Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 1999 (details in table note)  
 
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 21,663 15,999,893 902,590 1,137,746 5.6 7.1
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public administration 27 18,816 1,823 1,920 9.7 10.2
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 967 637,814 108,113 138,726 17.0 21.8
6 Administrators, protective services 80 56,486 12,064 12,784 21.4 22.6
7 Financial managers 960 716,419 14,682 17,022 2.0 2.4
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 260 187,852 1,033 1,973 0.5 1.1
9 Purchasing managers 186 141,552 4,550 7,473 3.2 5.3
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 914 717,792 10,281 17,428 1.4 2.4
14 Administrators, education and related fields 1,103 766,119 156,200 189,665 20.4 24.8
15 Managers, medicine and health 966 663,274 13,161 21,733 2.0 3.3
17 Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 1,397 1,040,622 29,123 42,556 2.8 4.1
18 Managers, properties and real estate 492 382,410 10,467 10,467 2.7 2.7
19 Funeral directors 44 32,176 640 640 2.0 2.0
21 Managers, service organizations, n.e.c. 891 629,665 53,236 59,259 8.5 9.4
22 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 7,488 5,633,047 200,863 245,750 3.6 4.4
23 Accountants and auditors 1,987 1,472,841 79,690 110,215 5.4 7.5
24 Underwriters 161 125,021 1,230 2,572 1.0 2.1
25 Other financial officers 1,023 733,132 19,678 27,937 2.7 3.8
26 Management analysts 339 267,535 8,267 11,038 3.1 4.1
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 667 509,393 42,779 54,257 8.4 10.7
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 22 14,464 1,143 2,077 7.9 14.4
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 239 175,358 8,621 8,621 4.9 4.9
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 362 276,824 17,079 18,816 6.2 6.8
34 Business and promotion agents 25 19,842 0 1,010 0.0 5.1
35 Construction inspectors 100 73,094 16,688 18,092 22.8 24.8
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 344 246,060 71,123 90,412 28.9 36.7
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 619 462,285 20,056 25,302 4.3 5.5
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS, EXC. TEACHERS 17,041 12,596,484 1,265,161 1,483,683 10.0 11.8
43 Architects 182 134,164 3,953 6,262 2.9 4.7
44 Aerospace engineers 100 84,623 6,599 8,488 7.8 10.0
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 37 29,788 1,092 1,851 3.7 6.2
46 Mining engineers 10 5,546 0 0 0.0 0.0
47 Petroleum engineers 26 18,192 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 109 76,646 2,256 2,256 2.9 2.9
49 Nuclear engineers 11 7,185 0 0 0.0 0.0
53 Civil engineers 344 262,553 35,245 40,613 13.4 15.5
54 Agricultural engineers 6 3,393 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 810 637,484 25,224 33,961 4.0 5.3
56 Industrial engineers 350 268,195 14,160 17,399 5.3 6.5
57 Mechanical engineers 417 332,468 14,268 16,498 4.3 5.0
58 Marine and naval architects 29 21,304 4,517 4,801 21.2 22.5
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 344 259,086 18,114 19,716 7.0 7.6
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 19 11,656 1,987 1,987 17.0 17.0
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 1,787 1,415,706 50,088 71,187 3.5 5.0
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 319 250,243 20,908 23,081 8.4 9.2
66 Actuaries 30 21,113 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 37 24,808 4,210 4,210 17.0 17.0
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 8 8,459 0 0 0.0 0.0
69 Physicists and astronomers 45 33,543 650 650 1.9 1.9
73 Chemists, except biochemists 183 133,226 7,541 7,541 5.7 5.7
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 18 10,722 691 1,521 6.4 14.2
75 Geologists and geodesists 68 51,070 1,841 3,368 3.6 6.6
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 73 58,133 4,567 5,369 7.9 9.2
77 Agricultural and food scientists 63 37,742 2,946 3,859 7.8 10.2
78 Biological and life scientists 140 102,332 10,892 13,543 10.6 13.2
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 53 19,901 1,989 2,197 10.0 11.0
83 Medical scientists 125 98,002 2,903 4,928 3.0 5.0
84 Physicians 686 499,815 20,132 30,964 4.0 6.2
85 Dentists 63 46,327 2,555 2,555 5.5 5.5
86 Veterinarians 33 23,685 286 286 1.2 1.2
87 Optometrists 18 12,872 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 6 3,908 1,002 1,002 25.6 25.6
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 14 11,493 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 2,946 2,119,390 340,403 391,646 16.1 18.5
