Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 2002 (details in table note)  
 
COC Occupation Name Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS 26,384 17,107,355 1,004,238 1,210,913 5.9 7.1
4 Chief executives and general administrators, public administration 32 23,543 1,337 2,910 5.7 12.4
5 Administrators and officials, public administration 1,242 720,051 122,927 153,600 17.1 21.3
6 Administrators, protective services 105 54,600 11,041 13,234 20.2 24.2
7 Financial managers 1,164 750,698 6,326 15,753 0.8 2.1
8 Personnel and labor relations managers 350 217,533 1,935 2,630 0.9 1.2
9 Purchasing managers 196 140,518 9,071 11,034 6.5 7.9
13 Managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations 1,037 692,538 7,443 8,142 1.1 1.2
14 Administrators, education and related fields 1,328 794,008 151,514 181,710 19.1 22.9
15 Managers, medicine and health 1,233 782,380 25,124 33,848 3.2 4.3
17 Managers, food serving and lodging establishments 1,726 1,134,587 24,202 29,814 2.1 2.6
18 Managers, properties and real estate 629 423,078 12,310 14,368 2.9 3.4
19 Funeral directors 63 42,695 0 0 0.0 0.0
21 Managers, service organizations, n.e.c. 1,095 674,234 71,928 73,296 10.7 10.9
22 Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 9,132 6,035,948 213,651 258,222 3.5 4.3
23 Accountants and auditors 2,272 1,536,554 97,669 115,592 6.4 7.5
24 Underwriters 145 96,485 904 904 0.9 0.9
25 Other financial officers 1,212 786,773 27,784 41,906 3.5 5.3
26 Management analysts 484 321,030 7,987 14,110 2.5 4.4
27 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists 918 596,363 49,844 60,821 8.4 10.2
28 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 17 8,955 649 649 7.2 7.2
29 Buyers, wholesale and retail trade except farm products 325 212,266 11,689 13,181 5.5 6.2
33 Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 359 220,548 15,493 16,939 7.0 7.7
34 Business and promotion agents 45 35,904 0 0 0.0 0.0
35 Construction inspectors 106 70,228 19,432 22,354 27.7 31.8
36 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 379 243,385 79,269 86,201 32.6 35.4
37 Management related occupations, n.e.c. 790 492,457 34,711 39,695 7.0 8.1
PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS, EXC. TEACHERS 20,241 13,044,657 1,272,266 1,490,647 9.8 11.4
43 Architects 223 142,400 3,567 3,736 2.5 2.6
44 Aerospace engineers 118 85,897 7,339 9,031 8.5 10.5
45 Metallurgical and materials engineers 32 21,692 4,200 4,200 19.4 19.4
46 Mining engineers 14 6,281 0 307 0.0 4.9
47 Petroleum engineers 22 13,545 0 66 0.0 0.5
48 Chemical engineers 115 77,039 665 1,004 0.9 1.3
49 Nuclear engineers 12 8,136 0 1,650 0.0 20.3
53 Civil engineers 398 232,853 35,630 39,857 15.3 17.1
54 Agricultural engineers 5 1,758 0 0 0.0 0.0
55 Electrical and electronic engineers 939 649,853 34,065 39,312 5.2 6.0
56 Industrial engineers 353 231,684 11,071 11,830 4.8 5.1
57 Mechanical engineers 419 296,927 10,385 11,687 3.5 3.9
58 Marine and naval architects 23 12,167 991 991 8.1 8.1
59 Engineers, n.e.c. 400 279,738 15,856 15,856 5.7 5.7
63 Surveyors and mapping scientists 32 16,985 1,270 1,270 7.5 7.5
64 Computer systems analysts and scientists 2,282 1,564,419 47,993 64,127 3.1 4.1
65 Operations and systems researchers and analysts 349 241,976 18,938 21,669 7.8 9.0
66 Actuaries 25 15,038 0 0 0.0 0.0
67 Statisticians 49 27,906 882 1,497 3.2 5.4
68 Mathematical scientists, n.e.c. 6 5,392 0 0 0.0 0.0
69 Physicists and astronomers 27 18,633 627 627 3.4 3.4
73 Chemists, except biochemists 188 122,695 3,567 5,474 2.9 4.5
74 Atmospheric and space scientists 20 10,344 1,545 3,392 14.9 32.8
75 Geologists and geodesists 81 45,485 1,002 1,923 2.2 4.2
76 Physical scientists, n.e.c. 80 41,988 2,245 2,413 5.3 5.7
77 Agricultural and food scientists 82 45,172 2,534 3,919 5.6 8.7
78 Biological and life scientists 190 108,038 7,315 8,236 6.8 7.6
79 Forestry and conservation scientists 46 19,811 2,217 2,868 11.2 14.5
83 Medical scientists 122 86,207 6,926 9,909 8.0 11.5
84 Physicians 881 568,997 34,103 46,692 6.0 8.2
85 Dentists 70 51,636 3,149 3,149 6.1 6.1
86 Veterinarians 37 19,105 116 116 0.6 0.6
87 Optometrists 28 20,973 448 448 2.1 2.1
88 Podiatrists 7 4,099 1,534 1,534 37.4 37.4
89 Health diagnosing practitioners, n.e.c. 24 17,504 538 538 3.1 3.1
95 Registered nurses 3,617 2,239,715 348,473 389,856 15.6 17.4
96 Pharmacists 319 209,512 11,294 12,262 5.4 5.9
