24.5 28.6
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 666 480,411 26,647 34,803 5.5 7.2
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS, EXC. TEACHERS 15,766 11,552,555 1,179,122 1,406,958 10.2 12.2
43 Architects 179 127,041 8,719 10,413 6.9 8.2
44 Aerospace engineers 96 81,112 8,205 15,194 10.1 18.7
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 34 27,674 3,851 5,507 13.9 19.9
46 Mining engineers 16 6,919 120 1,625 1.7 23.5
47 Petroleum engineers 33 20,924 94 94 0.4 0.4
48 Chemical engineers 120 90,988 2,796 3,782 3.1 4.2
49 Nuclear engineers 16 10,776 0 2,814 0.0 26.1
53 Civil engineers 311 223,716 30,866 32,425 13.8 14.5
54 Agricultural engineers 3 2,334 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 777 615,239 31,566 42,679 5.1 6.9
56 Industrial engineers 333 250,823 8,698 12,333 3.5 4.9
57 Mechanical engineers 451 346,735 22,913 26,824 6.6 7.7
58 Marine and naval architects 17 13,370 2,371 2,711 17.7 20.3
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 302 231,297 18,334 21,454 7.9 9.3
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 21 9,541 155 862 1.6 9.0
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 1,419 1,127,499 41,321 57,438 3.7 5.1
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 270 209,787 11,374 15,132 5.4 7.2
66 Actuaries 24 18,161 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 37 27,108 739 4,260 2.7 15.7
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 9 8,043 0 0 0.0 0.0
69 Physicists and astronomers 36 26,100 188 188 0.7 0.7
73 Chemists, except biochemists 197 146,779 8,281 9,818 5.6 6.7
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 16 11,668 1,119 2,627 9.6 22.5
75 Geologists and geodesists 75 49,086 3,636 3,636 7.4 7.4
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 56 36,068 5,534 7,000 15.3 19.4
77 Agricultural and food scientists 47 30,735 1,537 3,570 5.0 11.6
78 Biological and life scientists 156 106,847 12,203 15,354 11.4 14.4
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 49 24,363 2,903 3,215 11.9 13.2
83 Medical scientists 97 83,328 5,147 7,048 6.2 8.5
84 Physicians 650 472,622 27,300 39,127 5.8 8.3
85 Dentists 33 21,235 1,366 2,168 6.4 10.2
86 Veterinarians 31 23,078 477 477 2.1 2.1
87 Optometrists 26 15,321 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 1 1,294 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 12 7,398 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 2,882 2,034,165 320,818 364,497 15.8 17.9
96 Pharmacists 247 183,931 9,804 10,551 5.3 5.7
97 Dietitians 121 91,120 9,602 12,715 10.5 14.0
98 Respiratory therapists 113 81,760 7,038 8,200 8.6 10.0
99 Occupational therapists 79 56,759 4,136 8,774 7.3 15.5
103 Physical therapists 141 94,350 3,253 6,315 3.4 6.7
104 Speech therapists 138 93,458 33,370 37,677 35.7 40.3
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 128 85,153 13,876 14,621 16.3 17.2
106 Physicians' assistants 88 61,902 3,611 4,565 5.8 7.4
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational 355 251,934 83,990 99,032 33.3 39.3
164 Librarians 276 190,131 60,057 65,956 31.6 34.7
165 Archivists and curators 40 23,966 2,691 2,862 11.2 11.9
166 Economists 165 120,100 1,593 4,165 1.3 3.5
167 Psychologists 239 167,617 30,389 37,720 18.1 22.5
168 Sociologists 6 2,312 262 262 11.4 11.4
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 40 25,412 143 143 0.6 0.6
173 Urban planners 26 19,990 5,482 5,482 27.4 27.4
174 Social workers 1,079 793,807 191,099 205,846 24.1 25.9
175 Recreation workers 168 122,926 4,474 5,952 3.6 4.8
176 Clergy 481 340,081 1,631 8,619 0.5 2.5
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 121 91,729 0 957 0.0 1.0
178 Lawyers and Judges 790 577,706 26,405 32,875 4.6 5.7
183 Authors 69 51,441 1,540 3,098 3.0 6.0
184 Technical writers 77 61,030 1,592 2,342 2.6 3.8
185 Designers 640 473,548 21,078 22,638 4.5 4.8
186 Musicians and composers 100 84,430 12,860 12,860 15.2 15.2
187 Actors and directors 134 101,493 11,765 12,607 11.6 12.4
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers 140 110,414 3,441 5,314 3.1 4.8
189 Photographers 88 64,624 2,443 2,443 3.8 3.8
193 Dancers 26 17,069 3,925 3,925 23.0 23.0
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 88 65,825 6,038 7,569 9.2 11.5
195 Editors and reporters 361 242,147 23,645 25,680 9.8 10.6
