Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 2000 (details in table note)  
 
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 22,049 16,433,661 875,028 1,074,648 5.3 6.5
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public administration 33 21,276 2,046 2,249 9.6 10.6
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 970 648,847 112,324 144,030 17.3 22.2
6 Administrators, protective services 85 60,469 10,092 11,366 16.7 18.8
7 Financial managers 1,008 759,993 4,377 10,107 0.6 1.3
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 309 222,942 2,922 4,632 1.3 2.1
9 Purchasing managers 166 120,790 1,601 1,601 1.3 1.3
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 971 749,713 6,794 8,881 0.9 1.2
14 Administrators, education and related fields 1,118 791,974 139,931 180,787 17.7 22.8
15 Managers, medicine and health 968 697,473 24,816 32,747 3.6 4.7
17 Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 1,378 1,036,134 29,073 33,899 2.8 3.3
18 Managers, properties and real estate 520 393,669 11,306 13,155 2.9 3.3
19 Funeral directors 56 45,579 585 585 1.3 1.3
21 Managers, service organizations, n.e.c. 873 613,183 45,346 54,448 7.4 8.9
22 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 7,698 5,852,434 204,111 246,614 3.5 4.2
23 Accountants and auditors 1,890 1,414,795 70,508 79,137 5.0 5.6
24 Underwriters 129 101,412 297 297 0.3 0.3
25 Other financial officers 1,028 759,215 23,782 32,919 3.1 4.3
26 Management analysts 344 259,103 10,437 12,608 4.0 4.9
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 780 606,811 45,852 57,225 7.6 9.4
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 14 8,210 723 723 8.8 8.8
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 282 205,810 8,062 8,062 3.9 3.9
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 348 262,002 15,629 16,102 6.0 6.1
34 Business and promotion agents 28 21,669 0 0 0.0 0.0
35 Construction inspectors 96 71,743 16,892 17,742 23.5 24.7
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 342 245,218 66,256 81,286 27.0 33.1
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 615 463,196 21,267 23,448 4.6 5.1
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS, EXC. TEACHERS 17,305 12,916,262 1,268,227 1,485,939 9.8 11.5
43 Architects 201 158,217 5,930 8,658 3.7 5.5
44 Aerospace engineers 86 77,458 10,357 15,193 13.4 19.6
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 43 35,354 0 0 0.0 0.0
46 Mining engineers 3 1,054 0 0 0.0 0.0
47 Petroleum engineers 27 19,349 0 0 0.0 0.0
48 Chemical engineers 113 89,944 4,664 4,664 5.2 5.2
49 Nuclear engineers 16 12,045 0 0 0.0 0.0
53 Civil engineers 361 267,229 30,610 34,803 11.5 13.0
54 Agricultural engineers 6 2,681 0 360 0.0 13.4
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 885 704,713 34,305 41,768 4.9 5.9
56 Industrial engineers 320 247,910 20,005 22,404 8.1 9.0
57 Mechanical engineers 421 334,180 20,444 25,044 6.1 7.5
58 Marine and naval architects 13 7,607 1,123 1,309 14.8 17.2
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 316 246,042 7,862 9,661 3.2 3.9
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 21 14,807 1,763 1,763 11.9 11.9
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 2,072 1,675,710 54,763 71,698 3.3 4.3
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 289 232,671 10,068 12,171 4.3 5.2
66 Actuaries 29 21,603 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 39 26,956 4,319 4,893 16.0 18.2
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 6 4,422 0 0 0.0 0.0
69 Physicists and astronomers 39 26,630 205 509 0.8 1.9
73 Chemists, except biochemists 188 137,433 7,611 8,981 5.5 6.5
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 18 11,768 1,350 1,350 11.5 11.5
75 Geologists and geodesists 57 30,510 2,612 3,426 8.6 11.2
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 83 58,925 3,961 4,572 6.7 7.8
77 Agricultural and food scientists 60 42,650 1,439 1,439 3.4 3.4
78 Biological and life scientists 144 107,813 9,922 11,126 9.2 10.3
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 44 18,495 4,777 6,917 25.8 37.4
83 Medical scientists 106 89,342 5,208 7,016 5.8 7.9
84 Physicians 666 500,359 28,808 41,634 5.8 8.3
85 Dentists 59 45,462 987 987 2.2 2.2
86 Veterinarians 41 28,891 0 0 0.0 0.0
87 Optometrists 18 15,805 2,626 2,626 16.6 16.6
88 Podiatrists 6 4,695 811 811 17.3 17.3
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 13 10,195 0 0 0.0 0.0
95 Registered nurses 2,918 2,074,741 350,203 395,510 16.9 19.1
96 Pharmacists 266 186,692 16,792 17,616 9.0 9.4
97 Dietitians 125 99,451 7,699 9,140 7.7 9.2