97 Dietitians 113 73,632 1,351 4,011 1.8 5.4
98 Respiratory therapists 149 100,358 10,826 13,548 10.8 13.5
99 Occupational therapists 115 66,726 10,039 13,870 15.0 20.8
103 Physical therapists 228 154,867 7,456 8,511 4.8 5.5
104 Speech therapists 181 107,431 43,348 45,894 40.4 42.7
105 Therapists, n.e.c. 156 91,470 9,399 12,890 10.3 14.1
106 Physicians' assistants 144 90,789 11,742 14,346 12.9 15.8
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational 450 272,565 95,027 107,617 34.9 39.5
164 Librarians 343 202,122 51,080 61,664 25.3 30.5
165 Archivists and curators 49 25,527 1,550 2,576 6.1 10.1
166 Economists 175 107,914 3,381 5,825 3.1 5.4
167 Psychologists 335 205,232 42,693 48,305 20.8 23.5
168 Sociologists 2 384 233 233 60.6 60.6
169 Social scientists, n.e.c. 65 32,311 1,952 2,567 6.0 7.9
173 Urban planners 23 16,669 1,483 3,409 8.9 20.5
174 Social workers 1,307 817,969 183,999 200,836 22.5 24.6
175 Recreation workers 187 131,764 2,120 5,329 1.6 4.0
176 Clergy 581 381,452 2,193 7,107 0.6 1.9
177 Religious workers, n.e.c. 281 185,778 0 2,011 0.0 1.1
178 Lawyers and Judges 1,060 673,016 39,351 49,101 5.8 7.3
183 Authors 78 53,905 8,066 10,369 15.0 19.2
184 Technical writers 85 58,882 3,062 4,482 5.2 7.6
185 Designers 842 549,201 25,396 27,152 4.6 4.9
186 Musicians and composers 142 93,909 11,238 13,341 12.0 14.2
187 Actors and directors 152 111,354 13,942 15,663 12.5 14.1
188 Painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers 166 113,822 8,558 10,616 7.5 9.3
189 Photographers 142 103,250 6,008 7,859 5.8 7.6
193 Dancers 32 23,994 1,295 1,978 5.4 8.2
194 Artists, performers, and related workers, n.e.c. 122 81,662 10,560 12,132 12.9 14.9
195 Editors and reporters 415 261,718 20,313 26,779 7.8 10.2
197 Public relations specialists 294 182,109 12,831 15,113 7.0 8.3
198 Announcers 61 34,948 3,401 4,433 9.7 12.7
199 Athletes 131 76,325 7,888 9,637 10.3 12.6
TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY 1,660 1,011,302 168,521 198,581 16.7 19.6
113 Earth, environmental, and marine science teachers 15 10,318 113 113 1.1 1.1
114 Biological science teachers 55 29,244 3,210 3,303 11.0 11.3
115 Chemistry teachers 28 17,312 1,705 1,705 9.9 9.9
116 Physics teachers 27 15,639 3,316 3,807 21.2 24.3
117 Natural science teachers, n.e.c. 3 1,808 673 673 37.2 37.2
118 Psychology teachers 31 17,729 4,106 4,763 23.2 26.9
119 Economics teachers 30 15,187 2,586 2,586 17.0 17.0
123 History teachers 21 14,548 3,091 3,091 21.2 21.2
124 Political science teachers 11 7,649 1,286 1,286 16.8 16.8
125 Sociology teachers 14 9,516 2,153 2,348 22.6 24.7
126 Social science teachers, n.e.c. 11 6,394 1,719 1,719 26.9 26.9
127 Engineering teachers 48 26,680 1,280 3,634 4.8 13.6
128 Mathematical science teachers 64 39,171 10,053 12,270 25.7 31.3
129 Computer science teachers 41 25,336 3,522 3,636 13.9 14.3
133 Medical science teachers 29 21,202 3,269 3,269 15.4 15.4
134 Health specialties teachers 70 39,270 9,848 11,057 25.1 28.2
135 Business, commerce, and marketing teachers 36 23,937 7,779 7,779 32.5 32.5
136 Agriculture and forestry teachers 9 6,192 1,746 1,746 28.2 28.2
137 Art, drama, and music teachers 67 43,083 9,108 11,691 21.1 27.1
138 Physical education teachers 11 7,479 2,507 2,507 33.5 33.5
139 Education teachers 19 10,057 1,616 1,845 16.1 18.3
143 English teachers 111 62,805 22,290 26,406 35.5 42.0
144 Foreign language teachers 44 25,070 5,466 6,139 21.8 24.5
145 Law teachers 13 6,567 3,021 3,021 46.0 46.0
146 Social work teachers 4 2,608 469 469 18.0 18.0
147 Theology teachers 25 16,698 5,544 6,185 33.2 37.0
148 Trade and industrial teachers 7 3,080 584 584 19.0 19.0
149 Home economics teachers 0
153 Teachers, postsecondary, n.e.c. 8 6,117 1,491 1,491 24.4 24.4
154 Postsecondary teachers, subject not specified 808 500,609 54,969 69,457 11.0 13.9
TEACHERS, EXCEPT POSTSECONDARY 8,455 5,353,378 2,322,612 2,567,988 43.4 48.0
155 Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 909 611,323 102,427 128,777 16.8 21.1
156 Teachers, elementary school 3,631 2,318,210 1,232,358 1,349,843 53.2 58.2
157 Teachers, secondary school 2,088 1,270,117 694,863 767,941 54.7 60.5
158 Teachers, special education 617 361,695 216,843 235,027 60.0 65.0
159 Teachers, n.e.c. 1,210 792,034 76,120 86,400 9.6 10.9
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 6,634 4,287,734 470,572 519,678 11.0 12.1
203 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 571 370,379 48,122 49,509 13.0 13.4