197 Public relations specialists 199 137,451 5,448 7,166 4.0 5.2
198 Announcers 73 54,024 1,919 3,037 3.6 5.6
199 Athletes 98 73,740 7,893 10,713 10.7 14.5
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,290 878,440 141,820 173,206 16.1 19.7
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 13 8,955 0 1,123 0.0 12.5
114 Biological science teachers 38 27,364 6,274 7,204 22.9 26.3
115 Chemistry teachers 22 13,865 3,344 3,869 24.1 27.9
116 Physics teachers 20 13,112 699 699 5.3 5.3
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 5 3,519 272 728 7.7 20.7
118 Psychology teachers 34 23,419 2,725 3,287 11.6 14.0
119 Economics teachers 28 19,541 1,050 2,666 5.4 13.6
123 History teachers 28 18,569 5,196 6,546 28.0 35.3
124 Political science teachers 17 11,456 2,169 2,169 18.9 18.9
125 Sociology teachers 9 6,480 932 4,263 14.4 65.8
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 12 7,517 2,158 3,252 28.7 43.3
127 Engineering teachers 48 33,801 2,375 3,577 7.0 10.6
128 Mathematical science teachers 65 45,719 11,311 11,587 24.7 25.3
129 Computer science teachers 30 21,053 4,468 5,597 21.2 26.6
133 Medical science teachers 28 18,880 2,577 3,639 13.7 19.3
134 Health specialties teachers 65 46,156 5,920 5,920 12.8 12.8
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 40 22,305 4,613 4,861 20.7 21.8
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 10 5,846 2,600 3,359 44.5 57.5
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 59 35,262 7,706 8,515 21.9 24.1
138 Physical education teachers 15 6,991 793 960 11.3 13.7
139 Education teachers 17 12,729 1,571 1,571 12.3 12.3
143 English teachers 89 65,534 14,191 15,735 21.7 24.0
144 Foreign language teachers 36 23,311 2,146 2,664 9.2 11.4
145 Law teachers 9 7,003 2,198 2,198 31.4 31.4
146 Social work teachers 2 1,489 0 0 0.0 0.0
147 Theology teachers 14 9,140 1,022 1,022 11.2 11.2
148 Trade and industrial teachers 5 3,489 2,259 2,259 64.8 64.8
149 Home economics teachers 1 343 0 0 0.0 0.0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 9 3,869 285 285 7.4 7.4
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 522 361,724 50,967 63,650 14.1 17.6
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,543 4,606,391 2,124,197 2,412,001 46.1 52.4
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 718 553,100 103,434 120,284 18.7 21.7
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,659 1,879,885 1,072,056 1,212,661 57.0 64.5
157 Teachers, secondary school 1,732 1,174,268 658,652 744,895 56.1 63.4
158 Teachers, special education 557 386,278 234,530 267,019 60.7 69.1
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 877 612,859 55,525 67,142 9.1 11.0
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 5,550 4,110,786 426,797 501,326 10.4 12.2
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 523 391,310 30,151 33,514 7.7 8.6
204 Dental hygienists 160 109,029 3,307 3,307 3.0 3.0
205 Health record technologists and technicians 27 16,828 2,958 3,614 17.6 21.5
206 Radiologic technicians 208 146,216 11,882 15,069 8.1 10.3
207 Licensed practical nurses 555 400,522 47,442 54,368 11.8 13.6
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 813 614,683 71,821 85,142 11.7 13.9
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 508 380,872 53,650 64,244 14.1 16.9
214 Industrial engineering technicians 11 7,113 2,494 2,494 35.1 35.1
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 24 18,458 4,963 6,078 26.9 32.9
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 326 251,199 29,846 34,751 11.9 13.8
217 Drafting occupations 287 213,652 9,782 11,018 4.6 5.2
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 87 66,097 6,251 6,629 9.5 10.0
223 Biological technicians 148 95,905 9,460 12,925 9.9 13.5
224 Chemical technicians 111 79,498 5,920 5,920 7.4 7.4
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 125 95,225 6,086 7,219 6.4 7.6
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 158 116,552 66,982 68,850 57.5 59.1
227 Air traffic controllers 61 37,187 18,507 20,725 49.8 55.7
228 Broadcast equipment operators 42 33,756 7,653 7,653 22.7 22.7
229 Computer programmers 785 607,442 20,046 31,235 3.3 5.1
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 5 5,258 0 0 0.0 0.0
234 Legal assistants 455 331,279 9,313 17,993 2.8 5.4
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 131 92,705 8,282 8,577 8.9 9.3
