Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1998 (details in table note)  
 
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 20,947 15,473,236 812,147 1,017,282 5.2 6.6
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public administration 24 16,205 1,703 1,703 10.5 10.5
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 931 620,601 108,157 135,923 17.4 21.9
6 Administrators, protective services 83 54,727 14,270 14,270 26.1 26.1
7 Financial managers 929 677,734 6,289 10,811 0.9 1.6
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 201 153,784 7,399 9,141 4.8 5.9
9 Purchasing managers 180 137,573 2,389 3,137 1.7 2.3
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 982 770,661 2,538 7,453 0.3 1.0
14 Administrators, education and related fields 1,036 705,667 110,832 135,920 15.7 19.3
15 Managers, medicine and health 987 690,061 26,670 32,793 3.9 4.8
17 Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 1,434 1,056,973 23,213 36,856 2.2 3.5
18 Managers, properties and real estate 473 360,363 13,153 14,240 3.6 4.0
19 Funeral directors 38 25,644 588 588 2.3 2.3
21 Managers, service organizations, n.e.c. 815 567,851 41,435 46,814 7.3 8.2
22 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 7,253 5,499,650 169,195 220,481 3.1 4.0
23 Accountants and auditors 1,921 1,413,442 76,832 95,106 5.4 6.7
24 Underwriters 140 112,743 349 1,404 0.3 1.2
25 Other financial officers 946 675,401 18,797 28,447 2.8 4.2
26 Management analysts 306 241,143 11,512 14,528 4.8 6.0
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 614 459,831 30,680 35,373 6.7 7.7
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 15 12,896 0 0 0.0 0.0
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 266 201,143 5,627 6,459 2.8 3.2
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 329 250,774 15,291 18,902 6.1 7.5
34 Business and promotion agents 34 28,562 0 1,312 0.0 4.6
35 Construction inspectors 90 67,673 21,898 23,395 32.4 34.6
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 319 230,630 74,438 86,139 32.3 37.3
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 601 441,504 28,890 36,087 6.5 8.2
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS, EXC. TEACHERS 16,281 11,920,137 1,163,757 1,377,506 9.8 11.6
43 Architects 150 105,912 4,751 5,466 4.5 5.2
44 Aerospace engineers 97 77,590 5,958 7,781 7.7 10.0
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 44 37,290 4,483 4,483 12.0 12.0
46 Mining engineers 10 4,828 0 0 0.0 0.0
47 Petroleum engineers 30 21,093 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 96 68,325 1,097 1,097 1.6 1.6
49 Nuclear engineers 11 8,968 0 0 0.0 0.0
53 Civil engineers 359 271,674 28,175 32,755 10.4 12.1
54 Agricultural engineers 9 5,720 2,529 2,970 44.2 51.9
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 770 616,274 27,366 35,873 4.4 5.8
56 Industrial engineers 334 254,138 9,916 12,381 3.9 4.9
57 Mechanical engineers 427 325,200 14,708 16,693 4.5 5.1
58 Marine and naval architects 18 15,221 559 559 3.7 3.7
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 371 275,548 20,047 23,057 7.3 8.4
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 19 11,619 348 486 3.0 4.2
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 1,667 1,349,329 41,753 64,810 3.1 4.8
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 273 212,914 14,125 16,629 6.6 7.8
66 Actuaries 32 23,559 254 254 1.1 1.1
67 Statisticians 45 32,844 2,992 2,992 9.1 9.1
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 7 6,129 0 0 0.0 0.0
69 Physicists and astronomers 48 35,305 278 278 0.8 0.8
73 Chemists, except biochemists 178 131,635 6,095 7,213 4.6 5.5
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 10 6,735 1,626 1,626 24.1 24.1
75 Geologists and geodesists 70 50,533 1,834 2,819 3.6 5.6
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 53 33,810 4,395 5,363 13.0 15.9
77 Agricultural and food scientists 53 32,138 2,714 2,714 8.4 8.4
78 Biological and life scientists 148 101,747 5,623 8,027 5.5 7.9
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 49 24,029 6,394 6,394 26.6 26.6
83 Medical scientists 105 88,231 1,638 2,823 1.9 3.2
84 Physicians 689 505,715 30,712 42,544 6.1 8.4
85 Dentists 46 34,489 3,125 3,125 9.1 9.1
86 Veterinarians 38 29,035 0 0 0.0 0.0
87 Optometrists 25 16,295 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 4 3,185 782 1,454 24.5 45.6
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 12 8,805 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 2,859 1,999,111 294,833 335,717 14.7 16.8
96 Pharmacists 224 166,863 10,250 11,539 6.1 6.9
