Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 2001 (details in table note)  
 
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 24,076 16,912,092 958,927 1,136,105 5.7 6.7
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public administration 31 21,334 4,580 5,875 21.5 27.5
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 1,146 719,173 128,054 155,878 17.8 21.7
6 Administrators, protective services 95 62,771 11,583 12,996 18.5 20.7
7 Financial managers 1,009 713,804 7,904 12,945 1.1 1.8
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 313 220,538 3,366 5,432 1.5 2.5
9 Purchasing managers 196 139,583 5,440 6,090 3.9 4.4
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 1,028 756,280 8,467 13,489 1.1 1.8
14 Administrators, education and related fields 1,158 776,591 133,785 163,429 17.2 21.0
15 Managers, medicine and health 1,070 740,102 27,799 32,208 3.8 4.4
17 Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 1,515 1,075,076 26,673 34,329 2.5 3.2
18 Managers, properties and real estate 572 403,771 14,731 17,166 3.6 4.3
19 Funeral directors 65 48,131 0 0 0.0 0.0
21 Managers, service organizations, n.e.c. 955 614,715 49,523 52,391 8.1 8.5
22 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 8,473 6,056,503 233,604 265,617 3.9 4.4
23 Accountants and auditors 2,107 1,496,676 78,020 90,303 5.2 6.0
24 Underwriters 151 104,868 803 803 0.8 0.8
25 Other financial officers 1,111 772,021 15,898 26,571 2.1 3.4
26 Management analysts 398 292,734 7,760 13,186 2.7 4.5
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 871 631,512 47,784 54,849 7.6 8.7
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 15 11,591 0 0 0.0 0.0
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 295 205,926 10,606 10,881 5.2 5.3
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 370 257,843 15,136 15,774 5.9 6.1
34 Business and promotion agents 27 18,334 2,190 2,190 11.9 11.9
35 Construction inspectors 85 56,581 17,404 18,411 30.8 32.5
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 335 220,949 76,771 84,849 34.7 38.4
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 685 494,683 31,045 40,442 6.3 8.2
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS, EXC. TEACHERS 18,567 12,989,665 1,247,146 1,470,427 9.6 11.3
43 Architects 218 164,162 9,936 10,610 6.1 6.5
44 Aerospace engineers 100 82,506 6,729 7,446 8.2 9.0
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 35 25,823 2,898 2,898 11.2 11.2
46 Mining engineers 4 1,319 0 0 0.0 0.0
47 Petroleum engineers 29 21,428 0 155 0.0 0.7
48 Chemical engineers 91 72,455 2,393 3,476 3.3 4.8
49 Nuclear engineers 20 12,680 424 424 3.3 3.3
53 Civil engineers 384 274,964 36,078 41,323 13.1 15.0
54 Agricultural engineers 0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 921 706,256 29,812 38,382 4.2 5.4
56 Industrial engineers 331 255,164 17,880 20,454 7.0 8.0
57 Mechanical engineers 432 315,179 16,124 18,404 5.1 5.8
58 Marine and naval architects 14 9,347 1,097 1,277 11.7 13.7
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 308 226,051 8,880 10,445 3.9 4.6
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 30 19,418 2,805 2,805 14.4 14.4
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 2,193 1,672,427 64,677 83,920 3.9 5.0
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 321 226,209 12,694 14,304 5.6 6.3
66 Actuaries 25 17,844 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 41 28,492 4,816 4,816 16.9 16.9
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 7 6,148 0 0 0.0 0.0
69 Physicists and astronomers 31 21,199 2,130 2,283 10.0 10.8
73 Chemists, except biochemists 203 150,138 4,866 6,462 3.2 4.3
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 21 13,685 1,813 3,304 13.2 24.1
75 Geologists and geodesists 64 41,924 0 825 0.0 2.0
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 69 44,492 7,028 7,141 15.8 16.1
77 Agricultural and food scientists 58 34,068 2,678 2,678 7.9 7.9
78 Biological and life scientists 182 115,340 9,922 11,129 8.6 9.6
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 54 19,689 3,304 3,814 16.8 19.4
83 Medical scientists 127 98,472 8,127 8,127 8.3 8.3
84 Physicians 792 537,856 36,107 45,249 6.7 8.4
85 Dentists 80 55,833 1,497 1,497 2.7 2.7
86 Veterinarians 43 27,179 0 0 0.0 0.0
87 Optometrists 23 17,393 0 0 0.0 0.0
88 Podiatrists 4 3,310 0 0 0.0 0.0
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 16 11,019 222 222 2.0 2.0
95 Registered nurses 3,254 2,128,007 328,971 376,673 15.5 17.7
96 Pharmacists 285 196,443 15,894 18,612 8.1 9.5
97 Dietitians 138 95,689 7,072 8,113 7.4 8.5