204 Dental hygienists 232 129,373 6,230 7,331 4.8 5.7
205 Health record technologists and technicians 34 21,598 2,855 2,855 13.2 13.2
206 Radiologic technicians 288 174,743 17,575 17,866 10.1 10.2
207 Licensed practical nurses 585 374,713 40,662 46,338 10.9 12.4
208 Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 1,164 754,852 92,292 99,030 12.2 13.1
213 Electrical and electronic technicians 628 406,406 50,780 55,180 12.5 13.6
214 Industrial engineering technicians 8 6,717 593 593 8.8 8.8
215 Mechanical engineering technicians 31 18,380 4,678 4,678 25.5 25.5
216 Engineering technicians, n.e.c. 298 193,743 31,662 32,553 16.3 16.8
217 Drafting occupations 343 225,522 12,798 17,812 5.7 7.9
218 Surveying and mapping technicians 89 57,334 4,119 4,910 7.2 8.6
223 Biological technicians 196 127,357 6,838 6,838 5.4 5.4
224 Chemical technicians 101 64,223 9,978 12,706 15.5 19.8
225 Science technicians, n.e.c. 148 99,227 11,930 15,555 12.0 15.7
226 Airplane pilots and navigators 207 127,465 66,921 68,318 52.5 53.6
227 Air traffic controllers 51 29,938 18,109 18,565 60.5 62.0
228 Broadcast equipment operators 61 45,516 3,857 4,833 8.5 10.6
229 Computer programmers 789 555,007 16,959 24,772 3.1 4.5
233 Tool programmers, numerical control 14 9,016 0 0 0.0 0.0
234 Legal assistants 610 377,610 12,757 17,576 3.4 4.7
235 Technicians, n.e.c. 186 118,616 10,856 11,859 9.2 10.0
SALES OCCUPATIONS 20,526 13,675,933 501,056 553,929 3.7 4.1
243 Supervisors and Proprietors, Sales Occupations 5,421 3,479,377 126,495 137,827 3.6 4.0
253 Insurance sales occupations 682 451,380 6,297 7,478 1.4 1.7
254 Real estate sales occupations 696 482,452 8,610 11,462 1.8 2.4
255 Securities and financial services sales occupations 672 457,590 3,038 7,036 0.7 1.5
256 Advertising and related sales occupations 254 169,641 4,476 5,894 2.6 3.5
257 Sales occupations, other business services 990 677,828 29,159 30,049 4.3 4.4
258 Sales engineers 51 34,236 597 597 1.7 1.7
259 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 2,039 1,402,681 24,120 28,566 1.7 2.0
263 Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 486 326,500 3,631 4,709 1.1 1.4
264 Sales workers, apparel 538 373,730 3,403 3,632 0.9 1.0
265 Sales workers, shoes 124 92,387 697 697 0.8 0.8
266 Sales workers, furniture and home furnishings 269 174,867 921 1,877 0.5 1.1
267 Sales workers, radio, TV, hi-fi, and appliances 424 316,094 2,712 4,381 0.9 1.4
268 Sales workers, hardware and building supplies 450 280,765 2,439 3,554 0.9 1.3
269 Sales workers, parts 246 151,750 4,917 6,773 3.2 4.5
274 Sales workers, other commodities 2,026 1,355,677 33,093 37,156 2.4 2.7
275 Sales counter clerks 260 171,017 2,745 2,745 1.6 1.6
276 Cashiers 4,347 2,907,486 236,685 249,054 8.1 8.6
277 Street and door-to-door sales workers 276 185,081 2,609 3,475 1.4 1.9
278 News vendors 141 90,532 3,649 5,569 4.0 6.2
283 Demonstrators, promoters and models, sales 103 71,216 763 1,399 1.1 2.0
284 Auctioneers 7 4,086 0 0 0.0 0.0
285 Sales support occupations, n.e.c. 24 19,561 0 0 0.0 0.0
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL 27,074 17,370,886 2,208,382 2,438,806 12.7 14.0
303 Supervisors, general office 656 405,984 43,777 50,621 10.8 12.5
304 Supervisors, computer equipment operators 26 16,241 1,265 1,265 7.8 7.8
305 Supervisors, financial records processing 155 109,929 7,736 10,493 7.0 9.5
306 Chief communications operators 7 5,448 871 871 16.0 16.0
307 Supervisors, distribution, scheduling, and adjusting clerks 260 163,035 24,591 28,528 15.1 17.5
308 Computer operators 437 295,879 37,610 44,746 12.7 15.1
309 Peripheral equipment operators 6 4,681 0 0 0.0 0.0
313 Secretaries 3,534 2,162,462 232,616 265,516 10.8 12.3
314 Stenographers 181 113,332 10,438 11,212 9.2 9.9
315 Typists 805 546,052 81,759 86,426 15.0 15.8
316 Interviewers 253 160,342 9,391 10,436 5.9 6.5
317 Hotel clerks 216 131,862 5,535 6,879 4.2 5.2
318 Transportation ticket and reservation agents 333 219,840 33,257 35,327 15.1 16.1
319 Receptionists 1,591 1,035,959 32,547 36,592 3.1 3.5
323 Information clerks, n.e.c. 651 420,519 27,182 28,787 6.5 6.8
325 Classified-ad clerks 5 2,305 578 578 25.1 25.1
326 Correspondence clerks 16 8,752 0 1,375 0.0 15.7
327 Order clerks 401 280,273 66,525 69,452 23.7 24.8
328 Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 106 68,541 6,259 7,321 9.1 10.7