96 Pharmacists 263 190,426 21,537 26,455 11.3 13.9
97 Dietitians 100 75,028 8,924 9,730 11.9 13.0
98 Respiratory therapists 127 89,156 5,173 7,003 5.8 7.9
99 Occupational therapists 83 64,359 9,085 10,280 14.1 16.0
103 Physical therapists 181 129,282 10,102 12,520 7.8 9.7
104 Speech therapists 140 94,933 38,516 40,529 40.6 42.7
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 142 108,692 14,134 15,745 13.0 14.5
106 Physicians' assistants 91 65,517 4,217 5,145 6.4 7.9
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational 356 245,365 88,993 103,389 36.3 42.1
164 Librarians 339 238,409 55,247 65,166 23.2 27.3
165 Archivists and curators 46 30,860 1,525 2,135 4.9 6.9
166 Economists 167 130,398 6,747 8,571 5.2 6.6
167 Psychologists 249 179,442 34,267 39,087 19.1 21.8
168 Sociologists 3 1,733 1,405 1,733 81.1 100.0
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 41 25,725 2,642 3,722 10.3 14.5
173 Urban planners 29 21,173 1,332 1,591 6.3 7.5
174 Social workers 1,087 800,341 185,691 203,597 23.2 25.4
175 Recreation workers 175 132,410 6,673 6,673 5.0 5.0
176 Clergy 465 348,421 1,239 1,239 0.4 0.4
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 193 136,498 276 1,305 0.2 1.0
178 Lawyers and Judges 942 655,534 30,108 39,566 4.6 6.0
183 Authors 95 58,336 2,490 3,291 4.3 5.6
184 Technical writers 88 66,859 1,022 1,022 1.5 1.5
185 Designers 715 541,644 21,801 24,995 4.0 4.6
186 Musicians and composers 121 89,540 12,086 13,461 13.5 15.0
187 Actors and directors 114 84,566 18,981 21,085 22.4 24.9
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers 151 109,206 13,113 15,417 12.0 14.1
189 Photographers 106 82,923 9,542 9,542 11.5 11.5
193 Dancers 25 17,642 0 0 0.0 0.0
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 102 84,024 13,093 15,746 15.6 18.7
195 Editors and reporters 368 250,613 24,434 26,008 9.7 10.4
197 Public relations specialists 252 184,828 10,047 11,010 5.4 6.0
198 Announcers 61 38,128 3,192 3,192 8.4 8.4
199 Athletes 115 89,699 6,513 11,996 7.3 13.4
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,400 974,242 164,022 203,978 16.8 20.9
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 9 4,453 276 387 6.2 8.7
114 Biological science teachers 56 38,064 6,407 6,533 16.8 17.2
115 Chemistry teachers 28 18,800 3,325 3,325 17.7 17.7
116 Physics teachers 25 19,248 1,568 2,471 8.1 12.8
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 4 2,730 0 0 0.0 0.0
118 Psychology teachers 42 28,846 7,397 8,781 25.6 30.4
119 Economics teachers 29 21,385 3,367 5,092 15.7 23.8
123 History teachers 28 15,743 1,976 1,976 12.6 12.6
124 Political science teachers 15 8,839 1,826 1,826 20.7 20.7
125 Sociology teachers 15 10,106 772 1,669 7.6 16.5
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 10 5,992 695 1,017 11.6 17.0
127 Engineering teachers 56 38,961 6,624 8,330 17.0 21.4
128 Mathematical science teachers 55 44,550 12,257 14,171 27.5 31.8
129 Computer science teachers 26 17,889 3,716 6,105 20.8 34.1
133 Medical science teachers 25 19,539 4,030 4,820 20.6 24.7
134 Health specialties teachers 62 43,113 6,671 7,657 15.5 17.8
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 34 24,781 3,712 6,863 15.0 27.7
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 8 3,469 1,749 1,749 50.4 50.4
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 67 44,533 10,628 11,058 23.9 24.8
138 Physical education teachers 11 5,700 2,760 2,760 48.4 48.4
139 Education teachers 17 9,331 106 1,688 1.1 18.1
143 English teachers 104 69,532 16,191 23,127 23.3 33.3
144 Foreign language teachers 39 26,632 7,165 7,992 26.9 30.0
145 Law teachers 13 11,150 0 1,067 0.0 9.6
146 Social work teachers 5 4,211 1,636 1,636 38.9 38.9
147 Theology teachers 34 26,386 3,725 4,220 14.1 16.0
148 Trade and industrial teachers 2 1,820 0 0 0.0 0.0
149 Home economics teachers 1 270 270 270 100.0 100.0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 7 6,017 855 855 14.2 14.2
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 573 402,153 54,318 66,532 13.5 16.5
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 7,069 5,122,162 2,261,737 2,526,885 44.2 49.3
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 752 577,936 111,635 128,218 19.3 22.2
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,910 2,104,270 1,135,879 1,256,212 54.0 59.7
157 Teachers, secondary school 1,885 1,338,891 730,470 826,626 54.6 61.7
158 Teachers, special education 528 375,942 222,750 240,881 59.3 64.1
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 994 725,122 61,003 74,948 8.4 10.3
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 5,591 4,187,665 460,559 522,861 11.0 12.5