98 Respiratory therapists 116 78,226 5,318 6,087 6.8 7.8
99 Occupational therapists 84 54,720 4,669 9,353 8.5 17.1
103 Physical therapists 197 139,206 9,796 12,082 7.0 8.7
104 Speech therapists 155 93,181 35,992 42,861 38.6 46.0
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 122 82,692 6,099 7,270 7.4 8.8
106 Physicians' assistants 105 63,902 9,419 9,852 14.7 15.4
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational 409 264,800 81,821 92,649 30.9 35.0
164 Librarians 322 208,777 47,043 53,528 22.5 25.6
165 Archivists and curators 46 29,921 2,990 3,292 10.0 11.0
166 Economists 174 123,981 1,047 5,072 0.8 4.1
167 Psychologists 289 192,551 35,123 41,986 18.2 21.8
168 Sociologists 4 3,265 634 1,492 19.4 45.7
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 53 28,126 1,369 1,603 4.9 5.7
173 Urban planners 21 14,932 2,230 3,793 14.9 25.4
174 Social workers 1,154 780,442 170,876 196,188 21.9 25.1
175 Recreation workers 178 110,562 7,463 9,609 6.8 8.7
176 Clergy 500 335,289 4,114 6,743 1.2 2.0
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 255 180,552 0 669 0.0 0.4
178 Lawyers and Judges 940 640,811 42,573 52,867 6.6 8.3
183 Authors 87 57,685 3,375 4,235 5.9 7.3
184 Technical writers 98 75,556 5,240 5,240 6.9 6.9
185 Designers 806 608,047 17,701 20,928 2.9 3.4
186 Musicians and composers 129 94,106 13,572 14,611 14.4 15.5
187 Actors and directors 128 99,802 16,070 16,824 16.1 16.9
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers 164 118,873 6,414 7,493 5.4 6.3
189 Photographers 117 79,569 5,628 7,234 7.1 9.1
193 Dancers 22 17,362 0 0 0.0 0.0
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 129 93,559 14,951 17,709 16.0 18.9
195 Editors and reporters 377 268,107 17,537 23,067 6.5 8.6
197 Public relations specialists 245 170,253 11,451 14,709 6.7 8.6
198 Announcers 53 35,539 3,863 4,350 10.9 12.2
199 Athletes 140 95,666 15,897 19,766 16.6 20.7
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,512 1,001,767 173,864 214,630 17.4 21.4
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 10 8,259 1,520 2,324 18.4 28.1
114 Biological science teachers 58 35,952 5,992 6,133 16.7 17.1
115 Chemistry teachers 40 24,646 3,112 5,162 12.6 20.9
116 Physics teachers 22 14,474 1,292 1,292 8.9 8.9
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 5 4,260 2,559 2,559 60.1 60.1
118 Psychology teachers 26 18,772 3,338 4,025 17.8 21.4
119 Economics teachers 24 17,062 4,244 4,405 24.9 25.8
123 History teachers 27 15,280 2,799 2,799 18.3 18.3
124 Political science teachers 13 10,251 698 2,895 6.8 28.2
125 Sociology teachers 14 10,347 2,081 2,257 20.1 21.8
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 13 7,421 1,831 1,831 24.7 24.7
127 Engineering teachers 38 23,753 2,814 3,467 11.8 14.6
128 Mathematical science teachers 61 44,102 6,541 11,372 14.8 25.8
129 Computer science teachers 44 31,175 5,663 7,092 18.2 22.7
133 Medical science teachers 19 12,805 2,189 2,189 17.1 17.1
134 Health specialties teachers 75 46,475 11,268 12,319 24.2 26.5
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 35 22,889 7,981 7,981 34.9 34.9
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 10 4,815 222 293 4.6 6.1
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 71 45,777 9,491 9,491 20.7 20.7
138 Physical education teachers 10 10,181 2,622 3,404 25.8 33.4
139 Education teachers 26 18,259 4,491 4,491 24.6 24.6
143 English teachers 87 56,594 12,549 16,893 22.2 29.8
144 Foreign language teachers 43 29,918 4,288 5,797 14.3 19.4
145 Law teachers 17 12,487 1,649 1,649 13.2 13.2
146 Social work teachers 3 893 0 0 0.0 0.0
147 Theology teachers 26 16,675 139 220 0.8 1.3
148 Trade and industrial teachers 4 2,872 2,089 2,089 72.8 72.8
149 Home economics teachers 1 462 0 0 0.0 0.0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 10 6,289 2,399 3,035 38.1 48.3
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 680 448,625 68,002 87,169 15.2 19.4
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 7,658 5,288,254 2,276,639 2,528,427 43.1 47.8
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 880 659,521 107,336 125,323 16.3 19.0
156 Teachers, elementary school 3,242 2,235,320 1,208,536 1,329,658 54.1 59.5
157 Teachers, secondary school 1,948 1,315,515 677,902 765,155 51.5 58.2
158 Teachers, special education 547 354,690 207,943 227,617 58.6 64.2
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 1,041 723,208 74,922 80,674 10.4 11.2
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 6,242 4,384,767 483,109 543,337 11.0 12.4
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 508 345,361 38,540 44,325 11.2 12.8
