Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 2003 (details in table note)    
COC Occupation (Standard Occupational Classification) Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
MANAGEMENT, BUSINESS, AND FINANCIAL OCCUPATIONS 23,154 15,465,394 727,088 882,066 4.7 5.7
10 Chief executives 1,612 1,078,170 16,000 22,969 1.5 2.1
20 General and operations managers 1,017 684,436 24,645 30,118 3.6 4.4
40 Advertising and promotions managers 103 60,765 789 789 1.3 1.3
50 Marketing and sales managers 1,194 840,867 9,643 15,403 1.1 1.8
60 Public relations managers 78 46,575 1,084 1,084 2.3 2.3
100 Administrative services managers 123 79,455 3,131 3,881 3.9 4.9
110 Computer and information systems managers 485 339,325 8,518 12,103 2.5 3.6
120 Financial managers 1,496 1,005,515 15,837 20,433 1.6 2.0
130 Human resources managers 410 259,038 6,102 8,563 2.4 3.3
140 Industrial production managers 391 273,694 8,063 10,756 2.9 3.9
150 Purchasing managers 261 174,232 5,805 7,987 3.3 4.6
160 Transportation, storage, and distribution managers 322 221,429 9,380 12,171 4.2 5.5
200 Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers 166 104,165 0 0 0.0 0.0
220 Construction managers 522 370,997 35,829 38,314 9.7 10.3
230 Education administrators 1,149 703,960 113,198 140,351 16.1 19.9
300 Engineering managers 117 77,490 1,694 1,694 2.2 2.2
310 Food service managers 795 545,126 9,648 12,902 1.8 2.4
320 Funeral directors 47 33,455 0 0 0.0 0.0
330 Gaming managers 22 8,622 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Lodging managers 201 108,137 1,995 3,391 1.8 3.1
350 Medical and health services managers 699 448,126 21,233 25,479 4.7 5.7
360 Natural sciences managers 17 11,279 0 0 0.0 0.0
410 Property, real estate, and community association managers 506 353,857 4,004 8,147 1.1 2.3
420 Social and community service managers 495 289,064 18,286 20,506 6.3 7.1
430 Managers, all other 3,890 2,594,832 121,396 149,425 4.7 5.8
500 Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes 37 23,564 0 688 0.0 2.9
510 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 26 15,368 0 0 0.0 0.0
520 Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products 288 188,625 7,869 8,095 4.2 4.3
530 Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products 362 221,641 12,705 16,389 5.7 7.4
540 Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators 418 273,835 10,191 10,191 3.7 3.7
560 Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation 195 128,040 29,907 31,133 23.4 24.3
600 Cost estimators 137 93,501 5,977 5,977 6.4 6.4
620 Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists 954 645,403 69,139 73,821 10.7 11.4
700 Logisticians 50 34,145 3,760 3,760 11.0 11.0
710 Management analysts 462 326,137 13,456 16,320 4.1 5.0
720 Meeting and convention planners 42 31,321 241 241 0.8 0.8
730 Other business operations specialists 275 184,109 17,054 21,480 9.3 11.7
800 Accountants and auditors 2,132 1,479,178 70,610 86,752 4.8 5.9
810 Appraisers and assessors of real estate 86 56,427 7,406 7,985 13.1 14.2
820 Budget analysts 91 53,313 2,205 3,762 4.1 7.1
830 Credit analysts 45 29,471 0 738 0.0 2.5
840 Financial analysts 47 37,321 0 0 0.0 0.0
850 Personal financial advisors 343 232,384 107 3,464 0.0 1.5
860 Insurance underwriters 155 104,469 1,982 2,422 1.9 2.3
900 Financial examiners 10 5,220 1,552 1,552 29.7 29.7
910 Loan counselors and officers 620 407,563 10,497 10,585 2.6 2.6
930 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents 109 76,276 20,874 23,773 27.4 31.2
940 Tax prepares 94 66,358 3,723 4,037 5.6 6.1
950 Financial specialists, all other 58 39,115 1,552 2,437 4.0 6.2
PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS 38,050 25,418,069 4,603,947 5,247,986 18.1 20.6
1000 Computer scientists and systems analysts 888 652,605 51,926 61,541 8.0 9.4
1010 Computer programmers 727 519,985 19,588 25,252 3.8 4.9
1020 Computer software engineers 980 727,517 31,965 39,925 4.4 5.5
1040 Computer support specialists 487 331,427 14,993 19,830 4.5 6.0
1060 Database administrators 97 73,950 2,162 3,583 2.9 4.8
1100 Network and computer systems administrators 259 172,494 12,742 14,927 7.4 8.7
1110 Network systems and data communications analysts 439 318,038 10,318 18,284 3.2 5.7
1200 Actuaries 32 23,928 0 0 0.0 0.0
1210 Mathematicians 6 4,397 0 0 0.0 0.0
1220 Operations research analysts 154 104,572 9,825 12,655 9.4 12.1
1230 Statisticians 27 16,370 824 824 5.0 5.0
1240 Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations 3 1,939 0 85 0.0 4.4
1300 Architects, except naval 182 119,476 2,471 3,226 2.1 2.7
1310 Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists 60 37,339 6,019 6,861 16.1 18.4
1320 Aerospace engineers 107 75,138 7,441 8,831 9.9 11.8
1330 Agricultural engineers 4 2,454 0 0 0.0 0.0