SALES OCCUPATIONS 17,588 13,054,532 559,050 658,629 4.3 5.0
243 Supervisors and Proprietors, Sales Occupations 4,398 3,234,794 120,266 140,198 3.7 4.3
253 Insurance sales occupations 567 436,117 6,776 12,643 1.6 2.9
254 Real estate sales occupations 562 417,226 21,703 25,358 5.2 6.1
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 467 343,384 1,429 5,726 0.4 1.7
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 224 163,864 3,494 5,164 2.1 3.2
257 Sales occupations, other business services 745 578,803 18,634 23,337 3.2 4.0
258 Sales engineers 39 29,737 0 0 0.0 0.0
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 1,780 1,335,026 24,963 34,922 1.9 2.6
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 394 281,298 828 2,983 0.3 1.1
264 Sales workers, apparel 539 405,238 6,774 8,643 1.7 2.1
265 Sales workers, shoes 137 103,931 0 942 0.0 0.9
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 204 151,489 1,186 2,562 0.8 1.7
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 290 225,941 1,700 1,700 0.8 0.8
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 340 239,703 1,695 3,629 0.7 1.5
269 Sales workers, parts 221 159,171 5,143 6,395 3.2 4.0
274 Sales workers, other commodities 1,908 1,371,379 43,805 51,567 3.2 3.8
275 Sales counter clerks 295 228,470 9,832 10,656 4.3 4.7
276 Cashiers 3,976 2,980,927 284,967 314,744 9.6 10.6
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 271 194,001 2,574 2,836 1.3 1.5
278 News vendors 129 100,521 2,160 2,785 2.1 2.8
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 79 57,836 176 176 0.3 0.3
284 Auctioneers 1 1,460 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 22 14,217 945 1,665 6.6 11.7
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL 24,230 17,630,739 2,172,305 2,488,141 12.3 14.1
303 Supervisors, general office 563 403,118 47,754 59,481 11.8 14.8
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 24 17,018 2,100 2,100 12.3 12.3
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 118 90,913 2,544 2,544 2.8 2.8
306 Chief communications operators 6 4,997 1,377 1,377 27.5 27.5
307 Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 241 174,796 23,132 28,611 13.2 16.4
308 Computer operators 498 370,972 29,507 35,431 8.0 9.6
309 Peripheral equipment operators 13 9,867 0 0 0.0 0.0
313 Secretaries 4,126 2,861,026 225,591 266,519 7.9 9.3
314 Stenographers 112 76,681 7,756 8,813 10.1 11.5
315 Typists 718 522,976 58,933 67,446 11.3 12.9
316 Interviewers 231 174,665 11,233 13,247 6.4 7.6
317 Hotel clerks 187 123,159 6,310 7,165 5.1 5.8
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 348 245,070 36,857 39,972 15.0 16.3
319 Receptionists 1,376 1,000,062 32,578 43,245 3.3 4.3
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 496 383,577 26,190 29,965 6.8 7.8
325 Classified-ad clerks 6 4,514 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 9 4,754 0 0 0.0 0.0
327 Order clerks 300 225,806 60,243 63,946 26.7 28.3
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 101 70,662 6,202 6,549 8.8 9.3
329 Library clerks 223 156,756 23,331 28,222 14.9 18.0
335 File clerks 373 286,175 22,851 28,621 8.0 10.0
336 Records clerks 229 162,503 19,908 22,876 12.3 14.1
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,016 1,414,892 61,778 76,990 4.4 5.4
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 206 148,868 18,201 18,822 12.2 12.6
339 Billing clerks 222 157,651 11,285 13,562 7.2 8.6
343 Cost and rate clerks 64 44,485 2,680 3,824 6.0 8.6
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 118 92,675 3,040 4,206 3.3 4.5
345 Duplicating machine operators 50 37,485 2,117 2,117 5.6 5.6
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 19 12,530 3,046 3,046 24.3 24.3
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 32 27,604 3,448 4,287 12.5 15.5
348 Telephone operators 243 175,650 37,746 39,723 21.5 22.6
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 11 9,128 1,051 1,051 11.5 11.5
354 Postal clerks, except mail carriers 437 322,272 238,806 264,912 74.1 82.2
355 Mail carriers, postal service 425 309,363 249,037 259,571 80.5 83.9
356 Mail clerks, except postal service 228 169,999 18,539 21,487 10.9 12.6
357 Messengers 199 158,022 4,888 5,567 3.1 3.5
359 Dispatchers 328 235,867 45,669 49,747 19.4 21.1