204 Dental hygienists 179 110,793 2,815 2,815 2.5 2.5
205 Health record technologists and technicians 25 19,611 0 614 0.0 3.1
206 Radiologic technicians 251 170,918 13,112 13,712 7.7 8.0
207 Licensed practical nurses 549 372,444 41,652 45,717 11.2 12.3
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 1,076 767,285 105,346 113,630 13.7 14.8
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 661 466,583 60,768 68,194 13.0 14.6
214 Industrial engineering technicians 10 8,155 2,731 3,553 33.5 43.6
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 21 16,768 4,789 4,789 28.6 28.6
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 316 225,723 26,237 27,813 11.6 12.3
217 Drafting occupations 296 207,352 15,948 16,904 7.7 8.2
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 94 64,513 5,318 5,606 8.2 8.7
223 Biological technicians 179 119,719 10,080 10,897 8.4 9.1
224 Chemical technicians 104 69,170 6,802 7,382 9.8 10.7
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 127 90,340 15,437 16,478 17.1 18.2
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 193 132,539 71,570 76,026 54.0 57.4
227 Air traffic controllers 41 26,516 12,032 12,406 45.4 46.8
228 Broadcast equipment operators 58 44,953 6,426 7,732 14.3 17.2
229 Computer programmers 837 631,982 25,009 36,510 4.0 5.8
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 24 17,064 3,040 3,040 17.8 17.8
234 Legal assistants 550 387,303 8,565 18,302 2.2 4.7
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 143 89,674 6,892 6,892 7.7 7.7
SALES OCCUPATIONS 19,056 13,674,229 479,794 545,536 3.5 4.0
243 Supervisors and Proprietors, Sales Occupations 5,118 3,598,582 116,930 130,399 3.2 3.6
253 Insurance sales occupations 628 444,520 9,071 12,596 2.0 2.8
254 Real estate sales occupations 648 481,091 19,221 28,107 4.0 5.8
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 598 454,312 2,938 6,720 0.6 1.5
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 260 170,484 7,758 7,758 4.6 4.6
257 Sales occupations, other business services 962 705,719 26,840 28,307 3.8 4.0
258 Sales engineers 46 34,820 0 0 0.0 0.0
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 1,840 1,358,054 20,844 26,110 1.5 1.9
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 426 302,819 799 2,177 0.3 0.7
264 Sales workers, apparel 507 366,459 1,662 2,498 0.5 0.7
265 Sales workers, shoes 118 87,527 1,634 1,634 1.9 1.9
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 254 175,287 1,508 1,508 0.9 0.9
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 351 270,996 105 2,517 0.0 0.9
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 400 294,115 2,904 6,003 1.0 2.0
269 Sales workers, parts 213 147,004 726 1,923 0.5 1.3
274 Sales workers, other commodities 1,926 1,370,097 23,928 29,635 1.7 2.2
275 Sales counter clerks 252 180,243 3,533 3,533 2.0 2.0
276 Cashiers 4,085 2,944,993 231,821 244,974 7.9 8.3
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 213 140,333 2,524 3,165 1.8 2.3
278 News vendors 107 74,302 3,711 4,477 5.0 6.0
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 84 58,396 603 763 1.0 1.3
284 Auctioneers 2 1,333 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 18 12,743 733 733 5.7 5.7
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL 25,753 17,899,675 2,216,019 2,486,270 12.4 13.9
303 Supervisors, general office 586 415,877 44,072 51,471 10.6 12.4
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 14 7,216 162 162 2.2 2.2
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 136 100,805 4,237 5,055 4.2 5.0
306 Chief communications operators 5 3,593 0 0 0.0 0.0
307 Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 280 198,940 26,903 30,885 13.5 15.5
308 Computer operators 435 310,980 33,688 40,884 10.8 13.1
309 Peripheral equipment operators 7 6,076 903 903 14.9 14.9
313 Secretaries 3,485 2,348,903 235,083 266,406 10.0 11.3
314 Stenographers 184 121,151 9,833 13,349 8.1 11.0
315 Typists 716 495,516 52,957 59,407 10.7 12.0
316 Interviewers 259 168,339 14,159 15,382 8.4 9.1
317 Hotel clerks 185 119,506 7,588 7,588 6.3 6.3
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 343 240,280 39,240 42,410 16.3 17.7
319 Receptionists 1,512 1,038,409 31,555 38,195 3.0 3.7
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 549 386,704 21,203 24,736 5.5 6.4
325 Classified-ad clerks 1 879 0 0 0.0 0.0
326 Correspondence clerks 11 7,528 0 0 0.0 0.0
327 Order clerks 430 311,046 62,424 65,825 20.1 21.2
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 85 57,728 4,064 5,000 7.0 8.7
329 Library clerks 225 156,160 24,971 26,778 16.0 17.1