1340 Biomedical engineers 11 7,982 0 656 0.0 8.2
1350 Chemical engineers 107 79,335 2,646 4,505 3.3 5.7
1360 Civil engineers 416 273,556 42,014 47,587 15.4 17.4
1400 Computer hardware engineers 117 97,491 2,789 5,889 2.9 6.0
1410 Electrical and electronic engineers 504 345,318 17,314 19,852 5.0 5.7
1420 Environmental engineers 67 42,998 3,593 3,755 8.4 8.7
1430 Industrial engineers, including health and safety 266 182,315 11,238 13,382 6.2 7.3
1440 Marine engineers and naval architects 24 15,179 2,432 2,609 16.0 17.2
1450 Materials engineers 62 39,639 1,597 4,486 4.0 11.3
1460 Mechanical engineers 399 275,438 12,598 16,201 4.6 5.9
1500 Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers 13 6,794 84 84 1.2 1.2
1510 Nuclear engineers 14 7,839 0 0 0.0 0.0
1520 Petroleum engineers 20 15,028 0 0 0.0 0.0
1530 Engineers, all other 365 273,852 10,283 12,032 3.8 4.4
1540 Drafters 304 210,890 13,446 14,728 6.4 7.0
1550 Engineering technicians, except drafters 591 415,408 61,005 69,694 14.7 16.8
1560 Surveying and mapping technicians 99 68,628 4,645 5,344 6.8 7.8
1600 Agricultural and food scientists 58 35,353 1,453 2,631 4.1 7.4
1610 Biological scientists 166 98,593 6,141 9,606 6.2 9.7
1640 Conservation scientists and foresters 52 25,888 6,295 8,224 24.3 31.8
1650 Medical scientists 143 97,755 5,668 9,399 5.8 9.6
1700 Astronomers and physicists 24 15,405 1,010 1,010 6.6 6.6
1710 Atmospheric and space scientists 18 8,985 1,065 1,624 11.8 18.1
1720 Chemists and materials scientists 179 131,209 1,989 3,746 1.5 2.9
1740 Environmental scientists and geoscientists 129 73,913 8,154 8,348 11.0 11.3
1760 Physical scientists, all other 143 106,443 7,808 10,750 7.3 10.1
1800 Economists 65 28,842 1,876 2,587 6.5 9.0
1810 Market and survey researchers 157 108,949 0 1,090 0.0 1.0
1820 Psychologists 164 104,745 28,820 32,742 27.5 31.3
1830 Sociologists 8 4,221 535 625 12.7 14.8
1840 Urban and regional planners 32 23,291 5,261 5,933 22.6 25.5
1860 Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers 64 38,255 708 885 1.8 2.3
1900 Agricultural and food science technicians 41 30,484 1,492 1,492 4.9 4.9
1910 Biological technicians 31 21,343 2,250 2,707 10.5 12.7
1920 Chemical technicians 113 77,289 12,853 13,637 16.6 17.6
1930 Geological and petroleum technicians 26 18,199 3,406 3,406 18.7 18.7
1940 Nuclear technicians 5 2,804 1,140 1,140 40.6 40.6
1960 Other life, physical, and social science technicians 225 150,857 10,321 13,954 6.8 9.2
2000 Counselors 957 613,411 125,938 140,482 20.5 22.9
2010 Social workers 1,007 646,858 144,534 163,263 22.3 25.2
2020 Miscellaneous community and social service specialists 468 304,012 73,098 82,263 24.0 27.1
2040 Clergy 593 400,492 4,693 6,186 1.2 1.5
2050 Directors, religious activities and education 83 59,121 873 873 1.5 1.5
2060 Religious workers, all other 126 93,932 1,613 1,613 1.7 1.7
2100 Lawyers, Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers 1,026 672,117 40,542 48,747 6.0 7.3
2140 Paralegals and legal assistants 417 273,854 4,269 4,517 1.6 1.6
2150 Miscellaneous legal support workers 307 188,163 9,461 11,385 5.0 6.1
2200 Postsecondary teachers 1,697 1,091,595 191,294 246,426 17.5 22.6
2300 Preschool and kindergarten teachers 917 657,318 117,274 130,534 17.8 19.9
2310 Elementary and middle school teachers 3,876 2,565,407 1,329,011 1,455,418 51.8 56.7
2320 Secondary school teachers 1,821 1,145,276 602,520 680,301 52.6 59.4
2330 Special education teachers 587 364,750 235,527 254,127 64.6 69.7
2340 Other teachers and instructors 743 499,699 44,351 53,279 8.9 10.7
2400 Archivists, curators, and museum technicians 55 27,357 1,259 2,295 4.6 8.4
2430 Librarians 314 191,121 39,084 46,813 20.5 24.5
2440 Library technicians 70 44,490 3,414 5,539 7.7 12.4
2540 Teacher assistants 1,441 939,307 283,753 315,371 30.2 33.6
2550 Other education, training, and library workers 87 57,458 13,743 16,873 23.9 29.4
2600 Artists and related workers 139 101,898 5,702 6,415 5.6 6.3
2630 Designers 836 568,331 16,441 20,303 2.9 3.6
2700 Actors 25 19,838 6,967 7,763 35.1 39.1
2710 Producers and directors 134 99,649 10,858 13,026 10.9 13.1
2720 Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers 247 170,252 8,018 10,061 4.7 5.9
2740 Dancers and choreographers 38 24,075 4,008 4,008 16.6 16.6
2750 Musicians, singers, and related workers 137 97,695 10,946 11,892 11.2 12.2
2760 Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other 19 14,449 1,857 1,857 12.9 12.9
2800 Announcers 72 44,407 3,982 3,982 9.0 9.0
2810 News analysts, reporters and correspondents 130 77,584 11,506 11,651 14.8 15.0
2820 Public relations specialists 193 124,191 3,720 5,365 3.0 4.3
2830 Editors 209 137,567 8,905 10,627 6.5 7.7
2840 Technical writers 80 51,989 2,307 2,641 4.4 5.1