363 Production coordinators 352 267,630 24,072 32,367 9.0 12.1
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 775 625,090 88,871 98,976 14.2 15.8
365 Stock and inventory clerks 602 456,490 81,534 87,574 17.9 19.2
366 Meter readers 65 50,385 15,199 15,339 30.2 30.4
368 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers 78 54,777 13,415 13,415 24.5 24.5
373 Expediters 326 245,052 24,290 27,831 9.9 11.4
374 Material recording, scheduling, and distributing clerks, n.e.c. 19 16,798 6,762 6,762 40.3 40.3
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 574 426,376 10,941 13,476 2.6 3.2
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 1,311 975,477 48,169 61,181 4.9 6.3
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 156 116,407 27,188 30,561 23.4 26.3
378 Bill and account collectors 228 167,302 17,670 18,593 10.6 11.1
379 General office clerks 1,087 812,330 85,811 95,685 10.6 11.8
383 Bank tellers 617 457,592 6,770 9,356 1.5 2.0
384 Proofreaders 26 16,617 806 806 4.8 4.8
385 Data-entry keyers 853 651,677 66,632 82,367 10.2 12.6
386 Statistical clerks 113 81,211 11,480 12,489 14.1 15.4
387 Teachers' aides 888 625,116 190,089 225,878 30.4 36.1
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,264 897,854 106,875 130,444 11.9 14.5
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD OCCUPATIONS 1,049 792,325 2,281 3,030 0.3 0.4
403 Launderers and ironers 5 3,850 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 10 7,494 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 13 9,670 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 347 260,193 0 0 0.0 0.0
407 Private household cleaners and servants 674 511,117 2,281 3,030 0.4 0.6
PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 2,976 2,248,401 897,353 964,596 39.9 42.9
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 46 34,245 26,977 27,092 78.8 79.1
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 133 105,184 53,362 55,461 50.7 52.7
415 Supervisors, guards 45 36,067 5,064 7,089 14.0 19.7
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 23 15,936 8,957 9,622 56.2 60.4
417 Firefighting occupations 292 212,796 152,444 153,754 71.6 72.3
418 Police and detectives, public service 738 568,331 357,842 387,701 63.0 68.2
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 197 139,440 48,394 55,985 34.7 40.1
424 Correctional institution officers 361 282,956 149,167 154,781 52.7 54.7
425 Crossing guards 47 35,029 4,655 4,655 13.3 13.3
426 Guards and police, except public service 949 713,259 80,280 97,873 11.3 13.7
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 145 105,156 10,212 10,583 9.7 10.1
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PROTECTIVE AND HOUSEHOLD 18,133 13,163,604 1,241,448 1,388,262 9.4 10.5
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 529 389,405 18,796 21,340 4.8 5.5
434 Bartenders 418 289,032 10,660 13,692 3.7 4.7
435 Waiters and waitresses 1,847 1,351,435 26,766 33,450 2.0 2.5
436 Cooks 2,789 2,043,963 85,328 100,806 4.2 4.9
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 449 330,785 5,405 6,155 1.6 1.9
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 385 283,716 52,811 55,384 18.6 19.5
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 694 535,207 32,554 37,126 6.1 6.9
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 876 654,487 57,851 66,964 8.8 10.2
445 Dental assistants 313 226,346 6,322 6,322 2.8 2.8
446 Health aides, except nursing 494 351,988 49,399 53,166 14.0 15.1
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,475 1,803,394 234,373 262,079 13.0 14.5
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 242 175,902 15,098 16,545 8.6 9.4
449 Maids and housemen 878 613,324 73,779 81,225 12.0 13.2
453 Janitors and cleaners 2,911 2,116,378 376,259 413,888 17.8 19.6
454 Elevator operators 9 4,702 1,493 1,493 31.8 31.8
455 Pest control occupations 54 45,355 2,839 2,839 6.3 6.3
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 99 66,702 4,498 4,865 6.7 7.3
457 Barbers 43 35,987 0 0 0.0 0.0
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 621 455,407 5,386 7,233 1.2 1.6
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 315 211,289 7,331 10,370 3.5 4.9
461 Guides 52 36,831 1,551 2,681 4.2 7.3
462 Ushers 45 32,816 0 770 0.0 2.3
463 Public transportation attendants 159 116,443 80,845 82,757 69.4 71.1