329 Library clerks 212 129,640 21,195 24,557 16.3 18.9
335 File clerks 442 295,882 19,046 20,001 6.4 6.8
336 Records clerks 331 202,458 22,413 24,982 11.1 12.3
337 Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,130 1,330,871 63,095 73,550 4.7 5.5
338 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 267 169,855 19,610 21,285 11.5 12.5
339 Billing clerks 318 209,821 7,867 10,434 3.7 5.0
343 Cost and rate clerks 81 51,262 7,348 7,348 14.3 14.3
344 Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators 230 152,474 6,675 6,675 4.4 4.4
345 Duplicating machine operators 50 31,158 0 96 0.0 0.3
346 Mail preparing and paper handling machine operators 7 4,288 1,068 1,068 24.9 24.9
347 Office machine operators, n.e.c. 30 20,265 1,937 1,937 9.6 9.6
348 Telephone operators 192 119,310 29,360 30,279 24.6 25.4
353 Communications equipment operators, n.e.c. 28 19,667 1,545 1,545 7.9 7.9
354 Postal clerks, except mail carriers 448 275,065 203,091 219,596 73.8 79.8
355 Mail carriers, postal service 534 336,120 258,908 271,052 77.0 80.6
356 Mail clerks, except postal service 229 150,377 19,065 23,683 12.7 15.7
357 Messengers 192 124,706 3,245 3,972 2.6 3.2
359 Dispatchers 399 251,640 49,445 50,965 19.6 20.3
363 Production coordinators 350 227,363 21,053 22,813 9.3 10.0
364 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 886 608,130 72,802 76,416 12.0 12.6
365 Stock and inventory clerks 659 441,814 65,701 70,735 14.9 16.0
366 Meter readers 78 46,481 16,849 17,577 36.3 37.8
368 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers 77 47,157 7,456 8,304 15.8 17.6
373 Expediters 460 307,083 19,131 20,597 6.2 6.7
374 Material recording, scheduling, and distributing clerks, n.e.c. 18 12,018 2,814 2,814 23.4 23.4
375 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 768 492,183 16,403 19,026 3.3 3.9
376 Investigators and adjusters, except insurance 1,705 1,097,529 62,015 71,541 5.7 6.5
377 Eligibility clerks, social welfare 127 90,066 24,173 27,948 26.8 31.0
378 Bill and account collectors 331 207,322 8,829 9,857 4.3 4.8
379 General office clerks 1,183 781,672 89,242 100,951 11.4 12.9
383 Bank tellers 712 466,323 13,527 15,118 2.9 3.2
384 Proofreaders 22 11,843 1,565 1,565 13.2 13.2
385 Data-entry keyers 880 588,489 67,945 76,430 11.5 13.0
386 Statistical clerks 167 99,199 7,697 9,584 7.8 9.7
387 Teachers' aides 1,295 803,033 254,002 286,233 31.6 35.6
389 Administrative support occupations, n.e.c. 1,597 1,016,886 100,329 111,846 9.9 11.0
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD OCCUPATIONS 1,022 731,075 5,614 6,489 0.8 0.9
403 Launderers and ironers 1 1,619 0 0 0.0 0.0
404 Cooks, private household 7 5,750 0 874 0.0 15.2
405 Housekeepers and butlers 10 5,083 0 0 0.0 0.0
406 Child care workers, private household 324 239,418 674 674 0.3 0.3
407 Private household cleaners and servants 680 479,205 4,940 4,940 1.0 1.0
PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 3,687 2,566,778 955,962 1,010,423 37.2 39.4
413 Supervisors, firefighting and fire prevention occupations 70 44,650 29,575 29,778 66.2 66.7
414 Supervisors, police and detectives 171 121,306 55,983 58,465 46.2 48.2
415 Supervisors, guards 94 61,950 122 1,196 0.2 1.9
416 Fire inspection and fire prevention occupations 23 13,143 6,777 6,777 51.6 51.6
417 Firefighting occupations 359 240,041 171,473 175,513 71.4 73.1
418 Police and detectives, public service 816 594,899 357,483 372,607 60.1 62.6
423 Sheriffs, bailiffs, and other law enforcement officers 232 160,587 63,475 65,149 39.5 40.6
424 Correctional institution officers 449 325,068 161,896 168,985 49.8 52.0
425 Crossing guards 56 35,558 4,123 4,123 11.6 11.6
426 Guards and police, except public service 1,240 872,439 98,050 118,265 11.2 13.6
427 Protective service occupations, n.e.c. 177 97,137 7,004 9,565 7.2 9.8
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PROTECTIVE AND HOUSEHOLD 22,272 14,266,112 1,269,824 1,411,514 8.9 9.9
433 Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations 737 492,454 8,934 12,633 1.8 2.6
434 Bartenders 541 309,958 8,209 9,827 2.6 3.2
435 Waiters and waitresses 2,103 1,434,583 24,237 28,237 1.7 2.0
436 Cooks 3,281 2,088,510 90,539 108,986 4.3 5.2
438 Food counter, fountain and related occupations 639 405,193 4,491 5,117 1.1 1.3
439 Kitchen workers, food preparation 518 336,205 35,081 37,543 10.4 11.2
443 Waiters'/waitresses' assistants 1,012 675,052 30,314 34,195 4.5 5.1