2850 Writers and authors 137 84,007 5,035 5,786 6.0 6.9
2860 Miscellaneous media and communication workers 88 70,807 14,163 15,719 20.0 22.2
2900 Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators 106 86,050 12,497 12,497 14.5 14.5
2910 Photographers 118 82,601 6,556 6,556 7.9 7.9
2920 Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors 27 22,025 6,156 6,156 27.9 27.9
2960 Media and communication equipment workers, all other 2 1,553 698 698 44.9 44.9
3000 Chiropractors 12 7,462 0 0 0.0 0.0
3010 Dentists 66 46,500 1,182 1,182 2.5 2.5
3030 Dietitians and nutritionists 113 74,208 7,274 8,123 9.8 10.9
3040 Optometrists 28 19,988 2,244 2,244 11.2 11.2
3050 Pharmacists 312 205,746 12,500 14,126 6.1 6.9
3060 Physicians and surgeons 848 582,915 25,050 35,423 4.3 6.1
3110 Physician assistants 101 63,802 1,146 5,778 1.8 9.1
3120 Podiatrists 7 4,360 121 121 2.8 2.8
3130 Registered nurses 3,710 2,425,429 410,727 471,936 16.9 19.5
3140 Audiologists 14 10,866 1,311 1,311 12.1 12.1
3150 Occupational therapists 108 69,442 7,061 7,240 10.2 10.4
3160 Physical therapists 234 158,572 3,457 3,457 2.2 2.2
3200 Radiation therapists 16 11,331 1,810 1,810 16.0 16.0
3210 Recreational therapists 30 18,050 4,649 5,042 25.8 27.9
3220 Respiratory therapists 134 91,106 13,725 16,369 15.1 18.0
3230 Speech-language pathologists 156 84,456 30,350 35,456 35.9 42.0
3240 Therapists, all other 108 71,534 6,347 6,347 8.9 8.9
3250 Veterinarians 44 25,853 0 0 0.0 0.0
3260 Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other 6 4,722 0 0 0.0 0.0
3300 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 434 282,551 27,807 28,573 9.8 10.1
3310 Dental hygienists 204 124,029 4,123 4,858 3.3 3.9
3320 Diagnostic related technologists and technicians 408 261,476 26,494 32,916 10.1 12.6
3400 Emergency medical technicians and paramedics 182 126,650 28,387 28,387 22.4 22.4
3410 Health diagnosing and treating practitioner support technicians 558 381,269 32,250 40,566 8.5 10.6
3500 Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 780 518,158 55,725 64,139 10.8 12.4
3510 Medical records and health information technicians 151 105,802 8,609 10,811 8.1 10.2
3520 Opticians, dispensing 69 45,824 801 801 1.7 1.7
3530 Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians 132 90,070 8,294 10,547 9.2 11.7
3540 Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 82 49,051 11,726 14,951 23.9 30.5
3600 Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides 2,666 1,758,804 245,248 265,460 13.9 15.1
3610 Occupational therapist assistants and aides 27 17,030 577 577 3.4 3.4
3620 Physical therapist assistants and aides 90 55,065 3,150 3,150 5.7 5.7
3630 Massage therapists 65 47,710 2,155 2,843 4.5 6.0
3640 Dental assistants 373 259,621 8,835 9,731 3.4 3.7
3650 Medical assistants and other healthcare support occupations 1,000 685,671 51,575 59,288 7.5 8.6
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 29,683 20,183,237 2,318,411 2,561,847 11.5 12.7
3700 First-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers 43 31,693 8,243 8,307 26.0 26.2
3710 First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives 171 124,017 63,781 68,027 51.4 54.9
3720 First-line supervisors/managers of fire fighting and prevention workers 67 43,310 21,991 23,649 50.8 54.6
3730 Supervisors, protective service workers, all other 130 94,109 11,606 11,606 12.3 12.3
3740 Fire fighters 375 250,077 169,445 174,136 67.8 69.6
3750 Fire inspectors 35 19,818 8,420 8,420 42.5 42.5
3800 Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers 494 379,516 193,470 201,758 51.0 53.2
3820 Detectives and criminal investigators 168 118,097 43,533 48,133 36.9 40.8
3830 Fish and game wardens 11 3,976 1,403 1,403 35.3 35.3
3840 Parking enforcement workers 7 3,868 2,089 2,089 54.0 54.0
3850 Police and sheriff's patrol officers 845 606,111 347,136 371,039 57.3 61.2
3860 Transit and railroad police 3 3,636 751 751 20.7 20.7
3900 Animal control workers 14 11,941 3,217 3,217 26.9 26.9
3910 Private detectives and investigators 79 56,714 5,098 6,734 9.0 11.9
3920 Security guards and gaming surveillance officers 1,114 772,191 78,891 92,637 10.2 12.0
3940 Crossing guards 70 40,643 8,917 9,558 21.9 23.5
3950 Lifeguards and other protective service workers 204 139,304 6,101 6,802 4.4 4.9
4000 Chefs and head cooks 370 264,822 9,974 13,942 3.8 5.3
4010 First-line supervisors/managers of food preparation and serving workers 897 612,259 25,958 36,383 4.2 5.9
4020 Cooks 2,628 1,813,258 81,244 96,530 4.5 5.3
4030 Food preparation workers 906 604,777 31,740 37,815 5.2 6.3
4040 Bartenders 565 342,295 9,554 12,521 2.8 3.7
4050 Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food 395 257,261 39,725 43,389 15.4 16.9
4060 Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop 514 339,148 2,195 2,195 0.6 0.6