98 Respiratory therapists 113 80,532 3,845 5,710 4.8 7.1
99 Occupational therapists 68 49,382 10,332 12,211 20.9 24.7
103 Physical therapists 185 126,644 6,961 8,199 5.5 6.5
104 Speech therapists 134 95,998 35,974 42,154 37.5 43.9
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 116 92,173 8,166 8,166 8.9 8.9
106 Physicians' assistants 98 72,754 4,068 6,850 5.6 9.4
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational 350 256,353 84,483 106,950 33.0 41.7
164 Librarians 317 224,323 58,953 66,518 26.3 29.7
165 Archivists and curators 43 27,663 823 823 3.0 3.0
166 Economists 163 116,008 3,080 3,080 2.7 2.7
167 Psychologists 279 188,915 32,242 38,109 17.1 20.2
168 Sociologists 2 1,238 929 929 75.0 75.0
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 32 22,812 1,613 1,721 7.1 7.5
173 Urban planners 28 19,377 835 1,640 4.3 8.5
174 Social workers 1,154 824,700 176,318 198,265 21.4 24.0
175 Recreation workers 173 121,842 9,323 10,880 7.7 8.9
176 Clergy 495 372,207 4,157 4,351 1.1 1.2
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 223 171,524 802 1,926 0.5 1.1
178 Lawyers and Judges 897 658,747 35,902 43,359 5.4 6.6
183 Authors 83 55,109 2,554 2,554 4.6 4.6
184 Technical writers 80 61,820 1,584 1,584 2.6 2.6
185 Designers 724 567,373 26,544 33,358 4.7 5.9
186 Musicians and composers 110 81,075 14,070 14,884 17.4 18.4
187 Actors and directors 113 88,088 13,376 14,022 15.2 15.9
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers 167 127,363 7,000 8,867 5.5 7.0
189 Photographers 102 76,654 10,448 10,448 13.6 13.6
193 Dancers 40 28,161 599 599 2.1 2.1
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 105 82,681 13,618 15,056 16.5 18.2
195 Editors and reporters 357 236,863 18,416 20,180 7.8 8.5
197 Public relations specialists 260 193,337 13,078 15,471 6.8 8.0
198 Announcers 68 44,270 5,582 6,291 12.6 14.2
199 Athletes 108 80,466 11,332 12,739 14.1 15.8
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,337 931,550 152,335 190,310 16.4 20.4
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 7 3,865 281 281 7.3 7.3
114 Biological science teachers 50 32,578 11,266 14,292 34.6 43.9
115 Chemistry teachers 24 17,748 3,078 4,444 17.3 25.0
116 Physics teachers 26 20,857 2,894 3,513 13.9 16.8
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 6 3,877 656 656 16.9 16.9
118 Psychology teachers 47 33,803 4,543 5,402 13.4 16.0
119 Economics teachers 26 18,404 4,752 4,752 25.8 25.8
123 History teachers 29 19,268 2,381 3,006 12.4 15.6
124 Political science teachers 20 15,478 745 1,972 4.8 12.7
125 Sociology teachers 12 9,951 2,693 2,693 27.1 27.1
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 6 4,215 1,743 1,743 41.3 41.3
127 Engineering teachers 46 30,000 5,289 6,270 17.6 20.9
128 Mathematical science teachers 52 39,111 10,114 11,258 25.9 28.8
129 Computer science teachers 31 24,039 3,110 3,110 12.9 12.9
133 Medical science teachers 21 14,859 0 883 0.0 5.9
134 Health specialties teachers 62 40,985 7,759 9,575 18.9 23.4
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 30 22,255 3,031 5,895 13.6 26.5
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 15 8,575 2,814 2,814 32.8 32.8
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 55 34,163 8,707 10,111 25.5 29.6
138 Physical education teachers 10 7,463 2,898 3,645 38.8 48.8
139 Education teachers 14 9,384 2,013 2,756 21.5 29.4
143 English teachers 81 56,371 12,050 14,502 21.4 25.7
144 Foreign language teachers 30 19,260 2,961 3,073 15.4 16.0
145 Law teachers 7 5,256 0 1,152 0.0 21.9
146 Social work teachers 1 316 316 316 100.0 100.0
147 Theology teachers 27 20,356 3,149 3,641 15.5 17.9
148 Trade and industrial teachers 1 783 783 783 100.0 100.0
149 Home economics teachers 0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 9 6,531 973 1,675 14.9 25.7
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 592 411,799 51,339 66,097 12.5 16.1
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 6,990 5,096,388 2,240,183 2,525,923 44.0 49.6
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 774 603,451 116,338 129,788 19.3 21.5
156 Teachers, elementary school 2,929 2,143,487 1,132,519 1,264,753 52.8 59.0
157 Teachers, secondary school 1,809 1,300,719 717,766 822,746 55.2 63.3
158 Teachers, special education 520 365,070 207,075 230,819 56.7 63.2
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 958 683,661 66,485 77,818 9.7 11.4
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 5,716 4,279,387 431,230 500,144 10.1 11.7
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 461 333,744 23,929 29,201 7.2 8.7
