Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 2004 (details in table note)  
COC Occupation (Standard Occupational Classification) Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
MANAGEMENT, BUSINESS, AND FINANCIAL OCCUPATIONS 22,848 15,758,189 731,889 895,022 4.6 5.7
10 Chief executives 1,610 1,091,457 13,869 23,556 1.3 2.2
20 General and operations managers 1,108 751,229 18,262 25,804 2.4 3.4
40 Advertising and promotions managers 80 59,122 429 429 0.7 0.7
50 Marketing and sales managers 1,135 797,796 14,163 18,298 1.8 2.3
60 Public relations managers 67 45,654 1,341 1,341 2.9 2.9
100 Administrative services managers 113 84,794 6,287 6,903 7.4 8.1
110 Computer and information systems managers 467 332,673 4,970 8,323 1.5 2.5
120 Financial managers 1,435 1,003,044 20,318 27,340 2.0 2.7
130 Human resources managers 415 267,227 14,914 16,354 5.6 6.1
140 Industrial production managers 389 273,295 4,367 5,427 1.6 2.0
150 Purchasing managers 235 164,556 7,432 8,416 4.5 5.1
160 Transportation, storage, and distribution managers 321 230,097 7,398 8,305 3.2 3.6
200 Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers 169 109,695 395 395 0.4 0.4
220 Construction managers 622 435,411 32,127 35,705 7.4 8.2
230 Education administrators 1,115 719,874 104,867 132,545 14.6 18.4
300 Engineering managers 140 99,636 2,646 3,340 2.7 3.4
310 Food service managers 845 616,077 15,227 21,613 2.5 3.5
320 Funeral directors 52 34,097 1,992 1,992 5.8 5.8
330 Gaming managers 32 16,028 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Lodging managers 193 111,053 3,118 3,118 2.8 2.8
350 Medical and health services managers 724 481,313 16,081 18,654 3.3 3.9
360 Natural sciences managers 10 6,499 560 560 8.6 8.6
410 Property, real estate, and community association managers 505 357,189 13,142 15,571 3.7 4.4
420 Social and community service managers 450 273,246 9,468 13,229 3.5 4.8
430 Managers, all other 3,573 2,434,811 127,926 155,518 5.3 6.4
500 Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes 37 28,093 0 0 0.0 0.0
510 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 10 5,575 0 0 0.0 0.0
520 Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products 253 175,497 4,568 5,309 2.6 3.0
530 Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products 396 274,285 21,729 24,102 7.9 8.8
540 Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators 395 270,033 14,579 18,009 5.4 6.7
560 Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation 186 123,899 27,825 33,542 22.5 27.1
600 Cost estimators 131 94,053 5,711 6,996 6.1 7.4
620 Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists 943 666,365 57,940 71,788 8.7 10.8
700 Logisticians 55 42,083 1,944 2,747 4.6 6.5
710 Management analysts 482 346,595 10,360 12,343 3.0 3.6
720 Meeting and convention planners 39 24,628 412 412 1.7 1.7
730 Other business operations specialists 367 248,655 21,722 25,821 8.7 10.4
800 Accountants and auditors 2,127 1,530,606 64,715 74,356 4.2 4.9
810 Appraisers and assessors of real estate 117 84,675 9,374 9,374 11.1 11.1
820 Budget analysts 71 49,815 4,046 6,028 8.1 12.1
830 Credit analysts 43 26,379 95 95 0.4 0.4
840 Financial analysts 58 45,840 190 190 0.4 0.4
850 Personal financial advisors 342 244,386 3,815 5,635 1.6 2.3
860 Insurance underwriters 136 92,461 1,373 2,276 1.5 2.5
900 Financial examiners 17 13,847 2,280 2,908 16.5 21.0
910 Loan counselors and officers 587 405,595 8,770 8,770 2.2 2.2
930 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents 110 79,267 25,714 28,159 32.4 35.5