444 Miscellaneous food preparation occupations 1,046 646,940 62,457 73,442 9.7 11.4
445 Dental assistants 323 208,818 3,470 5,354 1.7 2.6
446 Health aides, except nursing 602 348,350 42,137 45,420 12.1 13.0
447 Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 3,317 2,155,626 308,650 334,130 14.3 15.5
448 Supervisors, cleaning and building service workers 285 179,846 19,080 21,119 10.6 11.7
449 Maids and housemen 1,106 628,498 69,697 75,020 11.1 11.9
453 Janitors and cleaners 3,206 2,060,968 352,139 394,789 17.1 19.2
454 Elevator operators 9 6,405 2,291 2,291 35.8 35.8
455 Pest control occupations 76 55,775 4,359 4,601 7.8 8.2
456 Supervisors, personal service occupations 125 71,885 3,668 5,200 5.1 7.2
457 Barbers 51 39,450 1,553 1,553 3.9 3.9
458 Hairdressers and cosmetologists 785 545,120 3,501 3,749 0.6 0.7
459 Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities 451 250,736 14,072 16,040 5.6 6.4
461 Guides 60 32,043 2,555 2,555 8.0 8.0
462 Ushers 56 38,424 6,590 6,590 17.2 17.2
463 Public transportation attendants 188 123,061 75,610 79,271 61.4 64.4
464 Baggage porters and bellhops 65 42,211 13,997 13,997 33.2 33.2
465 Welfare service aides 195 111,540 16,004 17,500 14.3 15.7
466 Family child care providers 26 20,706 0 0 0.0 0.0
467 Early childhood teacher's assistants 792 515,111 10,056 12,119 2.0 2.4
468 Child care workers, n.e.c. 333 212,140 32,845 36,951 15.5 17.4
469 Personal service occupations, n.e.c. 344 230,506 23,286 23,286 10.1 10.1
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS 3,052 1,980,795 86,509 100,407 4.4 5.1
473 Farmers, except horticulture 34 20,201 826 826 4.1 4.1
474 Horticultural specialty farmers 0
475 Managers, farms, except horticultural 122 70,926 487 1,873 0.7 2.6
476 Managers, horticultural specialty farms 11 8,730 0 0 0.0 0.0
477 Supervisors, farm workers 46 31,060 444 1,310 1.4 4.2
479 Farm workers 1,041 650,463 12,508 12,950 1.9 2.0
483 Marine life cultivation workers 1 767 0 0 0.0 0.0
484 Nursery workers 38 22,946 0 0 0.0 0.0
485 Supervisors, related agricultural occupations 137 94,576 6,409 7,386 6.8 7.8
486 Groundskeepers and gardeners, except farm 1,177 796,667 54,973 62,507 6.9 7.8
487 Animal caretakers, except farm 203 133,325 1,249 2,818 0.9 2.1
488 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 76 64,277 3,948 3,948 6.1 6.1
489 Inspectors, agricultural products 8 5,563 0 0 0.0 0.0
494 Supervisors, forestry and logging workers 23 11,588 0 180 0.0 1.6
495 Forestry workers, except logging 29 10,022 2,454 3,399 24.5 33.9
496 Timber cutting and logging occupations 64 35,202 1,301 1,301 3.7 3.7
497 Captains and other officers, fishing vessels 5 2,579 85 85 3.3 3.3
498 Fishers 36 20,856 1,824 1,824 8.7 8.7
499 Hunters and trappers 1 1,047 0 0 0.0 0.0
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, & REPAIR, EXC. CONSTRUCTION 11,496 7,482,350 1,389,890 1,461,268 18.6 19.5
503 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 363 221,983 22,399 26,040 10.1 11.7
505 Automobile mechanics 1,007 673,442 43,655 48,451 6.5 7.2
506 Automobile mechanic apprentices 7 3,613 905 905 25.1 25.1
507 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics 510 316,464 93,224 95,538 29.5 30.2
508 Aircraft engine mechanics 187 122,647 43,538 47,734 35.5 38.9
509 Small engine repairers 69 41,585 5,111 5,111 12.3 12.3
514 Automobile body and related repairers 261 174,005 9,674 11,990 5.6 6.9
515 Aircraft mechanics, except engine 25 15,320 7,707 8,859 50.3 57.8
516 Heavy equipment mechanics 285 164,699 51,813 56,098 31.5 34.1
517 Farm equipment mechanics 53 31,650 1,394 1,394 4.4 4.4
518 Industrial machinery repairers 662 430,306 90,082 91,718 20.9 21.3
519 Machinery maintenance occupations 27 14,424 7,262 7,262 50.3 50.3
523 Electronic repairers, communications & industrial equipment 259 174,643 36,205 39,586 20.7 22.7
525 Data processing equipment repairers 385 264,262 25,259 26,937 9.6 10.2
526 Household appliance and power tool repairers 45 28,712 291 291 1.0 1.0
527 Telephone line installers and repairers 67 41,906 28,988 28,988 69.2 69.2
529 Telephone installers and repairers 338 227,593 104,157 106,212 45.8 46.7
533 Miscellaneous electrical and electronic equipment repairers 107 75,502 31,291 32,864 41.4 43.5
534 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 407 290,256 51,669 53,108 17.8 18.3
535 Camera, watch, and musical instrument repairers 25 16,645 949 949 5.7 5.7