97 Dietitians 116 79,800 7,264 9,525 9.1 11.9
98 Respiratory therapists 139 104,316 15,753 18,720 15.1 17.9
99 Occupational therapists 90 60,817 6,367 8,528 10.5 14.0
103 Physical therapists 179 121,329 5,560 8,654 4.6 7.1
104 Speech therapists 130 93,335 41,205 46,353 44.1 49.7
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 135 101,496 12,175 12,175 12.0 12.0
106 Physicians' assistants 93 63,708 6,026 7,841 9.5 12.3
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational 316 223,326 90,609 104,717 40.6 46.9
164 Librarians 287 202,455 55,522 62,831 27.4 31.0
165 Archivists and curators 40 25,252 3,509 4,267 13.9 16.9
166 Economists 150 108,217 1,359 4,092 1.3 3.8
167 Psychologists 241 160,928 36,579 42,278 22.7 26.3
168 Sociologists 8 5,059 1,286 1,286 25.4 25.4
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 37 29,328 1,330 4,430 4.5 15.1
173 Urban planners 20 13,889 4,286 5,152 30.9 37.1
174 Social workers 1,024 742,665 177,905 195,376 24.0 26.3
175 Recreation workers 202 137,750 6,086 7,389 4.4 5.4
176 Clergy 447 312,258 2,228 4,739 0.7 1.5
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 156 114,048 0 764 0.0 0.7
178 Lawyers and Judges 870 611,654 26,935 32,699 4.4 5.3
183 Authors 64 43,585 7,704 8,418 17.7 19.3
184 Technical writers 84 65,830 1,823 2,089 2.8 3.2
185 Designers 677 496,677 25,447 32,270 5.1 6.5
186 Musicians and composers 127 100,898 12,100 14,068 12.0 13.9
187 Actors and directors 127 103,080 9,883 9,883 9.6 9.6
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers 141 109,121 5,428 6,667 5.0 6.1
189 Photographers 95 67,419 4,262 4,262 6.3 6.3
193 Dancers 31 20,573 0 0 0.0 0.0
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 105 76,252 11,271 12,854 14.8 16.9
195 Editors and reporters 382 248,771 17,622 21,878 7.1 8.8
197 Public relations specialists 206 148,908 6,811 9,599 4.6 6.4
198 Announcers 72 52,723 3,345 3,345 6.3 6.3
199 Athletes 110 82,836 6,716 10,436 8.1 12.6
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,357 926,027 150,552 192,346 16.3 20.8
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 10 5,727 1,724 1,724 30.1 30.1
114 Biological science teachers 56 37,341 6,394 10,729 17.1 28.7
115 Chemistry teachers 21 13,326 1,376 1,376 10.3 10.3
116 Physics teachers 18 11,841 1,292 1,292 10.9 10.9
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 2 1,527 0 0 0.0 0.0
118 Psychology teachers 43 31,791 5,671 6,639 17.8 20.9
119 Economics teachers 37 24,900 3,080 4,466 12.4 17.9
123 History teachers 32 19,206 4,090 4,962 21.3 25.8
124 Political science teachers 19 11,295 2,661 2,661 23.6 23.6
125 Sociology teachers 8 7,193 1,173 1,173 16.3 16.3
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 13 9,611 105 953 1.1 9.9
127 Engineering teachers 66 42,218 8,619 9,209 20.4 21.8
128 Mathematical science teachers 68 47,157 14,806 16,507 31.4 35.0
129 Computer science teachers 33 22,978 3,988 4,748 17.4 20.7
133 Medical science teachers 24 16,958 730 730 4.3 4.3
134 Health specialties teachers 65 38,691 4,559 8,043 11.8 20.8
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 30 22,927 4,849 6,050 21.1 26.4
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 6 3,130 1,577 1,577 50.4 50.4
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 70 47,305 5,511 6,716 11.6 14.2
138 Physical education teachers 13 8,707 4,840 4,840 55.6 55.6
139 Education teachers 10 5,311 1,866 1,866 35.1 35.1
143 English teachers 98 67,028 17,474 20,549 26.1 30.7
144 Foreign language teachers 28 18,027 1,870 2,989 10.4 16.6
145 Law teachers 9 5,916 690 1,032 11.7 17.4
146 Social work teachers 6 4,743 2,471 2,471 52.1 52.1
147 Theology teachers 18 13,266 920 1,636 6.9 12.3
148 Trade and industrial teachers 6 3,605 761 761 21.1 21.1
149 Home economics teachers 2 1,354 0 0 0.0 0.0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 3 1,465 1,278 1,278 87.2 87.2
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 543 381,485 46,179 65,369 12.1 17.1
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,664 4,782,396 2,125,965 2,427,794 44.5 50.8
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 740 586,189 101,759 129,258 17.4 22.1
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,732 1,949,220 1,073,441 1,219,352 55.1 62.6
157 Teachers, secondary school 1,784 1,246,082 691,430 779,192 55.5 62.5
158 Teachers, special education 527 367,082 213,709 243,691 58.2 66.4
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 881 633,822 45,626 56,301 7.2 8.9
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 5,565 4,149,556 433,117 498,028 10.4 12.0