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 471 348,964 28,556 30,222 8.2 8.7
204 Dental hygienists 149 99,648 4,913 5,691 4.9 5.7
205 Health record technologists and technicians 18 13,193 2,652 2,868 20.1 21.7
206 Radiologic technicians 235 169,566 14,376 16,552 8.5 9.8
207 Licensed practical nurses 485 348,710 37,716 46,485 10.8 13.3
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 900 713,068 76,376 84,897 10.7 11.9
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 559 434,543 60,976 73,334 14.0 16.9
214 Industrial engineering technicians 2 1,208 0 0 0.0 0.0
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 26 17,685 2,042 2,042 11.5 11.5
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 274 204,904 28,152 30,442 13.7 14.9
217 Drafting occupations 297 221,277 19,242 22,228 8.7 10.0
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 77 52,647 5,052 5,052 9.6 9.6
223 Biological technicians 141 104,741 7,545 7,756 7.2 7.4
224 Chemical technicians 103 74,464 14,574 17,590 19.6 23.6
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 140 104,754 9,649 13,321 9.2 12.7
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 195 136,405 81,987 84,543 60.1 62.0
227 Air traffic controllers 38 24,517 14,238 15,645 58.1 63.8
228 Broadcast equipment operators 44 30,434 5,454 5,454 17.9 17.9
229 Computer programmers 792 604,720 24,540 33,856 4.1 5.6
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 11 9,486 2,706 2,706 28.5 28.5
234 Legal assistants 488 361,935 10,988 12,547 3.0 3.5
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 146 110,796 8,825 9,631 8.0 8.7
SALES OCCUPATIONS 17,861 13,451,372 548,594 612,543 4.1 4.6
243 Supervisors and Proprietors, Sales Occupations 4,692 3,490,242 144,079 160,771 4.1 4.6
253 Insurance sales occupations 596 438,820 9,838 9,838 2.2 2.2
254 Real estate sales occupations 582 444,852 16,747 23,153 3.8 5.2
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 534 421,384 8,023 10,225 1.9 2.4
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 228 177,027 8,258 10,451 4.7 5.9
257 Sales occupations, other business services 798 608,670 25,505 28,899 4.2 4.7
258 Sales engineers 45 35,066 0 0 0.0 0.0
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 1,772 1,340,168 23,675 29,896 1.8 2.2
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 383 286,895 3,118 3,118 1.1 1.1
264 Sales workers, apparel 504 393,730 3,641 4,388 0.9 1.1
265 Sales workers, shoes 158 129,863 1,291 1,291 1.0 1.0
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 226 166,475 835 835 0.5 0.5
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 346 290,232 5,254 5,254 1.8 1.8
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 372 267,882 3,728 3,728 1.4 1.4
269 Sales workers, parts 225 159,366 1,483 1,730 0.9 1.1
274 Sales workers, other commodities 1,748 1,301,353 34,991 38,696 2.7 3.0
275 Sales counter clerks 241 185,625 3,380 7,264 1.8 3.9
276 Cashiers 3,945 2,972,443 249,163 266,720 8.4 9.0
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 235 177,585 648 648 0.4 0.4
278 News vendors 114 79,618 2,448 3,149 3.1 4.0
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 92 64,095 1,325 1,325 2.1 2.1
284 Auctioneers 2 2,017 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 23 17,963 1,165 1,165 6.5 6.5
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL 24,191 17,874,497 2,182,222 2,473,711 12.2 13.8
303 Supervisors, general office 502 366,366 38,746 44,201 10.6 12.1
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 25 15,800 2,452 2,789 15.5 17.7
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 100 77,788 2,358 2,358 3.0 3.0
306 Chief communications operators 4 2,333 298 298 12.8 12.8
307 Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 254 209,260 34,054 37,266 16.3 17.8
308 Computer operators 438 331,585 28,341 32,487 8.5 9.8
309 Peripheral equipment operators 6 5,258 0 0 0.0 0.0
313 Secretaries 3,774 2,674,932 225,458 269,457 8.4 10.1
314 Stenographers 134 92,496 9,299 10,096 10.1 10.9
315 Typists 714 517,887 68,000 78,770 13.1 15.2
316 Interviewers 245 178,635 11,558 13,012 6.5 7.3
317 Hotel clerks 182 124,435 4,100 6,021 3.3 4.8
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 378 271,334 32,612 34,906 12.0 12.9
319 Receptionists 1,476 1,103,391 38,490 47,786 3.5 4.3
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 576 452,854 19,986 23,720 4.4 5.2
325 Classified-ad clerks 6 4,975 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 10 7,308 690 690 9.4 9.4
327 Order clerks 362 280,262 71,011 75,725 25.3 27.0