536 Locksmiths and safe repairers 25 15,670 2,881 2,881 18.4 18.4
538 Office machine repairers 62 45,446 3,915 3,915 8.6 8.6
539 Mechanical controls and valve repairers 25 16,037 3,711 4,133 23.1 25.8
543 Elevator installers and repairers 42 26,149 16,347 16,347 62.5 62.5
544 Millwrights 99 62,321 38,927 38,927 62.5 62.5
547 Specified mechanics and repairers, n.e.c. 601 399,186 64,991 71,423 16.3 17.9
549 Not specified mechanics and repairers 467 292,019 48,978 53,580 16.8 18.3
613 Supervisors, extractive occupations 69 30,160 333 428 1.1 1.4
614 Drillers, oil well 51 21,166 1,061 1,277 5.0 6.0
615 Explosives workers 12 4,361 476 476 10.9 10.9
616 Mining machine operators 74 26,436 4,889 5,650 18.5 21.4
617 Mining occupations, n.e.c. 50 22,739 4,710 5,166 20.7 22.7
628 Supervisors, production occupations 1,485 986,888 93,659 96,279 9.5 9.8
634 Tool and die makers 138 92,788 25,355 26,535 27.3 28.6
635 Tool and die maker apprentices 3 2,859 0 0 0.0 0.0
636 Precision assemblers, metal 36 24,794 8,339 8,339 33.6 33.6
637 Machinists 654 440,125 86,542 91,374 19.7 20.8
639 Machinist apprentices 0
643 Boilermakers 32 21,375 12,517 13,636 58.6 63.8
644 Precision grinders, filers, and tool sharpeners 17 10,919 1,595 1,595 14.6 14.6
645 Patternmakers and model makers, metal 6 4,683 2,625 2,625 56.0 56.0
646 Lay-out workers 15 6,388 2,835 2,835 44.4 44.4
647 Precious stones and metals workers (Jewelers) 57 34,613 0 507 0.0 1.5
649 Engravers, metal 13 8,890 0 0 0.0 0.0
653 Sheet metal workers 174 111,236 30,562 30,885 27.5 27.8
654 Sheet metal worker apprentices 3 1,381 1,381 1,381 100.0 100.0
655 Miscellaneous precision metal workers 0
656 Patternmakers and model makers, wood 2 839 156 156 18.6 18.6
657 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 83 52,052 2,830 2,830 5.4 5.4
658 Furniture and wood finishers 27 16,880 362 362 2.1 2.1
659 Miscellaneous precision woodworkers 1 725 0 0 0.0 0.0
666 Dressmakers 66 43,108 2,375 2,375 5.5 5.5
667 Tailors 33 27,542 1,975 1,975 7.2 7.2
668 Upholsterers 53 41,399 3,055 4,324 7.4 10.4
669 Shoe repairers 5 4,897 0 0 0.0 0.0
674 Miscellaneous precision apparel and fabric workers 9 6,464 928 928 14.4 14.4
675 Hand molders and shapers, except jewelers 26 14,937 1,310 1,310 8.8 8.8
676 Patternmakers, lay-out workers, and cutters 9 4,952 478 478 9.6 9.6
677 Optical goods workers 102 69,507 3,168 3,708 4.6 5.3
678 Dental laboratory and medical appliance technicians 85 55,359 1,916 1,916 3.5 3.5
679 Bookbinders 32 22,381 1,584 1,584 7.1 7.1
683 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 318 222,591 40,476 41,957 18.2 18.8
684 Miscellaneous precision workers, n.e.c. 31 23,478 3,522 4,354 15.0 18.5
686 Butchers and meat cutters 342 209,859 41,549 44,577 19.8 21.2
687 Bakers 204 127,228 23,469 23,552 18.4 18.5
688 Food batchmakers 79 52,856 7,530 7,530 14.2 14.2
689 Inspectors, testers, and graders 213 152,738 28,244 29,083 18.5 19.0
693 Adjusters and calibrators 7 3,671 1,583 1,583 43.1 43.1
694 Water and sewage treatment plant operators 118 81,964 29,910 30,976 36.5 37.8
695 Power plant operators 77 42,902 16,224 19,711 37.8 45.9
696 Stationary engineers 201 127,414 48,162 48,890 37.8 38.4
699 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 74 38,320 16,881 16,881 44.1 44.1
CONSTRUCTION TRADES 7,021 4,632,283 1,142,414 1,177,750 24.7 25.4
553 Supervisors, brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters 5 2,465 167 167 6.8 6.8
554 Supervisors, carpenters and related workers 25 14,521 3,850 3,850 26.5 26.5
555 Supervisors, electricians and power transmission installers 49 30,898 12,705 12,806 41.1 41.4
556 Supervisors, painters, paperhangers, and plasterers 19 12,162 1,712 1,712 14.1 14.1
557 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 20 16,539 5,072 6,535 30.7 39.5
558 Supervisors, construction, n.e.c. 760 484,248 97,565 98,630 20.1 20.4
563 Brickmasons and stonemasons 252 174,227 40,441 42,115 23.2 24.2
564 Brickmason and stonemason apprentices 1 75 0 0 0.0 0.0
565 Tile setters, hard and soft 91 70,630 6,546 6,948 9.3 9.8
566 Carpet installers 108 82,208 3,526 3,526 4.3 4.3
567 Carpenters 1,724 1,121,162 195,317 204,043 17.4 18.2
569 Carpenter apprentices 11 8,875 5,498 5,498 61.9 61.9
573 Drywall installers 182 114,469 16,791 16,791 14.7 14.7
575 Electricians 1,081 722,570 285,303 293,031 39.5 40.6
576 Electrician apprentices 66 44,930 13,918 13,918 31.0 31.0