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 482 351,635 37,332 42,615 10.6 12.1
204 Dental hygienists 144 102,834 3,829 4,125 3.7 4.0
205 Health record technologists and technicians 19 18,105 3,722 3,722 20.6 20.6
206 Radiologic technicians 229 172,610 8,339 11,244 4.8 6.5
207 Licensed practical nurses 518 377,096 33,832 40,908 9.0 10.8
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 891 685,634 79,221 87,134 11.6 12.7
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 583 448,573 61,891 67,902 13.8 15.1
214 Industrial engineering technicians 8 6,703 724 724 10.8 10.8
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 29 22,844 1,873 2,966 8.2 13.0
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 267 198,808 14,400 20,786 7.2 10.5
217 Drafting occupations 286 210,665 15,377 16,708 7.3 7.9
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 98 67,076 4,586 6,407 6.8 9.6
223 Biological technicians 147 106,689 9,282 12,337 8.7 11.6
224 Chemical technicians 110 78,852 5,141 5,514 6.5 7.0
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 129 93,142 8,835 11,277 9.5 12.1
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 149 104,899 67,186 68,154 64.0 65.0
227 Air traffic controllers 46 27,150 16,336 17,188 60.2 63.3
228 Broadcast equipment operators 42 34,332 8,563 8,711 24.9 25.4
229 Computer programmers 762 588,092 32,536 40,854 5.5 6.9
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 6 3,590 0 0 0.0 0.0
234 Legal assistants 481 346,559 12,120 18,366 3.5 5.3
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 139 103,670 7,992 10,387 7.7 10.0
SALES OCCUPATIONS 17,957 13,378,215 543,949 620,307 4.1 4.6
243 Supervisors and Proprietors, Sales Occupations 4,589 3,391,470 146,847 156,160 4.3 4.6
253 Insurance sales occupations 573 420,577 7,929 12,211 1.9 2.9
254 Real estate sales occupations 586 439,789 15,532 22,170 3.5 5.0
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 509 393,505 5,260 8,602 1.3 2.2
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 219 167,296 4,745 8,507 2.8 5.1
257 Sales occupations, other business services 785 624,583 23,974 28,269 3.8 4.5
258 Sales engineers 48 36,253 1,875 1,875 5.2 5.2
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 1,826 1,362,591 38,104 45,259 2.8 3.3
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 405 301,328 590 1,939 0.2 0.6
264 Sales workers, apparel 570 434,435 10,135 10,135 2.3 2.3
265 Sales workers, shoes 142 107,018 868 868 0.8 0.8
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 200 144,994 2,224 3,271 1.5 2.3
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 335 264,219 2,160 2,786 0.8 1.1
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 355 264,810 3,021 5,332 1.1 2.0
269 Sales workers, parts 235 166,867 2,162 3,559 1.3 2.1
274 Sales workers, other commodities 1,831 1,330,936 28,726 40,143 2.2 3.0
275 Sales counter clerks 260 189,642 5,727 5,727 3.0 3.0
276 Cashiers 4,049 3,041,772 238,051 254,862 7.8 8.4
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 215 151,264 1,321 2,543 0.9 1.7
278 News vendors 105 68,103 748 2,138 1.1 3.1
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 101 64,737 3,950 3,950 6.1 6.1
284 Auctioneers 0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 19 12,025 0 0 0.0 0.0
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL 24,340 17,851,476 2,261,960 2,558,339 12.7 14.3
303 Supervisors, general office 567 401,946 51,802 60,537 12.9 15.1
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 26 16,908 1,270 2,165 7.5 12.8
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 122 90,752 2,436 5,519 2.7 6.1
306 Chief communications operators 6 2,431 838 838 34.5 34.5
307 Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 254 201,866 30,467 32,857 15.1 16.3
308 Computer operators 503 375,125 39,460 45,415 10.5 12.1
309 Peripheral equipment operators 4 2,821 0 0 0.0 0.0
313 Secretaries 3,940 2,798,313 229,964 272,893 8.2 9.8
314 Stenographers 122 82,710 3,721 4,871 4.5 5.9
315 Typists 767 560,690 69,289 82,582 12.4 14.7
316 Interviewers 227 158,988 9,312 9,312 5.9 5.9
317 Hotel clerks 186 123,719 5,237 5,237 4.2 4.2
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 355 257,314 33,748 39,914 13.1 15.5
319 Receptionists 1,338 983,719 29,791 36,554 3.0 3.7
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 509 368,805 25,960 30,868 7.0 8.4
325 Classified-ad clerks 3 2,632 771 771 29.3 29.3
326 Correspondence clerks 18 12,292 260 260 2.1 2.1
327 Order clerks 317 241,933 65,246 68,109 27.0 28.2