335 File clerks 452 332,312 14,687 20,647 4.4 6.2
336 Records clerks 287 199,851 23,406 26,789 11.7 13.4
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,051 1,368,127 60,886 70,550 4.5 5.2
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 263 175,166 18,419 20,371 10.5 11.6
339 Billing clerks 307 204,364 16,390 19,049 8.0 9.3
343 Cost and rate clerks 62 41,648 7,086 7,086 17.0 17.0
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 194 135,665 5,396 6,302 4.0 4.6
345 Duplicating machine operators 47 34,658 2,452 2,545 7.1 7.3
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 14 9,023 2,415 2,415 26.8 26.8
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 20 12,234 643 643 5.3 5.3
348 Telephone operators 198 137,506 29,136 31,537 21.2 22.9
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 21 13,577 1,616 1,706 11.9 12.6
354 Postal clerks, except mail carriers 424 303,607 201,288 220,853 66.3 72.7
355 Mail carriers, postal service 489 341,015 262,392 272,253 76.9 79.8
356 Mail clerks, except postal service 205 138,518 17,998 21,777 13.0 15.7
357 Messengers 205 147,963 8,372 8,554 5.7 5.8
359 Dispatchers 336 214,762 42,934 46,482 20.0 21.6
363 Production coordinators 355 246,309 32,098 34,777 13.0 14.1
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 864 648,680 89,058 94,178 13.7 14.5
365 Stock and inventory clerks 606 419,571 56,356 64,315 13.4 15.3
366 Meter readers 71 51,604 18,382 18,568 35.6 36.0
368 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers 69 50,959 8,083 8,083 15.9 15.9
373 Expediters 478 340,390 23,370 26,078 6.9 7.7
374 Material recording, scheduling, and distributing clerks, n.e.c. 23 15,414 3,431 3,431 22.3 22.3
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 678 477,313 12,839 18,111 2.7 3.8
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 1,619 1,155,121 63,076 78,211 5.5 6.8
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 120 83,298 17,710 23,203 21.3 27.9
378 Bill and account collectors 302 213,178 14,063 14,063 6.6 6.6
379 General office clerks 1,242 886,902 85,450 97,524 9.6 11.0
383 Bank tellers 631 448,896 9,056 10,372 2.0 2.3
384 Proofreaders 35 21,360 1,057 1,057 4.9 4.9
385 Data-entry keyers 952 678,428 58,231 67,116 8.6 9.9
386 Statistical clerks 139 103,148 11,463 13,742 11.1 13.3
387 Teachers' aides 1,159 787,440 271,242 311,563 34.4 39.6
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,387 966,035 112,494 127,881 11.6 13.2
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD OCCUPATIONS 1,016 737,801 7,822 8,217 1.1 1.1
403 Launderers and ironers 1 1,008 1,008 1,008 100.0 100.0
404 Cooks, private household 8 5,487 0 0 0.0 0.0
405 Housekeepers and butlers 25 18,551 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 340 245,574 0 395 0.0 0.2
407 Private household cleaners and servants 642 467,182 6,814 6,814 1.5 1.5
PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 3,433 2,482,554 948,222 1,006,918 38.2 40.6
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 60 36,945 29,202 31,870 79.0 86.3
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 158 115,866 57,477 61,567 49.6 53.1
415 Supervisors, guards 85 56,687 5,297 5,963 9.3 10.5
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 25 15,498 7,589 7,589 49.0 49.0
417 Firefighting occupations 339 249,732 170,691 178,781 68.3 71.6
418 Police and detectives, public service 769 562,597 334,218 345,279 59.4 61.4
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 233 169,548 63,718 73,115 37.6 43.1
424 Correctional institution officers 427 338,654 173,489 185,683 51.2 54.8
425 Crossing guards 67 43,732 10,768 10,768 24.6 24.6
426 Guards and police, except public service 1,086 781,873 86,899 97,430 11.1 12.5
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 184 111,420 8,874 8,874 8.0 8.0
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PROTECTIVE AND HOUSEHOLD 20,340 13,951,183 1,320,247 1,449,018 9.5 10.4
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 692 485,425 15,087 21,990 3.1 4.5
434 Bartenders 504 333,693 6,658 8,802 2.0 2.6
435 Waiters and waitresses 1,927 1,337,087 33,819 38,762 2.5 2.9
436 Cooks 2,953 2,020,597 95,240 112,058 4.7 5.5
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 557 389,419 5,546 7,300 1.4 1.9
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 458 310,476 37,606 39,570 12.1 12.7
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 887 651,079 42,753 46,148 6.6 7.1
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,013 690,512 69,637 74,290 10.1 10.8