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 93 65,314 4,748 6,326 7.3 9.7
329 Library clerks 204 144,868 18,560 23,704 12.8 16.4
335 File clerks 431 350,035 19,057 21,046 5.4 6.0
336 Records clerks 283 202,608 31,255 36,794 15.4 18.2
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,004 1,435,858 58,228 72,927 4.1 5.1
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 208 141,961 15,593 16,177 11.0 11.4
339 Billing clerks 242 175,932 12,643 13,546 7.2 7.7
343 Cost and rate clerks 72 56,995 4,953 6,666 8.7 11.7
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 126 96,063 7,098 7,098 7.4 7.4
345 Duplicating machine operators 50 37,404 4,025 5,274 10.8 14.1
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 6 4,245 0 658 0.0 15.5
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 32 22,824 1,100 1,601 4.8 7.0
348 Telephone operators 193 141,223 31,253 33,636 22.1 23.8
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 18 12,405 2,879 2,879 23.2 23.2
354 Postal clerks, except mail carriers 433 320,543 222,759 256,372 69.5 80.0
355 Mail carriers, postal service 466 327,305 252,942 271,806 77.3 83.0
356 Mail clerks, except postal service 236 178,049 26,697 27,957 15.0 15.7
357 Messengers 194 144,977 11,426 11,426 7.9 7.9
359 Dispatchers 352 257,046 44,083 44,459 17.1 17.3
363 Production coordinators 268 198,087 21,137 22,141 10.7 11.2
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 797 627,201 95,300 101,137 15.2 16.1
365 Stock and inventory clerks 584 457,870 95,064 103,441 20.8 22.6
366 Meter readers 56 40,133 11,875 14,039 29.6 35.0
368 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers 66 47,008 7,896 8,026 16.8 17.1
373 Expediters 348 259,392 21,982 21,982 8.5 8.5
374 Material recording, scheduling, and distributing clerks, n.e.c. 14 10,423 4,053 4,053 38.9 38.9
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 581 442,734 13,027 13,845 2.9 3.1
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 1,414 1,066,640 51,023 57,501 4.8 5.4
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 140 106,866 26,488 30,770 24.8 28.8
378 Bill and account collectors 232 180,189 7,950 7,950 4.4 4.4
379 General office clerks 976 742,252 70,283 85,059 9.5 11.5
383 Bank tellers 590 430,646 5,067 5,191 1.2 1.2
384 Proofreaders 25 16,766 0 0 0.0 0.0
385 Data-entry keyers 976 738,816 68,987 86,678 9.3 11.7
386 Statistical clerks 143 97,004 11,209 12,061 11.6 12.4
387 Teachers' aides 958 692,049 228,023 258,422 32.9 37.3
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,194 887,866 86,107 101,482 9.7 11.4
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD OCCUPATIONS 1,105 844,327 5,967 7,069 0.7 0.8
403 Launderers and ironers 2 773 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 9 6,199 669 669 10.8 10.8
405 Housekeepers and butlers 15 10,373 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 373 299,593 900 2,003 0.3 0.7
407 Private household cleaners and servants 706 527,388 4,398 4,398 0.8 0.8
PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 3,114 2,426,682 927,249 990,645 38.2 40.8
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 48 37,645 23,590 24,332 62.7 64.6
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 124 99,848 48,510 52,490 48.6 52.6
415 Supervisors, guards 56 43,829 1,632 1,632 3.7 3.7
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 24 19,058 5,155 6,760 27.0 35.5
417 Firefighting occupations 293 217,273 150,396 155,407 69.2 71.5
418 Police and detectives, public service 803 618,593 377,665 400,922 61.1 64.8
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 238 184,033 72,379 81,389 39.3 44.2
424 Correctional institution officers 359 305,282 145,482 153,682 47.7 50.3
425 Crossing guards 53 38,947 5,905 6,845 15.2 17.6
426 Guards and police, except public service 967 749,086 89,193 99,192 11.9 13.2
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 149 113,087 7,341 7,995 6.5 7.1
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PROTECTIVE AND HOUSEHOLD 18,529 13,558,226 1,217,710 1,338,734 9.0 9.9
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 616 461,997 16,726 19,196 3.6 4.2
434 Bartenders 456 304,145 10,385 12,338 3.4 4.1
435 Waiters and waitresses 1,944 1,426,153 35,822 42,167 2.5 3.0
436 Cooks 2,798 2,063,719 93,057 112,135 4.5 5.4
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 497 369,748 7,238 7,403 2.0 2.0
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 404 282,699 50,228 50,357 17.8 17.8
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 697 538,759 24,944 28,725 4.6 5.3