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 94 71,699 5,300 6,867 7.4 9.6
329 Library clerks 236 167,394 24,979 29,805 14.9 17.8
335 File clerks 438 343,819 19,354 23,159 5.6 6.7
336 Records clerks 274 205,549 28,114 31,888 13.7 15.5
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,018 1,428,242 60,355 76,545 4.2 5.4
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 207 143,835 22,214 25,193 15.4 17.5
339 Billing clerks 248 177,690 8,841 10,558 5.0 5.9
343 Cost and rate clerks 64 47,398 4,327 6,107 9.1 12.9
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 123 102,040 1,543 2,308 1.5 2.3
345 Duplicating machine operators 66 53,240 5,675 6,354 10.7 11.9
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 18 11,984 1,082 1,082 9.0 9.0
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 24 20,684 2,036 2,036 9.8 9.8
348 Telephone operators 212 163,571 37,219 41,171 22.8 25.2
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 25 18,360 2,765 3,784 15.1 20.6
354 Postal clerks, except mail carriers 435 323,157 238,542 254,661 73.8 78.8
355 Mail carriers, postal service 456 341,155 274,478 287,205 80.5 84.2
356 Mail clerks, except postal service 239 176,349 24,355 27,510 13.8 15.6
357 Messengers 189 142,171 6,882 8,970 4.8 6.3
359 Dispatchers 321 236,293 47,986 50,437 20.3 21.3
363 Production coordinators 345 266,768 26,362 30,774 9.9 11.5
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 776 619,755 113,979 122,185 18.4 19.7
365 Stock and inventory clerks 575 461,938 89,275 94,739 19.3 20.5
366 Meter readers 52 40,497 13,315 14,958 32.9 36.9
368 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers 75 47,945 9,517 10,451 19.9 21.8
373 Expediters 356 273,958 20,446 22,668 7.5 8.3
374 Material recording, scheduling, and distributing clerks, n.e.c. 20 15,954 350 3,141 2.2 19.7
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 608 458,477 13,295 14,350 2.9 3.1
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 1,394 1,025,463 61,612 69,628 6.0 6.8
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 128 94,856 21,459 26,249 22.6 27.7
378 Bill and account collectors 273 203,368 11,151 12,317 5.5 6.1
379 General office clerks 980 724,411 81,936 86,804 11.3 12.0
383 Bank tellers 561 413,008 5,474 7,486 1.3 1.8
384 Proofreaders 30 22,904 628 1,406 2.7 6.1
385 Data-entry keyers 951 710,259 68,858 81,000 9.7 11.4
386 Statistical clerks 143 100,827 10,725 14,497 10.6 14.4
387 Teachers' aides 901 647,073 205,326 242,244 31.7 37.4
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,221 866,424 92,631 109,102 10.7 12.6
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD OCCUPATIONS 1,126 855,072 6,961 6,961 0.8 0.8
403 Launderers and ironers 2 911 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 7 3,963 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 15 13,026 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 348 265,575 285 285 0.1 0.1
407 Private household cleaners and servants 754 571,596 6,676 6,676 1.2 1.2
PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 3,068 2,398,831 991,068 1,048,017 41.3 43.7
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 56 44,964 35,044 35,901 77.9 79.8
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 157 118,582 62,993 67,898 53.1 57.3
415 Supervisors, guards 72 55,196 2,704 3,412 4.9 6.2
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 26 20,806 5,862 7,185 28.2 34.5
417 Firefighting occupations 289 219,434 163,683 167,309 74.6 76.2
418 Police and detectives, public service 763 612,085 391,285 403,867 63.9 66.0
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 228 168,785 73,160 80,564 43.3 47.7
424 Correctional institution officers 343 289,202 149,686 158,447 51.8 54.8
425 Crossing guards 55 40,918 6,642 7,501 16.2 18.3
426 Guards and police, except public service 950 738,658 94,653 110,577 12.8 15.0
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 129 90,203 5,357 5,357 5.9 5.9
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PROTECTIVE AND HOUSEHOLD 18,293 13,340,095 1,211,191 1,343,357 9.1 10.1
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 563 419,831 16,745 22,424 4.0 5.3
434 Bartenders 458 317,595 7,256 7,852 2.3 2.5
435 Waiters and waitresses 1,854 1,353,494 31,285 34,516 2.3 2.6
436 Cooks 2,794 2,053,063 90,365 107,189 4.4 5.2
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 468 343,873 1,927 1,927 0.6 0.6
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 389 284,385 54,490 56,800 19.2 20.0
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 716 560,467 28,077 32,927 5.0 5.9