445 Dental assistants 318 216,443 3,853 3,853 1.8 1.8
446 Health aides, except nursing 565 371,505 40,064 42,310 10.8 11.4
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 2,927 2,016,834 278,314 301,293 13.8 14.9
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 256 172,767 23,839 24,913 13.8 14.4
449 Maids and housemen 1,021 640,517 67,988 71,561 10.6 11.2
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,050 2,087,717 367,704 403,297 17.6 19.3
454 Elevator operators 12 8,476 3,270 3,270 38.6 38.6
455 Pest control occupations 65 54,617 6,775 7,887 12.4 14.4
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 118 77,402 4,883 5,293 6.3 6.8
457 Barbers 58 47,851 2,641 2,641 5.5 5.5
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 691 513,525 12,029 12,631 2.3 2.5
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 419 248,936 14,805 17,617 5.9 7.1
461 Guides 56 35,512 1,653 2,349 4.7 6.6
462 Ushers 39 27,737 145 980 0.5 3.5
463 Public transportation attendants 188 141,188 92,202 95,638 65.3 67.7
464 Baggage porters and bellhops 70 50,738 12,799 13,418 25.2 26.4
465 Welfare service aides 173 98,724 10,748 11,920 10.9 12.1
466 Family child care providers 38 28,711 0 0 0.0 0.0
467 Early childhood teacher's assistants 698 489,315 15,820 20,858 3.2 4.3
468 Child care workers, n.e.c. 317 215,665 31,289 35,286 14.5 16.4
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 270 188,716 23,082 23,082 12.2 12.2
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 2,689 1,845,324 87,513 98,775 4.7 5.4
473 Farmers, except horticulture 19 9,731 0 0 0.0 0.0
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 1 2,061 0 0 0.0 0.0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 106 67,384 149 149 0.2 0.2
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 8 6,276 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 51 38,367 192 192 0.5 0.5
479 Farm workers 945 607,675 10,818 12,125 1.8 2.0
483 Marine life cultivation workers 1 1,127 0 0 0.0 0.0
484 Nursery workers 28 18,239 0 0 0.0 0.0
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 121 88,505 2,733 4,838 3.1 5.5
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 1,044 762,210 56,266 61,673 7.4 8.1
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 178 124,803 8,699 9,043 7.0 7.2
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 54 48,265 3,973 3,973 8.2 8.2
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 4 2,578 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 12 6,348 209 209 3.3 3.3
495 Forestry workers, except logging 35 16,927 4,474 5,543 26.4 32.7
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 48 27,133 0 1,029 0.0 3.8
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 5 1,429 0 0 0.0 0.0
498 Fishers 27 14,801 0 0 0.0 0.0
499 Hunters and trappers 2 1,464 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR, EXC. CONSTRUCTION 11,310 7,935,906 1,548,365 1,639,699 19.5 20.7
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 375 252,688 28,717 31,069 11.4 12.3
505 Automobile mechanics 954 671,499 51,288 54,424 7.6 8.1
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 5 4,174 0 0 0.0 0.0
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 485 316,734 86,618 88,801 27.3 28.0
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 170 125,116 49,012 53,457 39.2 42.7
509 Small engine repairers 87 54,628 2,246 2,912 4.1 5.3
514 Automobile body and related repairers 250 181,535 5,354 5,354 2.9 2.9
515 Aircraft mechanics, except engine 29 20,507 12,469 12,469 60.8 60.8
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 243 142,405 39,652 44,127 27.8 31.0
517 Farm equipment mechanics 50 30,101 0 0 0.0 0.0
518 Industrial machinery repairers 609 433,503 107,586 111,803 24.8 25.8
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 33 22,175 10,009 10,009 45.1 45.1
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 261 185,665 36,760 39,245 19.8 21.1
525 Data processing equipment repairers 396 302,195 20,708 26,053 6.9 8.6
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 49 41,811 5,429 6,105 13.0 14.6
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 79 56,209 33,831 35,466 60.2 63.1
529 Telephone installers and repairers 396 287,277 135,341 136,469 47.1 47.5
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 95 68,397 26,195 28,438 38.3 41.6
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 388 283,674 60,223 63,538 21.2 22.4
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 29 24,746 850 850 3.4 3.4
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 28 19,024 5,059 5,059 26.6 26.6