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 893 623,512 55,779 60,239 8.9 9.7
445 Dental assistants 274 217,247 5,887 6,014 2.7 2.8
446 Health aides, except nursing 474 347,385 48,852 51,368 14.1 14.8
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,627 1,943,619 212,886 238,608 11.0 12.3
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 243 164,205 20,751 25,450 12.6 15.5
449 Maids and housemen 919 635,254 76,496 80,089 12.0 12.6
453 Janitors and cleaners 2,811 2,059,955 366,069 392,046 17.8 19.0
454 Elevator operators 14 7,474 4,742 4,742 63.4 63.4
455 Pest control occupations 72 62,229 5,499 6,359 8.8 10.2
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 93 69,658 5,433 5,433 7.8 7.8
457 Barbers 37 30,120 0 0 0.0 0.0
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 631 484,305 5,449 7,347 1.1 1.5
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 368 243,351 16,024 19,099 6.6 7.8
461 Guides 56 35,532 3,481 3,734 9.8 10.5
462 Ushers 46 34,843 2,448 2,448 7.0 7.0
463 Public transportation attendants 137 107,919 71,730 73,241 66.5 67.9
464 Baggage porters and bellhops 65 51,012 14,462 15,256 28.4 29.9
465 Welfare service aides 135 89,778 7,462 7,587 8.3 8.5
466 Family child care providers 18 13,660 0 0 0.0 0.0
467 Early childhood teacher's assistants 681 513,467 21,583 27,283 4.2 5.3
468 Child care workers, n.e.c. 312 222,039 16,312 21,155 7.3 9.5
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 211 154,444 17,965 18,915 11.6 12.2
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 2,624 1,940,449 113,405 125,007 5.8 6.4
473 Farmers, except horticulture 14 7,841 0 0 0.0 0.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 94 65,167 1,923 2,083 3.0 3.2
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 11 7,618 0 1,132 0.0 14.9
477 Supervisors, farm workers 52 46,043 0 0 0.0 0.0
479 Farm workers 943 663,372 12,845 15,310 1.9 2.3
483 Marine life cultivation workers 4 2,913 2,407 2,407 82.6 82.6
484 Nursery workers 42 34,999 1,720 1,720 4.9 4.9
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 112 92,243 9,650 11,653 10.5 12.6
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 1,034 800,152 70,417 73,588 8.8 9.2
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 118 82,630 2,082 2,082 2.5 2.5
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 66 58,661 3,549 4,584 6.1 7.8
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 3 3,527 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 19 8,396 1,089 1,970 13.0 23.5
495 Forestry workers, except logging 29 16,337 2,788 2,788 17.1 17.1
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 58 36,854 4,152 4,152 11.3 11.3
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 4 1,091 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 19 10,940 780 780 7.1 7.1
499 Hunters and trappers 2 1,664 0 757 0.0 45.5
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR, EXC. CONSTRUCTION 10,765 8,127,077 1,667,245 1,751,540 20.5 21.6
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 358 267,200 39,415 39,415 14.8 14.8
505 Automobile mechanics 880 664,295 58,649 63,392 8.8 9.5
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 4 3,344 0 0 0.0 0.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 426 307,576 77,825 80,162 25.3 26.1
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 189 148,155 64,254 66,993 43.4 45.2
509 Small engine repairers 78 57,612 2,179 2,179 3.8 3.8
514 Automobile body and related repairers 192 129,049 6,523 6,523 5.1 5.1
515 Aircraft mechanics, except engine 26 23,973 14,813 14,813 61.8 61.8
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 248 146,331 46,045 50,600 31.5 34.6
517 Farm equipment mechanics 47 27,231 496 496 1.8 1.8
518 Industrial machinery repairers 701 552,775 153,154 157,758 27.7 28.5
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 22 12,336 5,389 5,389 43.7 43.7
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 255 209,181 43,830 48,742 21.0 23.3
525 Data processing equipment repairers 392 310,092 30,375 33,013 9.8 10.6
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 55 39,647 3,319 3,319 8.4 8.4
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 79 56,067 33,652 33,652 60.0 60.0
529 Telephone installers and repairers 327 244,246 132,184 136,415 54.1 55.9
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 97 77,187 31,908 33,558 41.3 43.5
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 394 317,985 79,708 82,543 25.1 26.0
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 22 14,328 415 1,489 2.9 10.4
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 25 16,981 941 941 5.5 5.5