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 901 650,941 55,108 66,290 8.5 10.2
445 Dental assistants 320 239,994 6,871 6,871 2.9 2.9
446 Health aides, except nursing 474 336,967 45,005 50,119 13.4 14.9
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,507 1,838,867 223,141 239,765 12.1 13.0
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 234 165,897 17,208 20,776 10.4 12.5
449 Maids and housemen 899 622,151 76,121 80,782 12.2 13.0
453 Janitors and cleaners 2,890 2,136,227 366,681 397,803 17.2 18.6
454 Elevator operators 4 3,792 703 703 18.5 18.5
455 Pest control occupations 63 56,786 1,318 2,074 2.3 3.7
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 120 80,589 6,594 7,652 8.2 9.5
457 Barbers 28 20,317 1,523 1,523 7.5 7.5
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 606 450,484 3,896 7,065 0.9 1.6
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 322 205,017 9,867 10,559 4.8 5.2
461 Guides 62 34,855 2,810 4,022 8.1 11.5
462 Ushers 46 35,728 0 664 0.0 1.9
463 Public transportation attendants 164 125,123 78,426 83,844 62.7 67.0
464 Baggage porters and bellhops 60 49,018 17,390 19,118 35.5 39.0
465 Welfare service aides 128 88,944 6,301 8,445 7.1 9.5
466 Family child care providers 27 18,340 0 0 0.0 0.0
467 Early childhood teacher's assistants 636 456,846 22,888 26,025 5.0 5.7
468 Child care workers, n.e.c. 341 233,614 21,901 27,184 9.4 11.6
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 219 156,891 17,295 18,439 11.0 11.8
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 2,590 1,937,744 89,983 100,003 4.6 5.2
473 Farmers, except horticulture 16 8,889 0 0 0.0 0.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 97 67,845 821 821 1.2 1.2
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 3 2,657 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 50 33,633 991 991 2.9 2.9
479 Farm workers 1,044 743,199 11,527 12,631 1.6 1.7
483 Marine life cultivation workers 4 2,591 1,160 1,160 44.8 44.8
484 Nursery workers 24 18,651 0 0 0.0 0.0
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 91 66,324 4,744 6,783 7.2 10.2
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 933 754,082 56,068 61,540 7.4 8.2
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 129 94,518 2,513 2,513 2.7 2.7
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 78 71,257 2,926 2,926 4.1 4.1
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 3 3,215 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 13 6,630 2,235 2,235 33.7 33.7
495 Forestry workers, except logging 22 13,043 2,504 3,909 19.2 30.0
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 55 35,239 3,575 3,575 10.1 10.1
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 10 7,461 919 919 12.3 12.3
498 Fishers 17 8,156 0 0 0.0 0.0
499 Hunters and trappers 1 355 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR, EXC. CONSTRUCTION 10,628 7,999,598 1,625,534 1,710,333 20.3 21.4
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 331 251,208 33,208 33,875 13.2 13.5
505 Automobile mechanics 878 684,984 52,478 58,166 7.7 8.5
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 2 1,504 0 0 0.0 0.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 429 317,444 83,310 89,766 26.2 28.3
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 199 145,847 67,425 72,130 46.2 49.5
509 Small engine repairers 64 45,791 1,341 1,627 2.9 3.6
514 Automobile body and related repairers 195 138,755 7,838 9,346 5.6 6.7
515 Aircraft mechanics, except engine 27 21,105 12,765 12,908 60.5 61.2
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 259 164,093 48,443 50,989 29.5 31.1
517 Farm equipment mechanics 53 36,052 538 538 1.5 1.5
518 Industrial machinery repairers 705 543,074 141,043 147,371 26.0 27.1
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 21 12,755 3,548 4,502 27.8 35.3
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 214 166,012 30,939 33,435 18.6 20.1
525 Data processing equipment repairers 347 255,598 14,011 17,600 5.5 6.9
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 41 31,562 1,871 1,871 5.9 5.9
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 61 42,870 30,319 30,319 70.7 70.7
529 Telephone installers and repairers 306 228,912 118,822 123,914 51.9 54.1
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 104 83,960 30,102 32,839 35.9 39.1
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 336 260,523 52,547 55,261 20.2 21.2
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 25 21,154 3,429 3,429 16.2 16.2
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 27 20,026 1,904 2,188 9.5 10.9