538 Office machine repairers 66 48,418 6,237 8,554 12.9 17.7
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 18 12,337 2,679 2,679 21.7 21.7
543 Elevator installers and repairers 49 35,730 28,499 28,622 79.8 80.1
544 Millwrights 92 64,037 35,530 35,530 55.5 55.5
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 511 363,753 39,663 45,131 10.9 12.4
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 429 294,245 52,932 62,981 18.0 21.4
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 85 40,746 735 735 1.8 1.8
614 Drillers, oil well 57 29,006 2,819 2,819 9.7 9.7
615 Explosives workers 16 8,372 1,248 1,248 14.9 14.9
616 Mining machine operators 79 34,241 10,435 10,435 30.5 30.5
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 39 18,240 5,539 5,539 30.4 30.4
628 Supervisors, production occupations 1,482 1,066,310 117,772 130,798 11.0 12.3
634 Tool and die makers 147 110,205 33,710 35,445 30.6 32.2
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 4 2,477 777 777 31.4 31.4
636 Precision assemblers, metal 45 31,508 11,631 11,631 36.9 36.9
637 Machinists 686 492,595 107,724 109,006 21.9 22.1
639 Machinist apprentices 5 3,624 0 0 0.0 0.0
643 Boilermakers 41 29,289 11,199 12,202 38.2 41.7
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 14 8,787 4,181 4,181 47.6 47.6
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 11 8,599 5,513 5,513 64.1 64.1
646 Lay-out workers 8 5,248 1,304 3,293 24.8 62.7
647 Precious stones and metals workers (Jewelers) 50 34,636 2,415 2,531 7.0 7.3
649 Engravers, metal 11 5,682 0 0 0.0 0.0
653 Sheet metal workers 178 114,966 43,914 46,147 38.2 40.1
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 2 853 853 853 100.0 100.0
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 1 538 0 0 0.0 0.0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 6 4,461 1,204 1,204 27.0 27.0
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 84 57,744 2,002 2,002 3.5 3.5
658 Furniture and wood finishers 36 27,237 703 703 2.6 2.6
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 1 153 0 0 0.0 0.0
666 Dressmakers 65 48,739 2,799 2,799 5.7 5.7
667 Tailors 19 12,782 0 0 0.0 0.0
668 Upholsterers 50 41,481 3,509 3,509 8.5 8.5
669 Shoe repairers 11 7,012 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 9 6,956 616 616 8.9 8.9
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 29 20,666 2,198 2,198 10.6 10.6
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 10 7,704 2,251 2,251 29.2 29.2
677 Optical goods workers 106 76,926 3,069 3,069 4.0 4.0
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 52 39,148 832 832 2.1 2.1
679 Bookbinders 29 23,928 4,643 4,643 19.4 19.4
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 389 307,868 44,254 48,532 14.4 15.8
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 27 20,361 3,672 3,672 18.0 18.0
686 Butchers and meat cutters 328 217,993 58,811 60,316 27.0 27.7
687 Bakers 224 149,855 22,355 24,781 14.9 16.5
688 Food batchmakers 71 49,107 13,296 13,296 27.1 27.1
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 215 157,158 33,331 36,693 21.2 23.3
693 Adjusters and calibrators 12 7,365 408 408 5.5 5.5
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 100 67,441 27,064 27,064 40.1 40.1
695 Power plant operators 63 38,391 16,998 17,686 44.3 46.1
696 Stationary engineers 159 107,932 40,213 41,221 37.3 38.2
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 78 48,993 19,483 19,903 39.8 40.6
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 6,587 4,721,794 1,169,813 1,203,274 24.8 25.5
553 Supervisors, brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 10 6,719 1,985 1,985 29.5 29.5
554 Supervisors, carpenters and related workers 23 16,212 4,529 4,529 27.9 27.9
555 Supervisors, electricians and power transmission installers 52 36,421 13,725 13,725 37.7 37.7
556 Supervisors, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 13 11,427 1,517 1,517 13.3 13.3
557 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 14 7,583 3,486 3,486 46.0 46.0
558 Supervisors, construction, n.e.c. 693 495,240 86,090 88,258 17.4 17.8
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 235 185,413 39,772 40,545 21.5 21.9
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 3 1,573 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 76 57,932 6,987 6,987 12.1 12.1
566 Carpet installers 101 76,233 6,130 6,130 8.0 8.0
567 Carpenters 1,573 1,092,788 218,015 225,716 20.0 20.7
569 Carpenter apprentices 12 8,200 1,744 1,744 21.3 21.3
573 Drywall installers 197 143,270 24,977 25,758 17.4 18.0
575 Electricians 1,026 738,176 284,856 292,244 38.6 39.6