577 Electrical power installers and repairers 193 116,722 52,763 56,485 45.2 48.4
579 Painters, construction and maintenance 588 414,827 51,764 53,831 12.5 13.0
583 Paperhangers 9 5,444 107 107 2.0 2.0
584 Plasterers 63 42,371 5,637 5,637 13.3 13.3
585 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 696 450,888 160,478 166,657 35.6 37.0
587 Plumber, pipefitter, and steamfitter apprentices 28 13,377 4,217 4,217 31.5 31.5
588 Concrete and terrazzo finishers 139 94,411 14,706 15,020 15.6 15.9
589 Glaziers 56 38,619 5,057 5,057 13.1 13.1
593 Insulation workers 91 53,783 15,170 15,448 28.2 28.7
594 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 18 9,274 2,230 2,230 24.0 24.0
595 Roofers 230 150,421 23,520 23,520 15.6 15.6
596 Sheetmetal duct installers 57 40,070 16,881 16,881 42.1 42.1
597 Structural metal workers 90 63,821 37,581 37,581 58.9 58.9
598 Drillers, earth 19 10,917 1,690 1,690 15.5 15.5
599 Construction trades, n.e.c. 350 227,360 62,204 63,820 27.4 28.1
MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS 8,956 6,073,205 1,160,656 1,213,898 19.1 20.0
703 Lathe and turning machine set-up operators 14 10,097 2,101 2,101 20.8 20.8
704 Lathe and turning machine operators 34 20,926 3,884 4,189 18.6 20.0
705 Milling and planing machine operators 8 6,051 370 370 6.1 6.1
706 Punching and stamping press machine operators 103 67,291 23,889 24,100 35.5 35.8
707 Rolling machine operators 12 7,910 1,384 1,384 17.5 17.5
708 Drilling and boring machine operators 10 6,431 2,628 2,628 40.9 40.9
709 Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operators 130 86,625 18,921 18,921 21.8 21.8
713 Forging machine operators 17 12,998 4,711 5,749 36.2 44.2
714 Numerical control machine operators 51 33,726 2,398 2,398 7.1 7.1
715 Misc. metal, plastic, stone, & glass working machine operators 41 25,957 7,637 7,637 29.4 29.4
717 Fabricating machine operators, n.e.c. 19 12,325 5,062 5,062 41.1 41.1
719 Molding and casting machine operators 116 82,252 16,208 16,548 19.7 20.1
723 Metal plating machine operators 33 19,754 2,802 2,802 14.2 14.2
724 Heat treating equipment operators 14 10,214 2,774 2,774 27.2 27.2
725 Miscellaneous metal and plastic processing machine operators 28 19,527 1,809 2,155 9.3 11.0
726 Wood lathe, routing, and planing machine operators 15 6,929 0 0 0.0 0.0
727 Sawing machine operators 110 71,053 5,010 5,010 7.1 7.1
728 Shaping and joining machine operators 5 3,918 0 0 0.0 0.0
729 Nailing and tacking machine operators 1 830 0 0 0.0 0.0
733 Miscellaneous woodworking machine operators 34 22,238 1,203 1,203 5.4 5.4
734 Printing press operators 394 256,178 38,126 39,752 14.9 15.5
735 Photoengravers and lithographers 33 21,890 4,337 4,337 19.8 19.8
736 Typesetters and compositors 29 18,576 4,321 4,321 23.3 23.3
737 Miscellaneous printing machine operators 49 31,343 4,908 4,908 15.7 15.7
738 Winding and twisting machine operators 41 35,208 2,380 2,380 6.8 6.8
739 Knitting, looping, taping, and weaving machine operators 36 30,713 3,289 3,289 10.7 10.7
743 Textile cutting machine operators 12 9,900 964 964 9.7 9.7
744 Textile sewing machine operators 437 326,190 26,292 27,074 8.1 8.3
745 Shoe machine operators 16 8,174 1,080 1,835 13.2 22.5
747 Pressing machine operators 97 72,577 3,635 5,522 5.0 7.6
748 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators 286 180,789 10,922 12,013 6.0 6.6
749 Miscellaneous textile machine operators 34 28,951 843 843 2.9 2.9
753 Cementing and gluing machine operators 24 18,824 5,119 5,119 27.2 27.2
754 Packaging and filling machine operators 398 263,617 61,218 63,201 23.2 24.0
755 Extruding and forming machine operators 44 27,906 6,510 6,510 23.3 23.3
756 Mixing and blending machine operators 137 103,350 18,750 18,750 18.1 18.1
757 Separating, filtering, and clarifying machine operators 101 67,366 24,000 24,071 35.6 35.7
758 Compressing and compacting machine operators 28 17,285 4,579 4,579 26.5 26.5
759 Painting and paint spraying machine operators 203 131,371 24,400 27,639 18.6 21.0
763 Roasting and baking machine operators, food 3 1,670 0 0 0.0 0.0
764 Washing, cleaning, and pickling machine operators 12 7,693 1,603 1,603 20.8 20.8
765 Folding machine operators 14 10,811 825 1,509 7.6 14.0
766 Furnace, kiln, and oven operators, except food 69 45,638 16,130 16,945 35.3 37.1
768 Crushing and grinding machine operators 64 38,200 4,994 5,202 13.1 13.6