538 Office machine repairers 77 58,546 8,279 8,900 14.1 15.2
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 24 18,126 2,091 2,091 11.5 11.5
543 Elevator installers and repairers 30 20,713 15,450 15,450 74.6 74.6
544 Millwrights 112 85,410 49,760 50,273 58.3 58.9
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 478 359,728 57,487 58,413 16.0 16.2
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 324 251,989 55,439 56,693 22.0 22.5
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 66 35,918 973 1,731 2.7 4.8
614 Drillers, oil well 45 22,181 947 947 4.3 4.3
615 Explosives workers 12 5,163 1,218 1,510 23.6 29.2
616 Mining machine operators 79 32,719 10,698 10,874 32.7 33.2
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 55 26,178 3,271 3,406 12.5 13.0
628 Supervisors, production occupations 1,464 1,159,489 112,798 122,885 9.7 10.6
634 Tool and die makers 161 128,445 45,722 47,629 35.6 37.1
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 2 1,975 0 0 0.0 0.0
636 Precision assemblers, metal 35 26,679 9,550 9,550 35.8 35.8
637 Machinists 646 513,754 131,933 138,794 25.7 27.0
639 Machinist apprentices 6 5,471 0 0 0.0 0.0
643 Boilermakers 38 25,581 13,574 15,316 53.1 59.9
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 14 11,998 3,119 3,749 26.0 31.2
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 8 6,799 3,408 3,408 50.1 50.1
646 Lay-out workers 12 10,186 1,868 3,280 18.3 32.2
647 Precious stones and metals workers (Jewelers) 57 32,878 2,757 2,757 8.4 8.4
649 Engravers, metal 17 13,475 0 0 0.0 0.0
653 Sheet metal workers 155 114,083 39,534 39,948 34.7 35.0
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 5 4,568 2,504 2,504 54.8 54.8
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 3 2,573 1,429 1,429 55.5 55.5
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 78 63,008 6,495 6,495 10.3 10.3
658 Furniture and wood finishers 33 27,421 0 0 0.0 0.0
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 2 1,176 288 288 24.5 24.5
666 Dressmakers 54 35,645 1,830 1,830 5.1 5.1
667 Tailors 54 43,549 2,186 2,186 5.0 5.0
668 Upholsterers 51 45,596 1,376 1,376 3.0 3.0
669 Shoe repairers 12 10,201 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 16 11,941 0 0 0.0 0.0
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 23 15,602 3,035 3,035 19.5 19.5
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 10 8,277 2,684 2,684 32.4 32.4
677 Optical goods workers 113 79,388 788 788 1.0 1.0
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 55 42,088 0 0 0.0 0.0
679 Bookbinders 26 19,891 2,597 2,597 13.1 13.1
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 412 326,932 53,144 57,673 16.3 17.6
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 36 25,396 4,647 4,647 18.3 18.3
686 Butchers and meat cutters 305 217,607 66,435 68,659 30.5 31.6
687 Bakers 184 131,165 19,091 20,040 14.6 15.3
688 Food batchmakers 57 46,703 12,964 12,964 27.8 27.8
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 172 135,054 38,601 38,750 28.6 28.7
693 Adjusters and calibrators 8 5,597 779 779 13.9 13.9
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 81 57,702 20,218 21,389 35.0 37.1
695 Power plant operators 57 35,881 19,465 19,678 54.2 54.8
696 Stationary engineers 172 127,172 48,562 50,203 38.2 39.5
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 68 38,756 10,659 10,659 27.5 27.5
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 5,559 4,274,898 1,082,582 1,123,745 25.3 26.3
553 Supervisors, brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 3 3,010 1,460 1,460 48.5 48.5
554 Supervisors, carpenters and related workers 22 15,088 6,344 6,344 42.1 42.1
555 Supervisors, electricians and power transmission installers 42 36,157 12,350 12,350 34.2 34.2
556 Supervisors, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 10 7,507 1,092 1,092 14.6 14.6
557 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 14 9,317 5,150 5,150 55.3 55.3
558 Supervisors, construction, n.e.c. 570 418,579 77,066 83,879 18.4 20.0
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 170 133,713 36,747 37,478 27.5 28.0
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 6 4,681 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 56 46,128 7,457 7,457 16.2 16.2
566 Carpet installers 91 75,842 10,587 11,457 14.0 15.1
567 Carpenters 1,281 960,462 176,886 184,592 18.4 19.2
569 Carpenter apprentices 14 11,607 4,897 4,897 42.2 42.2
573 Drywall installers 176 152,017 15,043 15,043 9.9 9.9
575 Electricians 899 695,196 285,170 295,112 41.0 42.5