464 Baggage porters and bellhops 72 51,964 16,070 18,101 30.9 34.8
465 Welfare service aides 144 91,867 9,992 10,990 10.9 12.0
466 Family child care providers 31 22,337 0 0 0.0 0.0
467 Early childhood teacher's assistants 632 443,532 16,712 20,764 3.8 4.7
468 Child care workers, n.e.c. 319 215,563 28,190 35,363 13.1 16.4
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 238 167,447 21,139 21,894 12.6 13.1
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 2,519 1,889,621 87,554 96,524 4.6 5.1
473 Farmers, except horticulture 31 18,111 823 823 4.5 4.5
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 109 76,189 0 0 0.0 0.0
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 6 5,339 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 42 35,817 1,913 1,913 5.3 5.3
479 Farm workers 965 719,595 5,259 8,578 0.7 1.2
483 Marine life cultivation workers 2 1,259 0 0 0.0 0.0
484 Nursery workers 38 29,974 1,034 1,034 3.5 3.5
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 91 70,278 4,415 4,415 6.3 6.3
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 887 692,549 57,390 61,924 8.3 8.9
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 120 86,714 1,139 1,929 1.3 2.2
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 74 61,706 6,201 6,201 10.0 10.0
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 2 1,667 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 15 9,015 1,492 1,819 16.6 20.2
495 Forestry workers, except logging 26 9,759 424 424 4.3 4.3
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 83 55,030 7,464 7,464 13.6 13.6
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 8 5,483 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 18 10,083 0 0 0.0 0.0
499 Hunters and trappers 2 1,053 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR, EXC. CONSTRUCTION 10,627 7,955,304 1,671,133 1,770,950 21.0 22.3
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 323 243,786 26,289 29,535 10.8 12.1
505 Automobile mechanics 924 696,339 58,850 62,899 8.5 9.0
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 6 4,753 0 859 0.0 18.1
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 440 318,586 84,667 89,600 26.6 28.1
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 167 131,968 63,803 68,059 48.3 51.6
509 Small engine repairers 65 47,962 1,454 2,952 3.0 6.2
514 Automobile body and related repairers 221 162,073 8,447 9,418 5.2 5.8
515 Aircraft mechanics, except engine 22 22,366 12,162 14,009 54.4 62.6
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 252 174,139 56,989 58,344 32.7 33.5
517 Farm equipment mechanics 50 33,310 2,951 2,951 8.9 8.9
518 Industrial machinery repairers 674 511,727 154,143 160,694 30.1 31.4
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 33 20,624 8,366 9,519 40.6 46.2
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 227 175,153 44,893 46,734 25.6 26.7
525 Data processing equipment repairers 248 190,180 9,888 13,458 5.2 7.1
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 35 27,352 2,730 2,730 10.0 10.0
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 67 47,195 26,390 28,052 55.9 59.4
529 Telephone installers and repairers 265 192,936 101,090 104,013 52.4 53.9
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 82 57,311 24,589 27,617 42.9 48.2
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 348 281,621 50,720 54,031 18.0 19.2
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 21 16,867 6,657 6,657 39.5 39.5
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 24 16,461 1,708 1,708 10.4 10.4
538 Office machine repairers 78 55,571 6,509 7,462 11.7 13.4
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 28 20,146 8,319 8,319 41.3 41.3
543 Elevator installers and repairers 35 23,503 19,741 19,741 84.0 84.0
544 Millwrights 120 89,281 47,397 49,146 53.1 55.0
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 479 360,227 66,062 71,338 18.3 19.8
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 346 262,732 52,668 56,278 20.0 21.4
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 69 34,894 1,124 1,124 3.2 3.2
614 Drillers, oil well 48 33,204 2,280 2,280 6.9 6.9
615 Explosives workers 6 2,584 123 123 4.8 4.8
616 Mining machine operators 81 34,669 15,462 15,755 44.6 45.4
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 53 31,883 6,556 6,556 20.6 20.6