204 Dental hygienists 170 119,418 4,382 4,932 3.7 4.1
205 Health record technologists and technicians 22 15,810 791 1,899 5.0 12.0
206 Radiologic technicians 220 160,652 17,755 21,168 11.1 13.2
207 Licensed practical nurses 512 372,729 38,634 46,277 10.4 12.4
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 920 711,178 81,199 91,878 11.4 12.9
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 581 451,627 57,026 69,552 12.6 15.4
214 Industrial engineering technicians 6 5,506 0 0 0.0 0.0
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 24 15,456 5,678 5,678 36.7 36.7
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 294 211,899 30,515 33,585 14.4 15.8
217 Drafting occupations 285 208,555 14,609 15,622 7.0 7.5
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 95 74,057 6,071 6,071 8.2 8.2
223 Biological technicians 154 103,245 6,744 8,672 6.5 8.4
224 Chemical technicians 93 68,895 7,249 8,135 10.5 11.8
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 122 91,846 8,529 9,895 9.3 10.8
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 174 123,697 67,785 73,231 54.8 59.2
227 Air traffic controllers 32 21,616 9,553 11,627 44.2 53.8
228 Broadcast equipment operators 38 28,588 3,901 3,901 13.6 13.6
229 Computer programmers 837 667,395 24,579 34,551 3.7 5.2
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 15 12,793 2,051 2,051 16.0 16.0
234 Legal assistants 531 390,821 11,515 13,300 2.9 3.4
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 130 89,859 8,735 8,917 9.7 9.9
SALES OCCUPATIONS 18,027 13,676,980 481,285 533,421 3.5 3.9
243 Supervisors and Proprietors, Sales Occupations 4,785 3,584,150 128,715 141,649 3.6 4.0
253 Insurance sales occupations 569 415,534 8,059 9,838 1.9 2.4
254 Real estate sales occupations 572 432,981 16,797 20,489 3.9 4.7
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 589 455,705 2,870 3,723 0.6 0.8
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 213 156,817 6,939 7,906 4.4 5.0
257 Sales occupations, other business services 945 746,141 26,376 28,353 3.5 3.8
258 Sales engineers 35 29,759 0 930 0.0 3.1
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 1,756 1,365,081 18,470 21,229 1.4 1.6
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 414 310,886 2,147 3,697 0.7 1.2
264 Sales workers, apparel 557 410,463 3,295 3,844 0.8 0.9
265 Sales workers, shoes 134 108,489 0 252 0.0 0.2
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 236 171,511 625 625 0.4 0.4
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 328 258,225 2,212 2,212 0.9 0.9
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 434 320,550 1,813 2,160 0.6 0.7
269 Sales workers, parts 229 175,343 7,231 8,596 4.1 4.9
274 Sales workers, other commodities 1,714 1,303,371 22,130 27,542 1.7 2.1
275 Sales counter clerks 225 168,055 7,670 7,802 4.6 4.6
276 Cashiers 3,868 2,945,427 211,665 226,932 7.2 7.7
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 208 151,550 4,959 6,329 3.3 4.2
278 News vendors 97 72,186 2,014 2,014 2.8 2.8
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 89 68,751 5,422 5,422 7.9 7.9
284 Auctioneers 4 2,933 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 26 23,069 1,876 1,876 8.1 8.1
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL 24,595 18,167,497 2,206,922 2,487,181 12.1 13.7
303 Supervisors, general office 505 379,172 34,714 39,847 9.2 10.5
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 20 13,251 1,043 2,093 7.9 15.8
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 102 68,520 836 836 1.2 1.2
306 Chief communications operators 3 3,147 0 1,366 0.0 43.4
307 Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 285 217,172 39,033 40,373 18.0 18.6
308 Computer operators 447 330,566 31,351 33,424 9.5 10.1
309 Peripheral equipment operators 4 1,803 1,071 1,071 59.4 59.4
313 Secretaries 3,503 2,476,131 208,796 251,677 8.4 10.2
314 Stenographers 158 108,754 10,181 11,159 9.4 10.3
315 Typists 704 536,100 75,011 81,487 14.0 15.2
316 Interviewers 282 208,007 15,766 18,330 7.6 8.8
317 Hotel clerks 226 145,343 6,265 8,695 4.3 6.0
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 349 260,177 39,282 44,314 15.1 17.0
319 Receptionists 1,400 1,033,252 37,730 49,083 3.7 4.8
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 565 423,115 19,132 19,508 4.5 4.6
325 Classified-ad clerks 5 2,817 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 17 8,935 1,331 1,331 14.9 14.9
327 Order clerks 387 297,264 66,050 70,852 22.2 23.8
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 107 83,797 3,088 3,523 3.7 4.2