4110 Waiters and waitresses 2,631 1,819,923 28,637 33,681 1.6 1.9
4120 Food servers, nonrestaurant 262 170,621 27,046 29,264 15.9 17.2
4130 Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers 548 382,649 26,271 29,256 6.9 7.6
4140 Dishwashers 458 303,434 4,244 6,177 1.4 2.0
4150 Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop 342 235,576 4,958 5,701 2.1 2.4
4160 Food preparation and serving related workers, all other 7 4,440 124 124 2.8 2.8
4200 First-line supervisors/managers of housekeeping and janitorial workers 255 161,925 17,001 18,415 10.5 11.4
4210 First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers 152 112,921 8,715 10,218 7.7 9.0
4220 Janitors and building cleaners 2,926 1,918,464 308,524 352,117 16.1 18.4
4230 Maids and housekeeping cleaners 1,912 1,274,984 87,444 96,233 6.9 7.5
4240 Pest control workers 70 60,204 2,968 4,058 4.9 6.7
4250 Grounds maintenance workers 1,197 897,481 65,433 68,635 7.3 7.6
4300 First-line supervisors/managers of gaming workers 173 101,188 813 1,982 0.8 2.0
4320 First-line supervisors/managers of personal service workers 94 67,818 1,061 4,385 1.6 6.5
4340 Animal trainers 22 16,791 0 0 0.0 0.0
4350 Nonfarm animal caretakers 125 84,901 2,347 3,576 2.8 4.2
4400 Gaming services workers 187 94,455 4,995 5,508 5.3 5.8
4410 Motion picture projectionists 18 9,754 1,848 1,848 18.9 18.9
4420 Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers 80 62,510 4,356 4,356 7.0 7.0
4430 Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers 236 160,086 16,043 17,886 10.0 11.2
4460 Funeral service workers 23 13,170 0 0 0.0 0.0
4500 Barbers 51 46,420 1,371 1,371 3.0 3.0
4510 Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists 657 449,376 4,206 6,129 0.9 1.4
4520 Miscellaneous personal appearance workers 132 111,107 1,855 3,705 1.7 3.3
4530 Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges 99 72,974 27,531 28,707 37.7 39.3
4540 Tour and travel guides 49 23,957 1,488 2,494 6.2 10.4
4550 Transportation attendants 163 116,472 88,365 88,365 75.9 75.9
4600 Child care workers 1,238 820,303 37,595 48,254 4.6 5.9
4610 Personal and home care aides 716 470,463 38,693 43,336 8.2 9.2
4620 Recreation and fitness workers 385 261,166 10,280 13,795 3.9 5.3
4640 Residential advisors 61 38,085 2,942 3,935 7.7 10.3
4650 Personal care and service workers, all other 88 62,876 5,232 6,246 8.3 9.9
SALES AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS 19,424 13,377,927 532,559 598,939 4.0 4.5
4700 First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers 3,597 2,417,052 124,567 130,133 5.2 5.4
4710 First-line supervisors/managers of non-retail sales workers 1,348 932,551 20,563 25,577 2.2 2.7
4720 Cashiers 4,211 2,863,168 251,593 267,761 8.8 9.4
4740 Counter and rental clerks 284 204,190 1,616 4,520 0.8 2.2
4750 Parts salespersons 221 139,964 5,336 5,336 3.8 3.8
4760 Retail salespersons 4,243 2,947,359 43,642 51,871 1.5 1.8
4800 Advertising sales agents 244 176,007 4,337 5,767 2.5 3.3
4810 Insurance sales agents 603 422,439 4,557 7,867 1.1 1.9
4820 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents 451 338,819 3,624 8,952 1.1 2.6
4830 Travel agents 121 74,144 1,213 1,213 1.6 1.6
4840 Sales representatives, services, all other 644 466,638 27,018 28,708 5.8 6.2
4850 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing 1,782 1,241,834 22,595 28,278 1.8 2.3
4900 Models, demonstrators, and product promoters 78 59,125 0 0 0.0 0.0
4920 Real estate brokers and sales agents 704 492,653 10,560 17,780 2.1 3.6
4930 Sales engineers 58 44,595 643 643 1.4 1.4
4940 Telemarketers 277 182,806 1,606 3,095 0.9 1.7
4950 Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers 213 151,063 4,600 5,623 3.0 3.7
4960 Sales and related workers, all other 345 223,518 4,489 5,816 2.0 2.6
OFFICE AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 28,431 18,945,481 2,109,375 2,374,916 11.1 12.5
5000 First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers 2,325 1,575,326 96,308 110,629 6.1 7.0
5010 Switchboard operators, including answering service 84 51,037 6,465 8,241 12.7 16.1
5020 Telephone operators 100 61,850 7,054 7,054 11.4 11.4
5030 Communications equipment operators, all other 15 11,302 2,306 2,306 20.4 20.4
5100 Bill and account collectors 330 219,693 6,421 11,127 2.9 5.1
5110 Billing and posting clerks and machine operators 638 444,870 25,534 30,508 5.7 6.9
5120 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 2,041 1,290,045 71,212 82,768 5.5 6.4
5130 Gaming cage workers 26 12,852 1,278 1,278 9.9 9.9
5140 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 257 170,141 13,685 15,658 8.0 9.2
5150 Procurement clerks 26 16,645 2,108 2,108 12.7 12.7
5160 Tellers 637 403,394 9,766 12,523 2.4 3.1
5200 Brokerage clerks 27 19,182 0 878 0.0 4.6