538 Office machine repairers 70 48,655 5,121 5,741 10.5 11.8
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 23 15,268 6,387 6,387 41.8 41.8
543 Elevator installers and repairers 30 21,724 13,457 13,457 61.9 61.9
544 Millwrights 98 74,703 38,896 39,823 52.1 53.3
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 482 365,619 58,571 63,043 16.0 17.2
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 375 274,159 56,789 59,178 20.7 21.6
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 69 34,515 1,864 2,557 5.4 7.4
614 Drillers, oil well 46 25,051 1,293 1,293 5.2 5.2
615 Explosives workers 13 9,523 3,466 3,466 36.4 36.4
616 Mining machine operators 89 36,811 13,545 14,221 36.8 38.6
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 34 22,340 2,271 2,271 10.2 10.2
628 Supervisors, production occupations 1,452 1,136,359 101,817 109,884 9.0 9.7
634 Tool and die makers 177 137,291 44,332 45,190 32.3 32.9
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 4 3,077 0 0 0.0 0.0
636 Precision assemblers, metal 31 25,748 8,493 8,493 33.0 33.0
637 Machinists 609 496,883 104,069 110,609 20.9 22.3
639 Machinist apprentices 6 5,704 0 0 0.0 0.0
643 Boilermakers 32 22,299 15,049 15,049 67.5 67.5
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 17 14,638 6,368 6,368 43.5 43.5
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 12 9,647 4,068 4,796 42.2 49.7
646 Lay-out workers 9 7,698 2,490 2,490 32.3 32.3
647 Precious stones and metals workers (Jewelers) 46 25,586 1,996 1,996 7.8 7.8
649 Engravers, metal 14 10,528 0 0 0.0 0.0
653 Sheet metal workers 165 129,137 51,979 52,626 40.3 40.8
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 2 1,601 1,601 1,601 100.0 100.0
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 1 594 594 594 100.0 100.0
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 80 61,426 2,658 2,658 4.3 4.3
658 Furniture and wood finishers 21 16,968 710 710 4.2 4.2
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 2 2,163 1,477 1,477 68.3 68.3
666 Dressmakers 39 28,816 1,475 1,787 5.1 6.2
667 Tailors 42 38,861 0 0 0.0 0.0
668 Upholsterers 62 53,227 543 543 1.0 1.0
669 Shoe repairers 9 7,006 651 651 9.3 9.3
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 17 12,872 1,922 1,922 14.9 14.9
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 29 22,570 1,997 2,784 8.9 12.3
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 16 11,523 2,489 2,489 21.6 21.6
677 Optical goods workers 98 78,700 2,925 3,742 3.7 4.8
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 50 37,535 0 778 0.0 2.1
679 Bookbinders 50 35,889 5,375 5,375 15.0 15.0
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 380 303,965 48,843 51,690 16.1 17.0
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 23 16,189 2,580 2,580 15.9 15.9
686 Butchers and meat cutters 351 257,675 67,658 70,717 26.3 27.4
687 Bakers 178 133,053 18,804 21,578 14.1 16.2
688 Food batchmakers 53 41,960 7,781 8,381 18.5 20.0
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 167 128,677 26,748 31,867 20.8 24.8
693 Adjusters and calibrators 12 7,985 858 858 10.7 10.7
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 80 57,907 19,436 20,242 33.6 35.0
695 Power plant operators 56 36,303 18,796 19,655 51.8 54.1
696 Stationary engineers 160 113,585 50,255 51,535 44.2 45.4
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 67 41,470 13,673 14,997 33.0 36.2
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 5,707 4,346,499 1,132,950 1,177,840 26.1 27.1
553 Supervisors, brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 3 2,670 899 899 33.7 33.7
554 Supervisors, carpenters and related workers 38 27,272 4,564 4,564 16.7 16.7
555 Supervisors, electricians and power transmission installers 53 39,209 13,452 13,452 34.3 34.3
556 Supervisors, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 13 12,455 1,636 1,636 13.1 13.1
557 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 15 11,697 3,877 4,708 33.1 40.3
558 Supervisors, construction, n.e.c. 563 420,907 73,895 75,753 17.6 18.0
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 169 134,595 33,879 33,879 25.2 25.2
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 1 593 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 75 59,061 6,950 7,694 11.8 13.0
566 Carpet installers 84 68,942 5,926 6,644 8.6 9.6
567 Carpenters 1,348 1,002,324 202,630 215,562 20.2 21.5
569 Carpenter apprentices 12 11,206 5,285 5,285 47.2 47.2
573 Drywall installers 167 133,289 25,257 27,125 18.9 20.4
575 Electricians 943 710,944 297,916 303,333 41.9 42.7