329 Library clerks 200 145,057 15,892 18,316 11.0 12.6
335 File clerks 430 329,963 19,492 22,341 5.9 6.8
336 Records clerks 300 226,814 36,008 42,552 15.9 18.8
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,015 1,464,754 64,291 73,651 4.4 5.0
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 239 172,891 19,255 22,565 11.1 13.1
339 Billing clerks 270 192,611 14,372 15,110 7.5 7.8
343 Cost and rate clerks 60 43,837 2,967 4,067 6.8 9.3
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 159 121,919 4,279 5,748 3.5 4.7
345 Duplicating machine operators 45 33,063 2,197 2,969 6.6 9.0
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 8 4,886 1,039 1,039 21.3 21.3
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 21 14,772 112 112 0.8 0.8
348 Telephone operators 197 155,788 28,503 35,195 18.3 22.6
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 16 11,090 0 0 0.0 0.0
354 Postal clerks, except mail carriers 383 296,803 217,639 231,535 73.3 78.0
355 Mail carriers, postal service 491 351,504 278,073 290,697 79.1 82.7
356 Mail clerks, except postal service 210 178,197 19,263 21,924 10.8 12.3
357 Messengers 197 149,452 8,663 9,679 5.8 6.5
359 Dispatchers 375 274,468 44,544 48,682 16.2 17.7
363 Production coordinators 290 223,725 20,157 22,395 9.0 10.0
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 884 689,040 100,891 108,823 14.6 15.8
365 Stock and inventory clerks 602 451,437 66,241 74,658 14.7 16.5
366 Meter readers 67 49,408 15,116 15,217 30.6 30.8
368 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers 80 58,128 9,782 9,782 16.8 16.8
373 Expediters 409 307,366 16,538 19,442 5.4 6.3
374 Material recording, scheduling, and distributing clerks, n.e.c. 17 13,004 2,344 2,344 18.0 18.0
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 604 451,492 7,967 7,967 1.8 1.8
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 1,464 1,084,388 49,104 61,843 4.5 5.7
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 128 103,927 26,206 30,354 25.2 29.2
378 Bill and account collectors 223 168,719 11,643 11,643 6.9 6.9
379 General office clerks 1,124 846,557 80,555 95,913 9.5 11.3
383 Bank tellers 593 428,978 2,693 4,821 0.6 1.1
384 Proofreaders 24 15,340 695 695 4.5 4.5
385 Data-entry keyers 970 751,396 70,035 79,662 9.3 10.6
386 Statistical clerks 149 106,795 13,697 15,428 12.8 14.4
387 Teachers' aides 987 709,154 244,902 279,455 34.5 39.4
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,295 943,451 101,082 121,588 10.7 12.9
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD OCCUPATIONS 1,010 771,147 4,796 6,174 0.6 0.8
403 Launderers and ironers 1 1,217 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 6 2,869 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 18 14,506 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 345 260,994 0 706 0.0 0.3
407 Private household cleaners and servants 640 491,560 4,796 5,467 1.0 1.1
PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 3,123 2,383,854 938,244 1,003,006 39.4 42.1
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 42 32,530 22,853 22,853 70.3 70.3
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 148 115,447 55,096 62,081 47.7 53.8
415 Supervisors, guards 69 51,193 4,075 4,875 8.0 9.5
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 22 15,983 3,010 3,010 18.8 18.8
417 Firefighting occupations 318 236,531 162,916 164,838 68.9 69.7
418 Police and detectives, public service 742 551,768 339,721 358,215 61.6 64.9
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 197 151,899 68,468 74,669 45.1 49.2
424 Correctional institution officers 422 356,207 191,678 207,848 53.8 58.4
425 Crossing guards 51 33,202 8,817 9,723 26.6 29.3
426 Guards and police, except public service 949 722,646 74,182 86,867 10.3 12.0
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 163 116,451 7,428 8,028 6.4 6.9
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PROTECTIVE AND HOUSEHOLD 18,717 13,797,690 1,290,465 1,432,253 9.4 10.4
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 572 416,024 17,251 17,445 4.1 4.2
434 Bartenders 492 353,975 11,637 12,635 3.3 3.6
435 Waiters and waitresses 1,949 1,453,206 39,470 39,470 2.7 2.7
436 Cooks 2,773 2,009,376 103,888 122,944 5.2 6.1
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 469 353,455 5,172 7,456 1.5 2.1
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 410 307,615 35,515 38,292 11.5 12.4
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 836 661,332 32,919 35,354 5.0 5.3
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 932 663,308 67,119 75,691 10.1 11.4