5210 Correspondence clerks 10 4,646 1,875 1,875 40.4 40.4
5220 Court, municipal, and license clerks 131 82,617 24,999 27,291 30.3 33.0
5230 Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks 83 52,028 3,281 3,281 6.3 6.3
5240 Customer service representatives 2,539 1,765,582 146,649 160,214 8.3 9.1
5250 Eligibility interviewers, government programs 127 81,478 31,404 34,751 38.5 42.7
5260 File Clerks 593 387,852 30,336 37,930 7.8 9.8
5300 Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks 187 115,086 5,879 7,806 5.1 6.8
5310 Interviewers, except eligibility and loan 211 129,829 10,747 15,859 8.3 12.2
5320 Library assistants, clerical 176 118,522 22,938 25,054 19.4 21.1
5330 Loan interviewers and clerks 296 194,808 1,561 1,561 0.8 0.8
5340 New accounts clerks 34 23,901 516 516 2.2 2.2
5350 Order clerks 172 112,373 7,270 8,875 6.5 7.9
5360 Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping 100 62,243 7,951 10,176 12.8 16.3
5400 Receptionists and information clerks 2,046 1,380,305 63,852 72,096 4.6 5.2
5410 Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks 273 173,526 41,370 46,215 23.8 26.6
5420 Information and record clerks, all other 128 85,234 12,488 14,742 14.7 17.3
5500 Cargo and freight agents 24 16,124 7,019 7,019 43.5 43.5
5510 Couriers and messengers 311 220,289 53,964 56,415 24.5 25.6
5520 Dispatchers 365 241,491 55,778 58,428 23.1 24.2
5530 Meter readers, utilities 79 52,174 26,558 28,955 50.9 55.5
5540 Postal service clerks 298 185,015 126,011 144,564 68.1 78.1
5550 Postal service mail carriers 497 322,521 243,030 257,394 75.4 79.8
5560 Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators 158 115,601 76,038 87,772 65.8 75.9
5600 Production, planning, and expediting clerks 405 261,711 26,257 28,905 10.0 11.0
5610 Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks 771 543,560 70,303 72,805 12.9 13.4
5620 Stock clerks and order fillers 1,962 1,384,368 163,200 175,091 11.8 12.6
5630 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping 110 73,747 10,978 10,978 14.9 14.9
5700 Secretaries and administrative assistants 5,369 3,455,965 296,455 349,441 8.6 10.1
5800 Computer operators 276 183,830 19,785 20,167 10.8 11.0
5810 Data entry keyers 881 582,698 53,220 61,260 9.1 10.5
5820 Word processors and typists 501 354,966 55,905 62,258 15.7 17.5
5830 Desktop publishers 9 4,929 0 0 0.0 0.0
5840 Insurance claims and policy processing clerks 379 256,517 8,311 12,566 3.2 4.9
5850 Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service 217 150,772 14,045 14,531 9.3 9.6
5860 Office clerks, general 1,245 858,164 97,279 110,832 11.3 12.9
5900 Office machine operators, except computer 92 57,587 4,133 4,934 7.2 8.6
5910 Proofreaders and copy markers 25 19,669 784 784 4.0 4.0
5920 Statistical assistants 41 24,131 3,736 5,139 15.5 21.3
5930 Office and administrative support workers, all other 804 533,287 41,335 51,363 7.8 9.6
FARMING, FISHING, AND FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS 1,411 921,362 32,532 37,905 3.5 4.1
6000 First-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing, and forestry workers 59 43,743 371 371 0.8 0.8
6010 Agricultural inspectors 31 17,764 3,890 4,700 21.9 26.5
6020 Animal breeders 1 1,119 0 0 0.0 0.0
6040 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 91 68,522 11,858 11,858 17.3 17.3
6050 Miscellaneous agricultural workers 1,076 699,099 12,560 16,106 1.8 2.3
6100 Fishers and related fishing workers 31 12,916 0 0 0.0 0.0
6110 Hunters and trappers 3 3,096 0 0 0.0 0.0
6120 Forest and conservation workers 30 21,661 843 1,859 3.9 8.6
6130 Logging workers 89 53,443 3,010 3,010 5.6 5.6
CONSTRUCTION AND EXTRACTION OCCUPATIONS 9,357 6,411,758 1,394,192 1,457,495 21.7 22.7
6200 First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers 915 582,536 98,420 103,238 16.9 17.7
6210 Boilermakers 40 26,520 12,200 12,302 46.0 46.4
6220 Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons 225 169,184 41,622 41,622 24.6 24.6
6230 Carpenters 1,658 1,131,754 196,668 202,653 17.4 17.9
6240 Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers 225 180,099 15,837 15,837 8.8 8.8
6250 Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers 151 109,104 23,420 24,300 21.5 22.3
6260 Construction laborers 1,341 985,147 157,725 162,623 16.0 16.5
6300 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 39 28,811 3,355 4,054 11.6 14.1
6310 Pile-driver operators 4 2,332 1,026 1,026 44.0 44.0
6320 Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators 606 365,807 89,147 97,697 24.4 26.7
6330 Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers 203 150,088 14,852 14,852 9.9 9.9
6350 Electricians 1,014 680,524 262,391 267,476 38.6 39.3
6360 Glaziers 63 42,892 9,097 10,306 21.2 24.0
6400 Insulation workers 67 38,223 7,022 9,701 18.4 25.4