628 Supervisors, production occupations 1,578 1,194,425 126,555 135,561 10.6 11.3
634 Tool and die makers 153 119,558 41,053 42,678 34.3 35.7
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 6 6,184 0 655 0.0 10.6
636 Precision assemblers, metal 24 20,214 8,646 8,646 42.8 42.8
637 Machinists 657 499,488 116,693 121,561 23.4 24.3
639 Machinist apprentices 5 4,381 733 733 16.7 16.7
643 Boilermakers 36 23,137 11,210 11,210 48.5 48.5
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 14 10,336 3,358 3,358 32.5 32.5
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 10 8,179 5,157 5,157 63.0 63.0
646 Lay-out workers 14 11,512 3,062 3,062 26.6 26.6
647 Precious stones and metals workers (Jewelers) 50 32,500 1,290 1,290 4.0 4.0
649 Engravers, metal 16 13,163 0 913 0.0 6.9
653 Sheet metal workers 140 108,761 39,693 44,491 36.5 40.9
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 1 1,260 1,260 1,260 100.0 100.0
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 3 2,823 1,255 1,255 44.5 44.5
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 70 54,722 6,982 6,982 12.8 12.8
658 Furniture and wood finishers 27 20,341 1,845 1,845 9.1 9.1
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 2 1,818 0 0 0.0 0.0
666 Dressmakers 74 55,767 5,214 5,788 9.4 10.4
667 Tailors 41 30,254 2,145 2,145 7.1 7.1
668 Upholsterers 46 40,692 873 1,536 2.1 3.8
669 Shoe repairers 15 10,467 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 10 6,794 0 0 0.0 0.0
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 16 11,149 970 970 8.7 8.7
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 14 11,549 2,137 2,137 18.5 18.5
677 Optical goods workers 98 66,064 4,860 5,613 7.4 8.5
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 73 60,331 2,549 3,401 4.2 5.6
679 Bookbinders 31 25,563 2,972 3,704 11.6 14.5
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 400 316,594 52,729 54,202 16.7 17.1
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 23 18,731 2,070 2,070 11.1 11.1
686 Butchers and meat cutters 312 236,995 69,893 75,403 29.5 31.8
687 Bakers 183 128,823 29,737 30,286 23.1 23.5
688 Food batchmakers 57 43,121 7,086 9,445 16.4 21.9
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 182 143,060 36,077 36,182 25.2 25.3
693 Adjusters and calibrators 15 8,405 2,451 2,451 29.2 29.2
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 94 69,542 21,884 21,884 31.5 31.5
695 Power plant operators 53 36,624 19,149 19,693 52.3 53.8
696 Stationary engineers 192 141,508 53,574 58,474 37.9 41.3
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 55 39,070 12,943 12,943 33.1 33.1
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 5,422 4,113,319 1,052,353 1,092,665 25.6 26.6
553 Supervisors, brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 6 6,079 2,058 2,058 33.9 33.9
554 Supervisors, carpenters and related workers 28 18,485 3,364 3,364 18.2 18.2
555 Supervisors, electricians and power transmission installers 30 23,691 7,540 9,526 31.8 40.2
556 Supervisors, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 5 4,692 675 675 14.4 14.4
557 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 14 11,971 6,744 6,744 56.3 56.3
558 Supervisors, construction, n.e.c. 558 397,453 71,696 74,483 18.0 18.7
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 185 142,341 42,234 44,499 29.7 31.3
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 3 2,422 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 51 36,588 6,645 8,809 18.2 24.1
566 Carpet installers 86 71,861 5,050 5,331 7.0 7.4
567 Carpenters 1,319 973,425 150,508 154,364 15.5 15.9
569 Carpenter apprentices 9 4,507 1,250 2,379 27.7 52.8
573 Drywall installers 162 129,623 9,422 14,052 7.3 10.8
575 Electricians 872 673,885 297,557 301,341 44.2 44.7
576 Electrician apprentices 50 36,681 9,342 9,579 25.5 26.1
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 167 116,237 65,132 66,463 56.0 57.2
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 405 331,641 38,807 41,561 11.7 12.5
583 Paperhangers 7 4,126 1,503 1,503 36.4 36.4
584 Plasterers 40 33,116 5,146 5,146 15.5 15.5
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 575 435,001 155,119 163,339 35.7 37.5
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 22 13,095 7,269 7,269 55.5 55.5
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 94 83,482 17,137 18,201 20.5 21.8