445 Dental assistants 284 216,180 4,286 5,842 2.0 2.7
446 Health aides, except nursing 487 360,235 48,091 53,087 13.3 14.7
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,570 1,918,163 250,435 277,746 13.1 14.5
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 222 158,084 22,671 25,659 14.3 16.2
449 Maids and housemen 917 607,104 91,028 96,153 15.0 15.8
453 Janitors and cleaners 2,889 2,150,552 368,620 411,423 17.1 19.1
454 Elevator operators 10 5,929 1,038 1,038 17.5 17.5
455 Pest control occupations 78 64,023 3,218 3,218 5.0 5.0
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 89 65,400 5,332 5,332 8.2 8.2
457 Barbers 60 50,403 2,690 2,690 5.3 5.3
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 624 474,926 5,833 7,317 1.2 1.5
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 349 240,987 12,075 14,777 5.0 6.1
461 Guides 42 26,213 2,860 2,860 10.9 10.9
462 Ushers 45 33,767 1,473 1,473 4.4 4.4
463 Public transportation attendants 156 128,373 81,047 85,166 63.1 66.3
464 Baggage porters and bellhops 63 40,210 15,003 16,842 37.3 41.9
465 Welfare service aides 146 105,898 9,661 9,661 9.1 9.1
466 Family child care providers 25 19,044 0 0 0.0 0.0
467 Early childhood teacher's assistants 633 481,214 14,021 17,619 2.9 3.7
468 Child care workers, n.e.c. 338 251,851 24,532 29,020 9.7 11.5
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 257 180,845 13,580 16,042 7.5 8.9
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 2,636 1,973,681 88,583 109,012 4.5 5.5
473 Farmers, except horticulture 30 19,954 0 0 0.0 0.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 81 51,815 1,117 1,881 2.2 3.6
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 12 10,653 754 1,974 7.1 18.5
477 Supervisors, farm workers 42 38,402 0 1,435 0.0 3.7
479 Farm workers 1,009 731,617 10,866 14,717 1.5 2.0
483 Marine life cultivation workers 2 1,338 0 0 0.0 0.0
484 Nursery workers 50 36,384 1,297 1,297 3.6 3.6
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 103 75,270 7,892 8,734 10.5 11.6
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 950 743,521 49,013 55,904 6.6 7.5
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 145 111,883 6,741 7,629 6.0 6.8
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 67 66,078 4,031 6,866 6.1 10.4
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 10 9,370 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 20 11,924 891 1,740 7.5 14.6
495 Forestry workers, except logging 29 17,110 3,839 3,915 22.4 22.9
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 53 33,853 1,009 1,787 3.0 5.3
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 5 1,077 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 28 13,432 1,133 1,133 8.4 8.4
499 Hunters and trappers 0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR, EXC. CONSTRUCTION 10,664 8,069,519 1,619,060 1,692,777 20.1 21.0
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 311 222,851 23,964 25,543 10.8 11.5
505 Automobile mechanics 893 678,571 52,522 59,004 7.7 8.7
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 3 3,462 768 1,897 22.2 54.8
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 472 333,249 85,066 88,875 25.5 26.7
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 154 127,621 47,706 51,867 37.4 40.6
509 Small engine repairers 62 40,371 2,376 2,376 5.9 5.9
514 Automobile body and related repairers 189 136,035 4,243 4,971 3.1 3.7
515 Aircraft mechanics, except engine 28 26,380 16,290 16,290 61.8 61.8
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 243 162,029 41,600 43,225 25.7 26.7
517 Farm equipment mechanics 34 21,334 0 0 0.0 0.0
518 Industrial machinery repairers 633 501,860 129,895 137,183 25.9 27.3
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 29 17,533 4,678 4,678 26.7 26.7
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 230 171,825 34,932 35,859 20.3 20.9
525 Data processing equipment repairers 428 338,806 25,706 26,924 7.6 7.9
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 54 36,311 2,836 2,836 7.8 7.8
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 71 47,855 37,019 37,302 77.4 77.9
529 Telephone installers and repairers 358 289,844 132,929 137,884 45.9 47.6
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 87 65,970 24,363 24,818 36.9 37.6
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 385 304,039 64,821 65,669 21.3 21.6
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 24 19,316 471 1,747 2.4 9.0
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 32 23,363 5,132 5,132 22.0 22.0
538 Office machine repairers 60 47,282 5,371 5,371 11.4 11.4