576 Electrician apprentices 62 40,332 16,822 16,822 41.7 41.7
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 210 148,500 69,133 71,960 46.6 48.5
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 524 400,043 39,690 43,444 9.9 10.9
583 Paperhangers 9 4,822 0 0 0.0 0.0
584 Plasterers 67 50,596 4,423 4,423 8.7 8.7
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 651 459,796 162,376 164,589 35.3 35.8
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 23 13,457 3,566 3,566 26.5 26.5
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 133 111,606 23,952 24,964 21.5 22.4
589 Glaziers 43 30,648 8,899 8,899 29.0 29.0
593 Insulation workers 86 56,004 15,569 16,482 27.8 29.4
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 24 15,542 139 139 0.9 0.9
595 Roofers 212 155,791 15,960 17,636 10.2 11.3
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 46 30,380 12,566 12,566 41.4 41.4
597 Structural metal workers 105 72,600 38,751 38,751 53.4 53.4
598 Drillers, earth 31 18,584 6,585 7,309 35.4 39.3
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 333 235,905 57,572 59,102 24.4 25.1
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 8,808 6,498,887 1,317,486 1,379,110 20.3 21.2
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 24 18,057 6,663 7,083 36.9 39.2
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 29 20,167 2,083 2,198 10.3 10.9
705 Milling and planing machine operators 6 4,678 1,268 1,268 27.1 27.1
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 122 98,324 28,545 29,063 29.0 29.6
707 Rolling machine operators 20 17,338 6,985 6,985 40.3 40.3
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 21 16,234 3,254 4,152 20.0 25.6
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 126 94,145 18,455 18,455 19.6 19.6
713 Forging machine operators 16 12,801 5,800 5,800 45.3 45.3
714 Numerical control machine operators 42 28,229 9,960 9,960 35.3 35.3
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 23 15,206 6,693 6,693 44.0 44.0
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 26 20,304 6,129 6,966 30.2 34.3
719 Molding and casting machine operators 93 71,729 11,300 11,300 15.8 15.8
723 Metal plating machine operators 24 18,900 6,002 6,002 31.8 31.8
724 Heat treating equipment operators 15 11,159 1,894 1,894 17.0 17.0
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 33 22,198 3,061 3,816 13.8 17.2
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 10 7,755 1,793 1,793 23.1 23.1
727 Sawing machine operators 82 54,807 6,327 7,016 11.5 12.8
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 6 3,633 2,197 2,197 60.5 60.5
729 Nailing and tacking machine operators 0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 39 27,878 5,321 5,321 19.1 19.1
734 Printing press operators 355 254,508 44,326 45,475 17.4 17.9
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 38 26,244 10,555 10,555 40.2 40.2
736 Typesetters and compositors 31 20,765 2,172 3,139 10.5 15.1
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 27 21,036 4,518 4,518 21.5 21.5
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 41 36,351 3,427 3,427 9.4 9.4
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 42 35,301 310 310 0.9 0.9
743 Textile cutting machine operators 3 1,700 0 0 0.0 0.0
744 Textile sewing machine operators 460 351,653 27,177 29,446 7.7 8.4
745 Shoe machine operators 14 7,734 1,379 1,379 17.8 17.8
747 Pressing machine operators 94 70,433 3,151 3,151 4.5 4.5
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 251 174,085 20,860 21,437 12.0 12.3
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 39 35,368 3,601 4,544 10.2 12.8
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 34 24,984 8,834 8,834 35.4 35.4
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 415 291,343 66,935 69,350 23.0 23.8
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 42 29,228 8,852 8,852 30.3 30.3
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 136 104,230 27,683 30,228 26.6 29.0
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 73 52,464 22,984 22,984 43.8 43.8
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 20 13,549 4,493 4,493 33.2 33.2
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 204 161,332 25,540 26,918 15.8 16.7
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 4 2,664 0 0 0.0 0.0
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 12 11,708 2,777 2,777 23.7 23.7
765 Folding machine operators 14 9,735 3,207 3,207 32.9 32.9
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food 81 56,132 22,646 23,213 40.3 41.4