576 Electrician apprentices 74 47,501 19,337 19,337 40.7 40.7
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 178 135,394 64,464 67,033 47.6 49.5
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 448 375,828 41,502 45,352 11.0 12.1
583 Paperhangers 14 9,179 1,316 1,316 14.3 14.3
584 Plasterers 48 46,416 5,374 5,374 11.6 11.6
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 562 415,705 151,315 154,509 36.4 37.2
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 25 17,665 4,751 5,792 26.9 32.8
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 113 87,635 20,947 20,947 23.9 23.9
589 Glaziers 52 43,048 9,264 9,388 21.5 21.8
593 Insulation workers 63 54,055 12,504 13,249 23.1 24.5
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 18 12,334 2,338 2,338 19.0 19.0
595 Roofers 210 167,532 25,372 28,914 15.1 17.3
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 59 48,279 16,079 16,079 33.3 33.3
597 Structural metal workers 82 55,811 30,858 31,956 55.3 57.3
598 Drillers, earth 33 20,805 1,540 1,540 7.4 7.4
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 244 174,146 49,824 54,181 28.6 31.1
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 9,282 7,255,191 1,490,439 1,572,383 20.5 21.7
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 22 16,996 3,628 3,628 21.3 21.3
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 49 40,287 8,852 8,852 22.0 22.0
705 Milling and planing machine operators 7 5,453 1,020 1,020 18.7 18.7
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 128 102,502 27,137 30,227 26.5 29.5
707 Rolling machine operators 18 12,927 5,913 5,913 45.7 45.7
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 12 9,647 4,821 6,020 50.0 62.4
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 148 117,834 28,148 28,540 23.9 24.2
713 Forging machine operators 15 11,553 4,371 4,371 37.8 37.8
714 Numerical control machine operators 32 24,356 5,963 5,963 24.5 24.5
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 48 38,854 8,159 8,622 21.0 22.2
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 29 26,994 3,144 3,805 11.6 14.1
719 Molding and casting machine operators 123 98,473 16,448 17,056 16.7 17.3
723 Metal plating machine operators 40 28,735 8,853 9,955 30.8 34.6
724 Heat treating equipment operators 11 7,080 3,494 3,494 49.3 49.3
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 13 10,085 0 1,236 0.0 12.3
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 21 14,880 2,409 2,409 16.2 16.2
727 Sawing machine operators 124 82,688 5,298 5,298 6.4 6.4
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 9 4,678 0 0 0.0 0.0
729 Nailing and tacking machine operators 6 4,941 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 51 34,473 4,093 4,232 11.9 12.3
734 Printing press operators 349 271,310 28,326 31,796 10.4 11.7
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 33 26,176 5,670 5,670 21.7 21.7
736 Typesetters and compositors 33 23,392 4,019 4,019 17.2 17.2
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 41 30,157 3,812 6,892 12.6 22.9
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 50 42,604 3,905 3,905 9.2 9.2
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 35 30,030 1,293 1,293 4.3 4.3
743 Textile cutting machine operators 9 7,070 0 0 0.0 0.0
744 Textile sewing machine operators 569 453,403 53,084 59,201 11.7 13.1
745 Shoe machine operators 17 9,716 1,879 2,476 19.3 25.5
747 Pressing machine operators 107 84,933 6,578 6,578 7.7 7.7
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 248 174,324 13,189 15,868 7.6 9.1
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 46 39,034 2,323 2,323 6.0 6.0
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 26 17,669 840 840 4.8 4.8
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 483 374,553 87,949 92,469 23.5 24.7
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 45 35,937 9,458 9,458 26.3 26.3
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 153 135,556 33,697 34,485 24.9 25.4
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 73 60,650 19,552 20,947 32.2 34.5
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 25 23,793 3,997 6,785 16.8 28.5
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 239 191,652 30,608 32,647 16.0 17.0
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 8 7,033 5,059 5,059 71.9 71.9
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 13 10,444 3,292 3,292 31.5 31.5
765 Folding machine operators 16 11,978 2,597 2,597 21.7 21.7
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food 97 70,110 29,023 31,242 41.4 44.6