576 Electrician apprentices 58 39,763 17,326 17,326 43.6 43.6
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 180 136,253 74,498 78,591 54.7 57.7
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 455 379,417 38,726 41,649 10.2 11.0
583 Paperhangers 13 9,329 2,971 2,971 31.8 31.8
584 Plasterers 53 40,555 7,017 7,017 17.3 17.3
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 556 420,343 145,233 149,565 34.6 35.6
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 19 15,323 6,563 6,563 42.8 42.8
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 99 76,692 13,302 13,302 17.3 17.3
589 Glaziers 60 45,208 6,543 6,666 14.5 14.7
593 Insulation workers 66 49,495 17,102 17,102 34.6 34.6
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 26 19,486 8,137 8,137 41.8 41.8
595 Roofers 244 196,137 24,050 24,050 12.3 12.3
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 49 38,835 15,600 17,145 40.2 44.1
597 Structural metal workers 79 56,445 25,136 25,136 44.5 44.5
598 Drillers, earth 22 11,469 2,138 2,410 18.6 21.0
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 226 170,845 37,989 39,802 22.2 23.3
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 9,625 7,498,488 1,602,837 1,671,690 21.4 22.3
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 25 23,111 3,507 3,507 15.2 15.2
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 66 48,391 10,486 11,127 21.7 23.0
705 Milling and planing machine operators 9 6,704 1,830 1,830 27.3 27.3
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 134 110,514 28,680 29,297 26.0 26.5
707 Rolling machine operators 14 10,124 5,109 5,109 50.5 50.5
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 23 17,112 4,132 4,132 24.1 24.1
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 156 128,760 31,809 32,527 24.7 25.3
713 Forging machine operators 20 15,370 6,462 6,462 42.0 42.0
714 Numerical control machine operators 18 14,536 1,751 1,751 12.0 12.0
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 36 27,002 9,521 9,521 35.3 35.3
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 21 18,879 3,885 3,885 20.6 20.6
719 Molding and casting machine operators 131 103,721 25,964 27,360 25.0 26.4
723 Metal plating machine operators 30 24,520 7,162 8,527 29.2 34.8
724 Heat treating equipment operators 17 15,322 13,781 13,781 89.9 89.9
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 22 18,515 3,949 4,806 21.3 26.0
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 14 9,753 970 970 9.9 9.9
727 Sawing machine operators 114 82,488 7,809 9,003 9.5 10.9
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 7 6,574 633 633 9.6 9.6
729 Nailing and tacking machine operators 4 3,263 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 38 28,501 2,855 3,674 10.0 12.9
734 Printing press operators 359 288,116 47,972 53,260 16.7 18.5
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 41 31,042 4,954 4,954 16.0 16.0
736 Typesetters and compositors 45 32,591 4,832 4,832 14.8 14.8
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 39 27,421 5,128 6,244 18.7 22.8
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 60 50,923 5,761 5,761 11.3 11.3
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 49 40,295 1,387 1,638 3.4 4.1
743 Textile cutting machine operators 6 4,061 0 0 0.0 0.0
744 Textile sewing machine operators 628 482,941 44,949 49,386 9.3 10.2
745 Shoe machine operators 25 14,453 5,338 5,338 36.9 36.9
747 Pressing machine operators 108 94,390 6,421 9,350 6.8 9.9
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 238 172,465 21,665 22,706 12.6 13.2
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 59 46,465 3,255 3,255 7.0 7.0
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 52 41,966 9,839 9,839 23.4 23.4
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 493 400,129 102,379 105,390 25.6 26.3
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 40 32,373 7,684 7,684 23.7 23.7
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 146 125,033 31,614 31,614 25.3 25.3
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 74 49,497 19,910 20,788 40.2 42.0
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 30 25,200 5,851 6,791 23.2 26.9
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 246 197,437 33,483 34,626 17.0 17.5
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 14 10,263 4,195 4,195 40.9 40.9
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 6 3,850 1,981 1,981 51.5 51.5
765 Folding machine operators 24 17,328 2,900 2,900 16.7 16.7
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food 100 78,428 34,688 35,670 44.2 45.5