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 21 14,924 6,181 6,181 41.4 41.4
543 Elevator installers and repairers 39 28,825 25,388 25,388 88.1 88.1
544 Millwrights 97 72,773 49,170 49,170 67.6 67.6
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 500 379,270 52,489 58,188 13.8 15.3
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 353 263,785 45,181 47,613 17.1 18.0
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 86 42,567 618 618 1.5 1.5
614 Drillers, oil well 44 26,068 1,194 1,194 4.6 4.6
615 Explosives workers 10 6,100 3,444 3,444 56.5 56.5
616 Mining machine operators 59 29,619 11,271 11,730 38.1 39.6
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 39 21,755 4,431 5,307 20.4 24.4
628 Supervisors, production occupations 1,395 1,078,972 108,793 117,787 10.1 10.9
634 Tool and die makers 145 120,865 43,167 43,167 35.7 35.7
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 1 715 0 0 0.0 0.0
636 Precision assemblers, metal 36 29,442 10,059 10,059 34.2 34.2
637 Machinists 595 464,581 101,021 103,957 21.7 22.4
639 Machinist apprentices 4 3,027 781 781 25.8 25.8
643 Boilermakers 32 22,945 10,382 10,543 45.2 45.9
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 24 18,885 7,957 7,957 42.1 42.1
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 6 4,229 2,753 2,753 65.1 65.1
646 Lay-out workers 9 7,770 1,826 1,826 23.5 23.5
647 Precious stones and metals workers (Jewelers) 38 25,912 709 709 2.7 2.7
649 Engravers, metal 11 7,396 0 0 0.0 0.0
653 Sheet metal workers 144 109,509 43,560 44,777 39.8 40.9
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 1 693 693 693 100.0 100.0
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 1 512 0 0 0.0 0.0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 3 2,016 635 635 31.5 31.5
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 82 64,915 5,185 5,185 8.0 8.0
658 Furniture and wood finishers 36 26,319 2,819 2,819 10.7 10.7
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 4 3,659 0 0 0.0 0.0
666 Dressmakers 64 48,417 0 1,019 0.0 2.1
667 Tailors 31 24,463 750 1,006 3.1 4.1
668 Upholsterers 51 44,483 1,341 1,341 3.0 3.0
669 Shoe repairers 6 5,325 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 10 7,956 0 0 0.0 0.0
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 26 19,918 1,789 1,789 9.0 9.0
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 21 14,071 3,265 3,265 23.2 23.2
677 Optical goods workers 93 69,582 2,305 4,763 3.3 6.8
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 54 41,597 0 0 0.0 0.0
679 Bookbinders 38 30,878 6,817 7,995 22.1 25.9
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 427 346,769 43,684 46,964 12.6 13.5
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 32 29,501 5,659 5,659 19.2 19.2
686 Butchers and meat cutters 358 266,636 97,775 99,004 36.7 37.1
687 Bakers 215 152,610 22,437 22,651 14.7 14.8
688 Food batchmakers 84 66,546 10,998 12,645 16.5 19.0
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 169 139,096 37,612 39,727 27.0 28.6
693 Adjusters and calibrators 10 9,595 3,367 3,367 35.1 35.1
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 98 66,185 26,023 26,167 39.3 39.5
695 Power plant operators 60 37,066 19,663 20,011 53.0 54.0
696 Stationary engineers 162 113,809 39,270 39,561 34.5 34.8
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 60 41,059 13,910 13,910 33.9 33.9
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 6,112 4,646,308 1,163,894 1,216,748 25.0 26.2
553 Supervisors, brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 6 6,571 1,000 1,000 15.2 15.2
554 Supervisors, carpenters and related workers 28 21,208 7,865 7,865 37.1 37.1
555 Supervisors, electricians and power transmission installers 45 37,452 15,822 15,822 42.2 42.2
556 Supervisors, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 20 14,035 1,872 1,872 13.3 13.3
557 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 18 17,116 8,279 8,279 48.4 48.4
558 Supervisors, construction, n.e.c. 645 485,714 88,764 97,053 18.3 20.0
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 224 172,320 35,494 35,782 20.6 20.8
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 5 4,967 769 769 15.5 15.5
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 65 54,208 7,764 7,764 14.3 14.3
566 Carpet installers 95 71,319 7,406 7,406 10.4 10.4
567 Carpenters 1,402 1,058,680 197,284 204,640 18.6 19.3
569 Carpenter apprentices 15 12,835 5,913 5,913 46.1 46.1
573 Drywall installers 213 170,742 18,316 21,361 10.7 12.5
575 Electricians 953 733,241 286,213 295,321 39.0 40.3