940 Tax prepares 82 53,017 2,525 2,525 4.8 4.8
950 Financial specialists, all other 59 36,663 902 902 2.5 2.5
PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS 37,591 25,693,095 4,686,288 5,360,659 18.2 20.9
1000 Computer scientists and systems analysts 881 644,670 27,373 41,835 4.2 6.5
1010 Computer programmers 750 543,747 22,629 30,322 4.2 5.6
1020 Computer software engineers 1,028 781,595 22,253 30,504 2.8 3.9
1040 Computer support specialists 461 315,578 15,658 22,617 5.0 7.2
1060 Database administrators 113 83,170 3,114 3,114 3.7 3.7
1100 Network and computer systems administrators 258 187,441 12,981 15,164 6.9 8.1
1110 Network systems and data communications analysts 363 264,363 11,683 13,348 4.4 5.0
1200 Actuaries 30 21,375 0 0 0.0 0.0
1210 Mathematicians 5 2,279 0 0 0.0 0.0
1220 Operations research analysts 133 88,341 11,048 12,576 12.5 14.2
1230 Statisticians 41 29,266 1,259 1,259 4.3 4.3
1240 Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations 2 612 0 0 0.0 0.0
1300 Architects, except naval 223 150,088 5,432 7,404 3.6 4.9
1310 Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists 48 29,590 3,927 5,667 13.3 19.2
1320 Aerospace engineers 148 112,134 8,128 10,472 7.2 9.3
1330 Agricultural engineers 7 3,662 0 0 0.0 0.0
1340 Biomedical engineers 11 7,957 0 0 0.0 0.0
1350 Chemical engineers 92 67,564 1,959 2,141 2.9 3.2
1360 Civil engineers 404 273,811 27,683 33,521 10.1 12.2
1400 Computer hardware engineers 109 88,797 3,677 5,448 4.1 6.1
1410 Electrical and electronic engineers 447 320,124 21,117 25,038 6.6 7.8
1420 Environmental engineers 64 39,062 2,534 2,965 6.5 7.6
1430 Industrial engineers, including health and safety 236 180,193 5,594 6,873 3.1 3.8
1440 Marine engineers and naval architects 17 10,843 2,312 2,312 21.3 21.3
1450 Materials engineers 57 37,392 1,793 1,793 4.8 4.8
1460 Mechanical engineers 412 295,634 15,255 20,493 5.2 6.9
1500 Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers 10 3,087 0 0 0.0 0.0
1510 Nuclear engineers 17 13,290 1,031 2,302 7.8 17.3
1520 Petroleum engineers 26 17,070 0 0 0.0 0.0
1530 Engineers, all other 372 271,194 24,389 26,841 9.0 9.9
1540 Drafters 255 186,102 8,652 9,760 4.6 5.2
1550 Engineering technicians, except drafters 564 417,593 71,234 77,636 17.1 18.6
1560 Surveying and mapping technicians 97 71,486 4,064 5,300 5.7 7.4
1600 Agricultural and food scientists 58 28,567 1,259 1,259 4.4 4.4
1610 Biological scientists 204 122,884 10,648 12,750 8.7 10.4
1640 Conservation scientists and foresters 49 19,669 770 1,137 3.9 5.8
1650 Medical scientists 117 87,267 6,491 7,148 7.4 8.2
1700 Astronomers and physicists 30 20,618 625 1,697 3.0 8.2
1710 Atmospheric and space scientists 24 11,370 2,283 2,283 20.1 20.1
1720 Chemists and materials scientists 189 141,033 5,009 6,209 3.6 4.4
1740 Environmental scientists and geoscientists 109 80,297 5,753 8,558 7.2 10.7
1760 Physical scientists, all other 143 100,651 5,081 7,920 5.0 7.9
1800 Economists 49 21,114 858 1,250 4.1 5.9
1810 Market and survey researchers 139 97,795 1,147 1,147 1.2 1.2
1820 Psychologists 155 101,971 24,891 30,033 24.4 29.5
1830 Sociologists 10 9,517 1,577 2,351 16.6 24.7
1840 Urban and regional planners 39 25,689 5,625 6,550 21.9 25.5
1860 Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers 64 40,801 96 1,366 0.2 3.3
1900 Agricultural and food science technicians 41 23,526 0 1,002 0.0 4.3
1910 Biological technicians 25 18,315 2,433 3,153 13.3 17.2
1920 Chemical technicians 124 91,832 15,049 15,049 16.4 16.4
1930 Geological and petroleum technicians 17 13,786 5,960 5,960 43.2 43.2