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 52 34,756 6,535 6,535 18.8 18.8
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 219 171,681 37,995 38,266 22.1 22.3
773 Motion picture projectionists 15 13,430 685 685 5.1 5.1
774 Photographic process machine operators 120 95,620 9,015 9,015 9.4 9.4
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,367 1,070,893 295,980 304,469 27.6 28.4
779 Machine operators, not specified 513 399,189 101,954 103,600 25.5 26.0
783 Welders and cutters 763 560,449 144,138 155,044 25.7 27.7
784 Solderers and brazers 24 14,658 1,219 1,219 8.3 8.3
785 Assemblers 1,658 1,298,632 287,781 298,324 22.2 23.0
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 15 7,734 2,866 2,866 37.1 37.1
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 29 20,506 1,815 4,156 8.8 20.3
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 27 22,957 7,646 7,646 33.3 33.3
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 16 11,985 609 609 5.1 5.1
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 63 41,274 2,853 2,853 6.9 6.9
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 654 508,354 90,431 94,572 17.8 18.6
797 Production testers 69 48,406 8,639 9,001 17.8 18.6
798 Production samplers and weighers 7 4,828 0 0 0.0 0.0
799 Graders and sorters, except agricultural 233 193,309 26,196 26,725 13.6 13.8
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 6,557 4,934,612 1,203,924 1,266,695 24.4 25.7
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 126 88,456 9,159 10,379 10.4 11.7
804 Truck drivers 3,542 2,721,405 519,959 540,427 19.1 19.9
806 Driver-sales workers 195 151,114 42,211 42,960 27.9 28.4
808 Bus drivers 665 461,877 158,906 172,196 34.4 37.3
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 280 219,847 20,310 24,445 9.2 11.1
813 Parking lot attendants 71 57,403 6,480 6,803 11.3 11.9
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 5 2,525 0 700 0.0 27.7
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 71 47,020 39,101 39,101 83.2 83.2
824 Locomotive operating occupations 65 43,623 36,500 36,500 83.7 83.7
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 13 5,653 4,291 4,291 75.9 75.9
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 7 6,438 3,245 3,941 50.4 61.2
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 21 16,225 3,374 3,374 20.8 20.8
829 Sailors and deckhands 38 31,832 13,109 13,109 41.2 41.2
833 Marine engineers 4 2,489 1,698 1,698 68.2 68.2
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 12 7,535 3,109 4,574 41.3 60.7
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 18 14,522 2,143 2,143 14.8 14.8
844 Operating engineers 346 228,971 87,110 91,840 38.0 40.1
845 Longshore equipment operators 3 1,068 453 453 42.4 42.4
848 Hoist and winch operators 25 14,285 1,212 1,212 8.5 8.5
849 Crane and tower operators 87 67,869 38,266 39,088 56.4 57.6
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 123 83,338 15,588 16,931 18.7 20.3
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 101 63,375 10,427 12,483 16.5 19.7
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 631 523,377 160,677 170,195 30.7 32.5
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 108 74,367 26,596 27,853 35.8 37.5
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS 6,433 5,009,533 905,884 955,929 18.1 19.1
864 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c. 25 21,825 4,466 4,466 20.5 20.5
865 Helpers, mechanics, and repairers 34 29,532 4,223 4,651 14.3 15.7
866 Helpers, construction trades 146 123,657 10,761 10,761 8.7 8.7
867 Helpers, surveyor 9 5,584 0 0 0.0 0.0
868 Helpers, extractive occupations 0
869 Construction laborers 1,074 839,330 136,978 144,227 16.3 17.2
874 Production helpers 67 58,070 13,302 13,302 22.9 22.9
875 Garbage collectors 65 46,596 17,949 18,601 38.5 39.9
876 Stevedores 24 20,088 17,531 17,531 87.3 87.3
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,529 1,167,546 197,638 209,460 16.9 17.9
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 103 76,739 20,261 21,526 26.4 28.1
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 800 638,347 180,704 194,081 28.3 30.4
885 Garage and service station related occupations 243 171,769 4,518 5,149 2.6 3.0
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 349 277,110 26,040 29,303 9.4 10.6
888 Hand packers and packagers 387 299,698 49,023 51,116 16.4 17.1
889 Laborers, except construction 1,578 1,233,641 222,490 231,756 18.0 18.8
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1998. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.