6420 Painters, construction and maintenance 626 472,405 51,961 62,088 11.0 13.1
6430 Paperhangers 7 5,624 0 0 0.0 0.0
6440 Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 726 484,375 168,941 172,627 34.9 35.6
6460 Plasterers and stucco masons 55 43,219 2,640 3,786 6.1 8.8
6500 Reinforcing iron and rebar workers 11 6,839 2,284 2,284 33.4 33.4
6510 Roofers 245 177,924 19,633 20,683 11.0 11.6
6520 Sheet metal workers 225 139,453 55,608 58,749 39.9 42.1
6530 Structural iron and steel workers 90 60,979 32,672 32,672 53.6 53.6
6600 Helpers, construction trades 153 115,158 11,063 12,110 9.6 10.5
6660 Construction and building inspectors 119 86,388 30,934 34,471 35.8 39.9
6700 Elevator installers and repairers 38 27,523 19,452 19,452 70.7 70.7
6710 Fence erectors 42 35,175 4,781 4,781 13.6 13.6
6720 Hazardous materials removal workers 43 25,580 3,980 4,772 15.6 18.7
6730 Highway maintenance workers 116 68,669 24,822 25,411 36.1 37.0
6740 Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators 24 12,147 9,977 9,977 82.1 82.1
6750 Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners 9 5,692 0 356 0.0 6.3
6760 Miscellaneous construction and related workers 60 44,328 4,662 5,870 10.5 13.2
6800 Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining 37 18,681 0 1,108 0.0 5.9
6820 Earth drillers, except oil and gas 35 15,051 1,266 1,266 8.4 8.4
6830 Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters 18 11,306 350 350 3.1 3.1
6840 Mining machine operators 69 34,109 10,770 11,382 31.6 33.4
6910 Roof bolters, mining 8 3,493 1,330 1,330 38.1 38.1
6920 Roustabouts, oil and gas 1 805 0 0 0.0 0.0
6930 Helpers--extraction workers 2 1,274 0 0 0.0 0.0
6940 Other extraction workers 47 22,539 4,285 4,285 19.0 19.0
INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 6,721 4,560,425 861,643 913,281 18.9 20.0
7000 First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers 496 322,327 32,697 35,187 10.1 10.9
7010 Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers 400 261,914 22,112 27,632 8.4 10.6
7020 Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers 342 241,255 94,444 101,257 39.1 42.0
7030 Avionics technicians 14 10,304 4,287 4,287 41.6 41.6
7040 Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers 54 39,375 12,606 13,135 32.0 33.4
7050 Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment 3 1,351 168 168 12.5 12.5
7100 Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility 28 12,091 5,479 5,752 45.3 47.6
7110 Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles 30 22,515 16,537 16,537 73.4 73.4
7120 Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers 42 30,230 2,074 2,074 6.9 6.9
7130 Security and fire alarm systems installers 66 54,238 5,146 5,146 9.5 9.5
7140 Aircraft mechanics and service technicians 179 124,353 51,629 53,904 41.5 43.3
7150 Automotive body and related repairers 230 155,800 2,286 2,995 1.5 1.9
7160 Automotive glass installers and repairers 26 15,043 0 0 0.0 0.0
7200 Automotive service technicians and mechanics 1,016 707,600 58,408 60,562 8.3 8.6
7210 Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists 487 327,907 82,726 85,789 25.2 26.2
7220 Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics 316 189,619 41,841 42,872 22.1 22.6
7240 Small engine mechanics 74 44,766 1,657 1,657 3.7 3.7
7260 Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers 123 83,313 1,755 1,755 2.1 2.1
7300 Control and valve installers and repairers 39 25,619 6,955 7,229 27.1 28.2
7310 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers 436 312,948 45,879 50,476 14.7 16.1
7320 Home appliance repairers 58 36,210 3,754 3,754 10.4 10.4
7330 Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics 699 469,439 109,482 117,504 23.3 25.0
7340 Maintenance and repair workers, general 417 282,770 48,099 54,566 17.0 19.3
7350 Maintenance workers, machinery 51 34,803 13,623 14,739 39.1 42.3
7360 Millwrights 101 69,958 37,266 38,060 53.3 54.4
7410 Electrical power-line installers and repairers 183 112,832 50,944 52,594 45.2 46.6
7420 Telecommunications line installers and repairers 214 155,055 59,799 61,337 38.6 39.6
7430 Precision instrument and equipment repairers 62 46,103 3,378 3,378 7.3 7.3
7510 Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers 89 56,256 3,117 3,117 5.5 5.5
7520 Commercial divers 4 3,318 0 743 0.0 22.4
7540 Locksmiths and safe repairers 16 11,777 0 0 0.0 0.0
7550 Manufactured building and mobile home installers 21 13,352 681 681 5.1 5.1
7560 Riggers 16 6,339 3,385 3,580 53.4 56.5
7600 Signal and track switch repairers 6 4,995 4,900 4,900 98.1 98.1
7610 Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers 43 29,168 775 775 2.7 2.7
7620 Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers 340 245,479 33,755 35,139 13.8 14.3
PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS 13,315 9,260,640 1,624,171 1,710,355 17.5 18.5
7700 First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers 1,307 886,751 83,263 92,591 9.4 10.4
7710 Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers 13 10,173 2,969 3,981 29.2 39.1
7720 Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers 334 253,223 40,581 42,511 16.0 16.8
7730 Engine and other machine assemblers 28 19,742 6,677 6,677 33.8 33.8
7740 Structural metal fabricators and fitters 36 22,001 8,866 8,866 40.3 40.3
7750 Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators 1,490 1,062,906 243,231 251,878 22.9 23.7
7800 Bakers 250 177,552 22,550 22,550 12.7 12.7
7810 Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers 436 304,097 76,801 83,395 25.3 27.4
7830 Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders 17 11,857 1,008 1,008 8.5 8.5
7840 Food batchmakers 140 108,804 25,116 25,806 23.1 23.7
7850 Food cooking machine operators and tenders 27 18,767 4,559 4,559 24.3 24.3
7900 Computer control programmers and operators 78 52,339 8,536 9,487 16.3 18.1
7920 Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 26 18,365 3,586 4,261 19.5 23.2
7930 Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 15 12,752 3,624 3,624 28.4 28.4
7940 Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 20 14,895 3,277 3,277 22.0 22.0
7950 Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 209 150,175 32,951 32,951 21.9 21.9
7960 Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 15 11,570 3,914 3,914 33.8 33.8
8000 Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and pl 116 79,452 18,782 18,782 23.6 23.6
8010 Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 30 17,660 3,381 3,381 19.1 19.1
8020 Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 11 8,609 2,768 2,768 32.1 32.1
8030 Machinists 641 449,835 86,871 88,995 19.3 19.8
8040 Metal furnace and kiln operators and tenders 53 37,111 16,243 16,243 43.8 43.8
8060 Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic 11 6,343 666 666 10.5 10.5
8100 Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 94 67,921 9,608 9,608 14.1 14.1
8120 Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 12 6,058 3,074 3,074 50.7 50.7
8130 Tool and die makers 118 80,094 21,908 21,908 27.4 27.4
8140 Welding, soldering, and brazing workers 765 502,024 104,645 113,384 20.8 22.6
8150 Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 15 9,311 1,253 1,253 13.5 13.5
8160 Lay-out workers, metal and plastic 16 13,155 2,665 2,665 20.3 20.3
8200 Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 27,500 4,818 4,818 17.5 17.5
8210 Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners 22 15,117 3,745 3,745 24.8 24.8
8220 Metalworkers and plastic workers, all other 566 409,921 75,481 76,412 18.4 18.6
8230 Bookbinders and bindery workers 52 34,403 4,791 4,791 13.9 13.9
8240 Job printers 106 78,487 7,680 10,084 9.8 12.8
8250 Prepress technicians and workers 73 48,886 2,603 2,730 5.3 5.6
8260 Printing machine operators 287 182,386 23,418 24,383 12.8 13.4
8300 Laundry and dry-cleaning workers 256 161,983 11,065 12,649 6.8 7.8
8310 Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials 112 78,030 4,234 4,234 5.4 5.4
8320 Sewing machine operators 399 312,437 21,537 23,841 6.9 7.6
8330 Shoe and leather workers and repairers 6 5,639 0 0 0.0 0.0
8340 Shoe machine operators and tenders 10 3,758 1,244 1,244 33.1 33.1
8350 Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers 95 74,995 8,339 8,892 11.1 11.9
8360 Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders 14 9,885 1,045 1,045 10.6 10.6
8400 Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders 31 25,754 1,241 1,241 4.8 4.8
8410 Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders 27 23,159 0 0 0.0 0.0
8420 Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders 46 39,892 1,990 1,990 5.0 5.0
8430 Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers 3 1,654 0 0 0.0 0.0
8440 Fabric and apparel patternmakers 8 6,200 0 0 0.0 0.0
8450 Upholsterers 42 33,605 812 812 2.4 2.4
8460 Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other 39 33,461 2,570 2,570 7.7 7.7
8500 Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters 73 45,191 3,168 3,669 7.0 8.1
8510 Furniture finishers 24 17,988 1,202 1,202 6.7 6.7
8520 Model makers and patternmakers, wood 3 1,901 0 0 0.0 0.0
8530 Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood 97 64,401 4,350 5,161 6.8 8.0
8540 Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing 73 50,537 4,784 5,841 9.5 11.6
8550 Woodworkers, all other 23 12,559 828 828 6.6 6.6
8600 Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers 77 39,932 17,467 18,880 43.7 47.3