576 Electrician apprentices 60 48,276 16,380 17,630 33.9 36.5
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 190 137,133 59,239 59,614 43.2 43.5
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 504 410,745 52,817 56,315 12.9 13.7
583 Paperhangers 12 8,433 121 404 1.4 4.8
584 Plasterers 52 34,037 3,359 3,359 9.9 9.9
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 614 443,239 144,678 153,987 32.6 34.7
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 30 20,083 5,965 5,965 29.7 29.7
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 106 84,801 21,536 21,752 25.4 25.7
589 Glaziers 48 38,277 11,013 11,013 28.8 28.8
593 Insulation workers 70 46,954 22,376 22,730 47.7 48.4
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 14 10,705 4,035 4,035 37.7 37.7
595 Roofers 203 156,138 15,678 17,246 10.0 11.0
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 47 34,586 13,188 14,418 38.1 41.7
597 Structural metal workers 114 86,073 51,808 53,644 60.2 62.3
598 Drillers, earth 33 19,201 2,219 2,219 11.6 11.6
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 281 207,221 56,723 61,572 27.4 29.7
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 9,003 7,043,299 1,365,822 1,442,045 19.4 20.5
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 18 15,359 3,995 3,995 26.0 26.0
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 49 36,275 7,054 8,835 19.4 24.4
705 Milling and planing machine operators 7 4,355 2,279 2,279 52.3 52.3
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 117 93,642 27,245 28,633 29.1 30.6
707 Rolling machine operators 14 12,029 6,428 6,428 53.4 53.4
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 19 13,780 5,932 5,932 43.0 43.0
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 114 99,688 30,037 30,037 30.1 30.1
713 Forging machine operators 10 9,309 3,333 3,333 35.8 35.8
714 Numerical control machine operators 37 27,004 6,863 6,863 25.4 25.4
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 51 38,547 15,495 15,495 40.2 40.2
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 27 23,357 5,421 5,421 23.2 23.2
719 Molding and casting machine operators 105 83,082 17,079 17,772 20.6 21.4
723 Metal plating machine operators 36 27,633 5,124 7,080 18.5 25.6
724 Heat treating equipment operators 9 7,393 2,939 2,939 39.7 39.7
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 33 28,046 1,687 1,687 6.0 6.0
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 15 9,649 385 1,246 4.0 12.9
727 Sawing machine operators 89 64,431 8,050 8,050 12.5 12.5
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 11 6,924 721 721 10.4 10.4
729 Nailing and tacking machine operators 3 1,881 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 40 27,764 1,361 2,820 4.9 10.2
734 Printing press operators 350 273,366 46,032 49,501 16.8 18.1
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 39 27,360 1,748 1,748 6.4 6.4
736 Typesetters and compositors 30 24,089 849 849 3.5 3.5
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 41 30,740 4,947 5,873 16.1 19.1
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 54 52,011 2,036 2,036 3.9 3.9
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 32 27,951 726 937 2.6 3.4
743 Textile cutting machine operators 2 1,517 0 0 0.0 0.0
744 Textile sewing machine operators 507 407,996 38,848 41,581 9.5 10.2
745 Shoe machine operators 10 5,931 0 0 0.0 0.0
747 Pressing machine operators 96 78,021 3,817 3,959 4.9 5.1
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 258 183,509 22,733 23,515 12.4 12.8
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 49 44,841 3,324 4,067 7.4 9.1
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 41 34,427 4,640 4,640 13.5 13.5
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 453 335,780 56,264 60,105 16.8 17.9
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 43 33,732 11,182 11,182 33.1 33.1
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 140 116,191 28,249 28,488 24.3 24.5
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 71 59,208 22,244 22,244 37.6 37.6
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 22 16,308 0 0 0.0 0.0
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 217 180,683 22,210 24,464 12.3 13.5
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 9 7,131 1,876 1,876 26.3 26.3
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 9 8,811 2,115 2,115 24.0 24.0
765 Folding machine operators 22 17,924 2,592 2,592 14.5 14.5
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food 75 53,356 18,817 19,575 35.3 36.7