589 Glaziers 52 37,158 7,345 7,345 19.8 19.8
593 Insulation workers 75 54,072 11,708 13,266 21.7 24.5
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 8 6,264 2,013 2,865 32.1 45.7
595 Roofers 174 138,915 13,960 14,749 10.0 10.6
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 50 40,033 17,784 17,784 44.4 44.4
597 Structural metal workers 93 64,731 38,205 38,205 59.0 59.0
598 Drillers, earth 19 10,154 2,246 2,246 22.1 22.1
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 263 211,594 54,892 55,519 25.9 26.2
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 9,854 7,716,843 1,690,474 1,764,221 21.9 22.9
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 28 25,107 9,104 9,466 36.3 37.7
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 47 36,831 8,910 9,500 24.2 25.8
705 Milling and planing machine operators 8 6,514 1,616 1,616 24.8 24.8
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 110 91,023 27,058 27,832 29.7 30.6
707 Rolling machine operators 17 13,856 3,633 3,633 26.2 26.2
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 18 14,731 5,564 5,564 37.8 37.8
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 139 111,526 28,978 28,978 26.0 26.0
713 Forging machine operators 17 13,037 4,067 4,067 31.2 31.2
714 Numerical control machine operators 18 14,024 1,983 1,983 14.1 14.1
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 38 31,090 12,002 12,002 38.6 38.6
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 30 20,461 2,767 3,244 13.5 15.9
719 Molding and casting machine operators 157 124,259 22,324 22,913 18.0 18.4
723 Metal plating machine operators 30 25,794 7,554 7,554 29.3 29.3
724 Heat treating equipment operators 20 17,329 7,923 7,923 45.7 45.7
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 14 10,168 3,294 3,294 32.4 32.4
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 14 11,111 1,012 1,012 9.1 9.1
727 Sawing machine operators 101 75,093 5,386 5,568 7.2 7.4
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 7 4,025 973 973 24.2 24.2
729 Nailing and tacking machine operators 4 3,046 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 35 21,326 4,048 4,048 19.0 19.0
734 Printing press operators 361 282,590 45,094 46,121 16.0 16.3
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 40 32,889 5,589 5,589 17.0 17.0
736 Typesetters and compositors 42 33,186 2,724 3,035 8.2 9.1
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 30 23,651 2,695 2,695 11.4 11.4
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 60 53,170 6,021 6,021 11.3 11.3
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 48 38,395 3,851 3,851 10.0 10.0
743 Textile cutting machine operators 13 11,497 1,002 1,002 8.7 8.7
744 Textile sewing machine operators 734 576,095 58,495 62,765 10.2 10.9
745 Shoe machine operators 33 22,978 7,394 8,496 32.2 37.0
747 Pressing machine operators 119 104,672 8,862 8,862 8.5 8.5
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 251 169,789 16,772 19,994 9.9 11.8
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 63 53,304 5,679 5,679 10.7 10.7
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 37 32,061 9,045 9,045 28.2 28.2
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 490 379,453 79,215 83,098 20.9 21.9
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 49 40,603 11,136 11,136 27.4 27.4
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 146 119,822 29,148 31,249 24.3 26.1
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 86 62,186 33,223 33,223 53.4 53.4
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 24 17,555 1,409 1,409 8.0 8.0
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 242 198,008 39,319 40,224 19.9 20.3
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 13 6,233 3,415 3,415 54.8 54.8
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 18 15,069 0 232 0.0 1.5
765 Folding machine operators 36 29,908 5,426 6,335 18.1 21.2
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food 102 81,276 44,570 46,085 54.8 56.7
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 57 41,697 2,617 2,617 6.3 6.3
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 212 167,924 39,031 39,688 23.2 23.6
773 Motion picture projectionists 10 8,062 811 811 10.1 10.1
774 Photographic process machine operators 115 85,631 3,789 4,752 4.4 5.5