8610 Stationary engineers and boiler operators 160 106,490 45,454 49,844 42.7 46.8
8620 Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators 98 59,221 19,750 21,338 33.3 36.0
8630 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 68 38,651 11,776 11,776 30.5 30.5
8640 Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders 94 68,861 25,792 26,719 37.5 38.8
8650 Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers 166 107,067 14,491 16,197 13.5 15.1
8710 Cutting workers 124 89,713 17,033 17,033 19.0 19.0
8720 Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders 61 39,795 9,522 9,522 23.9 23.9
8730 Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders 28 18,150 6,385 6,385 35.2 35.2
8740 Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers 1,007 685,300 107,879 113,744 15.7 16.6
8750 Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers 52 24,911 0 312 0.0 1.3
8760 Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians 125 89,144 6,844 7,684 7.7 8.6
8800 Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders 408 289,462 40,738 42,104 14.1 14.5
8810 Painting workers 233 151,841 25,615 25,615 16.9 16.9
8830 Photographic process workers and processing machine operators 103 69,561 6,826 6,826 9.8 9.8
8840 Semiconductor processors 8 5,773 0 0 0.0 0.0
8850 Cementing and gluing machine operators and tenders 28 19,362 4,823 5,220 24.9 27.0
8860 Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders 14 10,934 1,420 1,420 13.0 13.0
8900 Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders 3 1,687 731 731 43.3 43.3
8910 Etchers and engravers 17 11,539 1,610 1,610 14.0 14.0
8920 Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic 44 27,720 4,023 4,907 14.5 17.7
8930 Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders 81 63,984 15,173 17,586 23.7 27.5
8940 Tire builders 24 19,837 11,301 11,301 57.0 57.0
8950 Helpers--production workers 113 84,639 11,682 12,415 13.8 14.7
8960 Production workers, all other 1,329 923,794 183,517 194,943 19.9 21.1
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 11,284 7,813,587 1,572,056 1,663,573 20.1 21.3
9000 Supervisors, transportation and material moving workers 289 198,966 21,597 22,359 10.9 11.2
9030 Aircraft pilots and flight engineers 176 113,750 69,782 72,778 61.3 64.0
9040 Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists 68 37,688 20,400 23,277 54.1 61.8
9110 Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians 12 10,370 0 0 0.0 0.0
9120 Bus drivers 812 546,129 203,698 221,432 37.3 40.5
9130 Driver/sales workers and truck drivers 4,197 2,880,994 475,517 501,814 16.5 17.4
9140 Taxi drivers and chauffeurs 323 225,868 16,356 19,283 7.2 8.5
9150 Motor vehicle operators, all other 104 67,769 4,647 6,137 6.9 9.1
9200 Locomotive engineers and operators 86 46,832 36,981 36,981 79.0 79.0
9230 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 21 12,775 9,131 9,131 71.5 71.5
9240 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 82 54,752 38,660 41,295 70.6 75.4
9260 Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers 19 13,201 7,695 7,695 58.3 58.3
9300 Sailors and marine oilers 30 18,539 5,798 5,798 31.3 31.3
9310 Ship and boat captains and operators 42 27,916 7,862 7,862 28.2 28.2
9330 Ship engineers 6 3,508 1,618 1,618 46.1 46.1
9340 Bridge and lock tenders 5 3,771 1,527 1,527 40.5 40.5
9350 Parking lot attendants 105 76,854 10,959 12,164 14.3 15.8
9360 Service station attendants 150 93,510 4,633 4,633 5.0 5.0
9410 Transportation inspectors 64 47,147 18,372 19,554 39.0 41.5
9420 Other transportation workers 29 21,354 7,498 9,024 35.1 42.3
9500 Conveyor operators and tenders 7 3,613 1,110 1,110 30.7 30.7
9510 Crane and tower operators 80 61,854 24,777 24,777 40.1 40.1
9520 Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators 107 63,236 11,221 11,608 17.7 18.4
9560 Hoist and winch operators 15 10,512 2,132 2,579 20.3 24.5
9600 Industrial truck and tractor operators 661 521,398 116,061 120,976 22.3 23.2
9610 Cleaners of vehicles and equipment 418 286,060 22,090 23,269 7.7 8.1
9620 Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 2,487 1,723,512 343,845 361,990 20.0 21.0
9630 Machine feeders and offbearers 86 59,554 10,639 10,639 17.9 17.9
9640 Packers and packagers, hand 566 420,346 30,766 35,481 7.3 8.4
9650 Pumping station operators 35 16,791 2,024 2,024 12.1 12.1
9720 Refuse and recyclable material collectors 79 53,537 7,964 8,065 14.9 15.1
9730 Shuttle car operators 10 8,548 3,403 3,403 39.8 39.8
9740 Tank car, truck, and ship loaders 17 14,561 6,777 6,777 46.5 46.5
9750 Material moving workers, all other 96 68,369 26,516 26,516 38.8 38.8
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2003. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2004 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.