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 46 30,210 3,548 4,225 11.7 14.0
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 180 134,811 26,308 27,522 19.5 20.4
773 Motion picture projectionists 13 9,135 1,560 1,560 17.1 17.1
774 Photographic process machine operators 135 104,124 11,020 11,979 10.6 11.5
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,393 1,114,069 273,109 285,510 24.5 25.6
779 Machine operators, not specified 510 376,312 95,742 100,019 25.4 26.6
783 Welders and cutters 719 545,971 114,694 125,006 21.0 22.9
784 Solderers and brazers 37 29,238 715 715 2.4 2.4
785 Assemblers 1,588 1,264,490 251,899 261,610 19.9 20.7
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 11 7,544 1,328 1,328 17.6 17.6
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 21 14,633 963 963 6.6 6.6
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 26 21,020 4,661 5,498 22.2 26.2
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 14 10,937 0 0 0.0 0.0
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 58 40,069 1,063 1,884 2.7 4.7
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 601 474,110 97,375 106,593 20.5 22.5
797 Production testers 73 62,310 16,055 16,055 25.8 25.8
798 Production samplers and weighers 13 8,790 2,635 2,635 30.0 30.0
799 Graders and sorters, except agricultural 191 144,497 16,473 18,030 11.4 12.5
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 6,895 5,181,528 1,194,501 1,260,491 23.1 24.3
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 116 83,821 8,277 10,132 9.9 12.1
804 Truck drivers 3,731 2,829,929 502,385 530,493 17.8 18.7
806 Driver-sales workers 193 156,730 32,804 36,776 20.9 23.5
808 Bus drivers 743 525,576 206,219 215,424 39.2 41.0
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 313 232,138 22,031 22,663 9.5 9.8
813 Parking lot attendants 65 53,597 7,963 10,137 14.9 18.9
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 12 13,703 2,786 3,462 20.3 25.3
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 67 49,531 39,749 40,538 80.3 81.8
824 Locomotive operating occupations 88 62,000 47,921 47,921 77.3 77.3
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 17 13,554 9,451 10,128 69.7 74.7
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 6 5,398 4,658 4,658 86.3 86.3
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 52 35,866 8,628 9,735 24.1 27.1
829 Sailors and deckhands 22 16,336 6,692 6,692 41.0 41.0
833 Marine engineers 4 2,533 523 523 20.7 20.7
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 3 2,571 1,090 1,090 42.4 42.4
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 15 9,135 1,111 1,111 12.2 12.2
844 Operating engineers 345 240,949 79,114 81,516 32.8 33.8
845 Longshore equipment operators 5 4,294 2,543 2,543 59.2 59.2
848 Hoist and winch operators 25 11,226 742 742 6.6 6.6
849 Crane and tower operators 89 64,422 33,525 34,208 52.0 53.1
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 138 83,332 18,478 20,248 22.2 24.3
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 75 40,919 4,563 4,563 11.2 11.2
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 659 560,082 130,179 139,914 23.2 25.0
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 112 83,886 23,068 25,274 27.5 30.1
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS 6,947 5,416,875 937,597 984,061 17.3 18.2
864 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c. 16 15,104 1,609 1,609 10.7 10.7
865 Helpers, mechanics, and repairers 41 38,049 4,098 4,577 10.8 12.0
866 Helpers, construction trades 134 113,085 7,645 7,645 6.8 6.8
867 Helpers, surveyor 11 6,684 204 204 3.0 3.0
868 Helpers, extractive occupations 2 534 0 0 0.0 0.0
869 Construction laborers 1,282 985,996 185,171 190,590 18.8 19.3
874 Production helpers 82 74,189 19,745 19,745 26.6 26.6
875 Garbage collectors 67 50,606 22,080 22,080 43.6 43.6
876 Stevedores 17 15,198 14,263 14,263 93.9 93.9
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,517 1,168,014 177,013 189,416 15.2 16.2
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 98 82,842 19,819 20,884 23.9 25.2
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 923 731,217 176,274 188,533 24.1 25.8
885 Garage and service station related occupations 243 180,730 8,036 8,036 4.4 4.4
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 376 289,216 26,896 28,732 9.3 9.9
888 Hand packers and packagers 478 365,946 43,702 48,253 11.9 13.2
889 Laborers, except construction 1,660 1,299,465 231,042 239,495 17.8 18.4
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2000. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.