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 68 43,872 5,593 5,593 12.7 12.7
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 186 137,245 28,755 32,007 21.0 23.3
773 Motion picture projectionists 8 6,080 1,428 1,428 23.5 23.5
774 Photographic process machine operators 116 85,264 5,920 8,678 6.9 10.2
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,390 1,032,186 251,859 262,574 24.4 25.4
779 Machine operators, not specified 562 398,133 91,373 101,985 23.0 25.6
783 Welders and cutters 712 505,800 106,272 110,455 21.0 21.8
784 Solderers and brazers 28 19,245 2,188 2,188 11.4 11.4
785 Assemblers 1,476 1,090,397 249,982 259,312 22.9 23.8
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 15 10,438 5,806 5,806 55.6 55.6
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 20 15,650 539 539 3.4 3.4
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 27 17,270 4,036 4,036 23.4 23.4
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 20 9,994 0 0 0.0 0.0
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 90 62,068 1,737 1,737 2.8 2.8
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 640 503,764 81,313 85,045 16.1 16.9
797 Production testers 92 71,086 11,404 11,404 16.0 16.0
798 Production samplers and weighers 5 4,403 1,522 1,522 34.6 34.6
799 Graders and sorters, except agricultural 166 129,900 18,602 18,602 14.3 14.3
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,359 5,164,966 1,216,215 1,288,753 23.5 25.0
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 122 84,956 13,646 15,558 16.1 18.3
804 Truck drivers 3,971 2,829,710 520,411 550,612 18.4 19.5
806 Driver-sales workers 214 151,800 34,949 36,600 23.0 24.1
808 Bus drivers 815 557,169 213,258 228,748 38.3 41.1
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 331 236,056 20,065 23,165 8.5 9.8
813 Parking lot attendants 77 58,139 4,172 4,940 7.2 8.5
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 13 7,199 2,273 2,273 31.6 31.6
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 77 41,448 34,550 35,801 83.4 86.4
824 Locomotive operating occupations 95 60,746 47,650 48,389 78.4 79.7
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 12 7,072 4,176 4,789 59.1 67.7
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 2 1,817 1,817 1,817 100.0 100.0
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 43 29,089 11,990 12,229 41.2 42.0
829 Sailors and deckhands 22 16,229 3,422 3,422 21.1 21.1
833 Marine engineers 6 3,860 1,963 1,963 50.9 50.9
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 2 1,310 177 1,310 13.5 100.0
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 19 10,870 2,122 3,487 19.5 32.1
844 Operating engineers 397 239,579 86,643 89,111 36.2 37.2
845 Longshore equipment operators 6 4,889 3,239 3,239 66.2 66.2
848 Hoist and winch operators 29 15,038 726 726 4.8 4.8
849 Crane and tower operators 96 65,028 26,888 26,888 41.3 41.3
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 132 75,773 18,440 20,661 24.3 27.3
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 91 54,531 10,039 10,845 18.4 19.9
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 681 545,864 137,064 141,988 25.1 26.0
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 106 66,794 16,533 20,192 24.8 30.2
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS 7,127 5,218,761 837,589 879,588 16.0 16.9
864 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c. 18 14,726 4,267 5,792 29.0 39.3
865 Helpers, mechanics, and repairers 37 25,257 3,548 3,548 14.0 14.0
866 Helpers, construction trades 143 108,302 6,690 6,690 6.2 6.2
867 Helpers, surveyor 14 10,714 130 130 1.2 1.2
868 Helpers, extractive occupations 2 1,040 0 0 0.0 0.0
869 Construction laborers 1,350 993,991 183,924 189,545 18.5 19.1
874 Production helpers 78 55,790 9,798 11,187 17.6 20.1
875 Garbage collectors 73 53,255 18,387 18,500 34.5 34.7
876 Stevedores 16 14,136 11,272 13,496 79.7 95.5
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,564 1,148,337 144,447 150,817 12.6 13.1
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 98 77,196 25,712 25,712 33.3 33.3
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 930 710,919 168,164 173,976 23.7 24.5
885 Garage and service station related occupations 251 177,656 2,868 4,256 1.6 2.4
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 402 286,614 32,489 33,796 11.3 11.8
888 Hand packers and packagers 485 341,615 40,942 43,243 12.0 12.7
889 Laborers, except construction 1,666 1,199,212 184,951 198,900 15.4 16.6
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2001. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.