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,460 1,164,221 324,339 337,434 27.9 29.0
779 Machine operators, not specified 530 417,385 111,650 117,396 26.7 28.1
783 Welders and cutters 734 545,680 150,888 158,598 27.7 29.1
784 Solderers and brazers 38 27,744 3,213 3,213 11.6 11.6
785 Assemblers 1,678 1,316,195 302,821 314,854 23.0 23.9
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 14 9,180 2,014 2,966 21.9 32.3
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 26 21,704 2,241 2,241 10.3 10.3
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 22 17,281 6,854 8,675 39.7 50.2
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 17 14,098 589 589 4.2 4.2
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 59 52,579 4,934 6,610 9.4 12.6
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 681 532,464 123,359 129,438 23.2 24.3
797 Production testers 85 66,916 10,406 10,406 15.6 15.6
798 Production samplers and weighers 4 2,864 1,395 1,395 48.7 48.7
799 Graders and sorters, except agricultural 223 170,478 21,244 21,806 12.5 12.8
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 6,592 4,930,887 1,199,426 1,279,149 24.3 25.9
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 116 88,731 6,684 10,458 7.5 11.8
804 Truck drivers 3,610 2,750,221 539,936 578,751 19.6 21.0
806 Driver-sales workers 179 129,204 35,889 37,389 27.8 28.9
808 Bus drivers 661 470,172 150,892 163,398 32.1 34.8
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 245 184,405 18,079 18,838 9.8 10.2
813 Parking lot attendants 61 49,114 8,112 10,331 16.5 21.0
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 7 4,115 1,766 1,766 42.9 42.9
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 75 49,412 38,970 38,970 78.9 78.9
824 Locomotive operating occupations 78 50,369 44,939 45,264 89.2 89.9
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 18 14,340 11,796 11,796 82.3 82.3
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 7 4,684 3,927 3,927 83.8 83.8
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 33 22,009 2,675 2,675 12.2 12.2
829 Sailors and deckhands 27 19,713 8,749 9,299 44.4 47.2
833 Marine engineers 2 1,435 0 0 0.0 0.0
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 6 4,629 766 1,451 16.6 31.3
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 13 9,468 2,431 2,431 25.7 25.7
844 Operating engineers 341 213,360 73,858 75,565 34.6 35.4
845 Longshore equipment operators 6 3,906 3,661 3,661 93.7 93.7
848 Hoist and winch operators 34 24,925 3,628 3,628 14.6 14.6
849 Crane and tower operators 104 87,048 48,511 49,675 55.7 57.1
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 132 89,349 21,445 22,058 24.0 24.7
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 90 58,269 15,818 16,690 27.1 28.6
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 646 532,231 135,791 149,051 25.5 28.0
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 101 69,778 21,105 22,080 30.2 31.6
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS 6,417 4,981,142 901,442 964,186 18.1 19.4
864 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c. 16 12,560 2,257 2,257 18.0 18.0
865 Helpers, mechanics, and repairers 39 31,976 5,828 5,828 18.2 18.2
866 Helpers, construction trades 139 116,731 7,224 7,869 6.2 6.7
867 Helpers, surveyor 9 7,260 1,110 1,110 15.3 15.3
868 Helpers, extractive occupations 3 1,452 0 0 0.0 0.0
869 Construction laborers 1,029 796,603 151,054 161,657 19.0 20.3
874 Production helpers 66 56,249 7,271 7,949 12.9 14.1
875 Garbage collectors 52 40,828 14,500 15,148 35.5 37.1
876 Stevedores 25 22,801 22,661 22,661 99.4 99.4
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,444 1,109,755 194,603 208,228 17.5 18.8
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 98 70,244 7,571 7,571 10.8 10.8
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 831 659,066 181,397 196,691 27.5 29.8
885 Garage and service station related occupations 256 192,328 6,133 7,081 3.2 3.7
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 334 260,848 20,560 21,488 7.9 8.2
888 Hand packers and packagers 350 278,207 49,138 51,904 17.7 18.7
889 Laborers, except construction 1,726 1,324,233 230,133 246,745 17.4 18.6
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1997. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.