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 51 33,984 7,369 7,369 21.7 21.7
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 225 163,343 38,919 39,036 23.8 23.9
773 Motion picture projectionists 10 6,951 757 757 10.9 10.9
774 Photographic process machine operators 131 98,700 2,496 2,496 2.5 2.5
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,389 1,126,008 298,631 311,073 26.5 27.6
779 Machine operators, not specified 521 403,391 95,545 97,492 23.7 24.2
783 Welders and cutters 712 543,071 144,301 147,575 26.6 27.2
784 Solderers and brazers 29 20,638 3,006 3,006 14.6 14.6
785 Assemblers 1,542 1,228,163 282,808 298,883 23.0 24.3
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 14 8,556 3,645 3,645 42.6 42.6
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 23 15,810 757 1,193 4.8 7.5
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 30 21,969 1,875 1,875 8.5 8.5
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 11 9,205 0 0 0.0 0.0
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 56 40,272 1,877 3,154 4.7 7.8
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 646 502,578 89,722 95,621 17.9 19.0
797 Production testers 69 54,757 9,201 9,348 16.8 17.1
798 Production samplers and weighers 8 4,745 1,340 1,340 28.2 28.2
799 Graders and sorters, except agricultural 194 148,092 16,289 18,038 11.0 12.2
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 6,792 5,040,931 1,148,177 1,215,671 22.8 24.1
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 112 82,158 9,077 12,234 11.0 14.9
804 Truck drivers 3,701 2,784,597 488,281 523,780 17.5 18.8
806 Driver-sales workers 188 144,943 35,511 37,685 24.5 26.0
808 Bus drivers 693 483,994 182,247 191,154 37.7 39.5
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 294 207,878 13,024 14,329 6.3 6.9
813 Parking lot attendants 80 65,746 5,988 5,988 9.1 9.1
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 12 9,035 1,680 1,680 18.6 18.6
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 66 48,556 41,190 41,190 84.8 84.8
824 Locomotive operating occupations 69 44,652 34,306 34,306 76.8 76.8
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 10 6,585 4,809 4,809 73.0 73.0
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 8 7,934 6,808 6,808 85.8 85.8
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 36 26,605 7,972 8,580 30.0 32.3
829 Sailors and deckhands 30 19,994 5,413 5,413 27.1 27.1
833 Marine engineers 6 4,278 321 321 7.5 7.5
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 9 5,722 1,885 2,711 32.9 47.4
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 19 14,622 2,229 2,449 15.2 16.7
844 Operating engineers 341 231,504 73,506 79,476 31.8 34.3
845 Longshore equipment operators 8 6,199 3,426 3,426 55.3 55.3
848 Hoist and winch operators 30 20,583 5,731 5,731 27.8 27.8
849 Crane and tower operators 96 72,104 34,709 37,505 48.1 52.0
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 130 83,526 23,564 23,564 28.2 28.2
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 92 64,282 15,473 15,554 24.1 24.2
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 652 532,452 124,495 130,445 23.4 24.5
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 110 72,984 26,534 26,534 36.4 36.4
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS 6,644 5,217,799 988,664 1,041,983 18.9 20.0
864 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c. 10 9,527 1,388 1,388 14.6 14.6
865 Helpers, mechanics, and repairers 31 22,135 1,504 2,141 6.8 9.7
866 Helpers, construction trades 120 107,108 4,819 4,819 4.5 4.5
867 Helpers, surveyor 11 10,203 1,544 1,544 15.1 15.1
868 Helpers, extractive occupations 3 2,175 0 0 0.0 0.0
869 Construction laborers 1,182 907,228 191,323 192,897 21.1 21.3
874 Production helpers 75 63,042 13,159 13,822 20.9 21.9
875 Garbage collectors 53 44,378 16,802 16,802 37.9 37.9
876 Stevedores 27 25,292 18,975 18,975 75.0 75.0
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,554 1,201,655 201,209 218,951 16.7 18.2
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 96 87,143 19,323 23,052 22.2 26.5
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 893 718,592 204,498 217,179 28.5 30.2
885 Garage and service station related occupations 232 166,636 7,590 8,208 4.6 4.9
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 348 264,498 18,760 20,229 7.1 7.6
888 Hand packers and packagers 397 297,650 40,208 40,630 13.5 13.7
889 Laborers, except construction 1,612 1,290,538 247,559 261,344 19.2 20.3
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1999. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.