769 Slicing and cutting machine operators 190 130,919 20,432 21,201 15.6 16.2
773 Motion picture projectionists 12 8,832 855 855 9.7 9.7
774 Photographic process machine operators 131 87,560 6,238 7,513 7.1 8.6
777 Miscellaneous machine operators, n.e.c. 1,391 962,125 223,432 231,106 23.2 24.0
779 Machine operators, not specified 556 372,995 72,137 74,528 19.3 20.0
783 Welders and cutters 709 451,765 116,778 125,004 25.8 27.7
784 Solderers and brazers 24 11,415 0 0 0.0 0.0
785 Assemblers 1,522 1,053,837 232,595 243,475 22.1 23.1
786 Hand cutting and trimming occupations 12 6,998 1,918 2,952 27.4 42.2
787 Hand molding, casting, and forming occupations 23 13,978 2,240 2,723 16.0 19.5
789 Hand painting, coating, and decorating occupations 28 18,227 3,439 3,439 18.9 18.9
793 Hand engraving and printing occupations 14 6,195 0 0 0.0 0.0
795 Miscellaneous hand working occupations 73 51,869 2,056 2,538 4.0 4.9
796 Production inspectors, checkers, and examiners 671 445,841 77,319 80,704 17.3 18.1
797 Production testers 75 49,852 9,105 9,105 18.3 18.3
798 Production samplers and weighers 5 3,255 0 0 0.0 0.0
799 Graders and sorters, except agricultural 164 116,269 20,099 21,360 17.3 18.4
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 7,938 5,195,790 1,147,561 1,220,768 22.1 23.5
803 Supervisors, motor vehicle operators 134 92,861 15,887 17,242 17.1 18.6
804 Truck drivers 4,322 2,823,833 473,285 498,809 16.8 17.7
806 Driver-sales workers 200 128,419 19,524 20,715 15.2 16.1
808 Bus drivers 909 592,908 220,366 242,155 37.2 40.8
809 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 382 262,386 24,121 25,545 9.2 9.7
813 Parking lot attendants 79 50,256 2,882 2,882 5.7 5.7
814 Motor transportation occupations, n.e.c. 11 6,564 1,177 2,672 17.9 40.7
823 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 78 41,282 37,859 38,961 91.7 94.4
824 Locomotive operating occupations 95 57,784 42,575 43,027 73.7 74.5
825 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 11 5,688 5,688 5,688 100.0 100.0
826 Rail vehicle operators, n.e.c. 6 2,690 2,690 2,690 100.0 100.0
828 Ship captains and mates, except fishing boats 39 28,301 6,830 6,830 24.1 24.1
829 Sailors and deckhands 28 17,128 4,082 4,082 23.8 23.8
833 Marine engineers 8 3,804 3,669 3,669 96.5 96.5
834 Bridge, lock, and lighthouse tenders 5 3,086 2,338 2,338 75.8 75.8
843 Supervisors, material moving equipment operators 13 7,060 838 838 11.9 11.9
844 Operating engineers 436 250,462 83,471 87,090 33.3 34.8
845 Longshore equipment operators 5 2,950 1,182 1,904 40.1 64.5
848 Hoist and winch operators 26 15,837 809 1,327 5.1 8.4
849 Crane and tower operators 102 68,912 30,647 32,280 44.5 46.8
853 Excavating and loading machine operators 126 78,772 14,387 16,516 18.3 21.0
855 Grader, dozer, and scraper operators 93 46,460 9,336 9,414 20.1 20.3
856 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators 714 544,288 132,084 141,560 24.3 26.0
859 Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators 116 64,059 11,835 12,536 18.5 19.6
HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS 7,719 5,199,613 872,628 918,577 16.8 17.7
864 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, n.e.c. 21 14,513 1,950 1,950 13.4 13.4
865 Helpers, mechanics, and repairers 40 28,662 8,441 8,441 29.4 29.4
866 Helpers, construction trades 154 113,081 5,423 5,423 4.8 4.8
867 Helpers, surveyor 6 3,871 0 0 0.0 0.0
868 Helpers, extractive occupations 5 4,282 1,999 1,999 46.7 46.7
869 Construction laborers 1,474 993,980 174,387 182,786 17.5 18.4
874 Production helpers 85 64,090 12,591 12,591 19.6 19.6
875 Garbage collectors 78 51,359 19,150 19,244 37.3 37.5
876 Stevedores 16 12,886 10,892 10,892 84.5 84.5
877 Stock handlers and baggers 1,652 1,086,669 152,161 159,371 14.0 14.7
878 Machine feeders and offbearers 87 58,414 9,558 10,792 16.4 18.5
883 Freight, stock, and material handlers, n.e.c. 1,018 718,960 196,121 209,733 27.3 29.2
885 Garage and service station related occupations 277 167,586 8,846 9,195 5.3 5.5
887 Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 400 279,873 15,933 18,252 5.7 6.5
888 Hand packers and packagers 587 395,127 57,688 61,544 14.6 15.6
889 Laborers, except construction 1,819 1,206,259 197,489 206,364 16.4 17.1
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2002. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2003 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.