1940 Nuclear technicians 7 5,239 0 0 0.0 0.0
1960 Other life, physical, and social science technicians 227 142,087 10,730 12,583 7.6 8.9
2000 Counselors 895 606,030 126,812 149,803 20.9 24.7
2010 Social workers 1,016 680,833 169,022 186,581 24.8 27.4
2020 Miscellaneous community and social service specialists 441 291,276 67,017 72,708 23.0 25.0
2040 Clergy 587 399,697 5,011 9,055 1.3 2.3
2050 Directors, religious activities and education 84 57,980 0 948 0.0 1.6
2060 Religious workers, all other 134 95,821 2,103 2,500 2.2 2.6
2100 Lawyers, Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers 1,066 719,198 53,092 64,955 7.4 9.0
2140 Paralegals and legal assistants 459 318,674 10,619 12,002 3.3 3.8
2150 Miscellaneous legal support workers 268 177,984 11,472 14,954 6.4 8.4
2200 Postsecondary teachers 1,720 1,156,678 203,234 248,675 17.6 21.5
2300 Preschool and kindergarten teachers 902 639,490 108,698 122,865 17.0 19.2
2310 Elementary and middle school teachers 3,855 2,562,852 1,318,679 1,476,733 51.5 57.6
2320 Secondary school teachers 1,705 1,112,980 602,480 655,355 54.1 58.9
2330 Special education teachers 568 359,798 223,144 243,635 62.0 67.7
2340 Other teachers and instructors 751 509,547 46,760 55,786 9.2 10.9
2400 Archivists, curators, and museum technicians 58 33,242 2,139 2,139 6.4 6.4
2430 Librarians 340 212,707 55,720 65,194 26.2 30.6
2440 Library technicians 58 35,296 5,989 5,989 17.0 17.0
2540 Teacher assistants 1,432 937,326 281,147 328,706 30.0 35.1
2550 Other education, training, and library workers 122 76,137 26,228 29,801 34.4 39.1
2600 Artists and related workers 130 91,743 7,028 7,319 7.7 8.0
2630 Designers 838 575,649 21,362 23,374 3.7 4.1
2700 Actors 25 22,090 10,207 10,207 46.2 46.2
2710 Producers and directors 143 107,318 12,843 13,805 12.0 12.9
2720 Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers 265 186,172 13,535 14,699 7.3 7.9
2740 Dancers and choreographers 20 17,027 842 842 4.9 4.9
2750 Musicians, singers, and related workers 123 94,310 11,181 11,425 11.9 12.1
2760 Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other 17 17,164 2,746 3,624 16.0 21.1
2800 Announcers 67 46,562 1,616 2,720 3.5 5.8
2810 News analysts, reporters and correspondents 123 75,867 9,376 10,850 12.4 14.3
2820 Public relations specialists 188 120,484 10,152 10,786 8.4 9.0
2830 Editors 203 138,383 11,560 16,644 8.4 12.0
2840 Technical writers 72 47,993 894 894 1.9 1.9
2850 Writers and authors 151 101,078 7,584 9,669 7.5 9.6
2860 Miscellaneous media and communication workers 85 60,103 13,702 14,167 22.8 23.6
2900 Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators 118 90,835 21,326 25,812 23.5 28.4
2910 Photographers 108 78,535 1,759 1,759 2.2 2.2
2920 Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors 33 22,641 4,373 5,358 19.3 23.7
2960 Media and communication equipment workers, all other 0 0 0 0
3000 Chiropractors 18 13,968 1,616 1,616 11.6 11.6
3010 Dentists 55 42,786 2,166 2,166 5.1 5.1
3030 Dietitians and nutritionists 116 75,435 7,817 7,817 10.4 10.4
3040 Optometrists 23 14,377 1,129 1,129 7.9 7.9
3050 Pharmacists 303 209,908 17,452 19,612 8.3 9.3
3060 Physicians and surgeons 850 600,615 33,006 59,571 5.5 9.9
3110 Physician assistants 111 69,944 6,814 7,612 9.7 10.9
3120 Podiatrists 4 3,461 0 0 0.0 0.0
3130 Registered nurses 3,605 2,432,286 406,795 455,831 16.7 18.7
3140 Audiologists 19 14,753 1,311 1,311 8.9 8.9
3150 Occupational therapists 125 78,860 12,662 14,833 16.1 18.8
3160 Physical therapists 244 160,880 13,656 17,859 8.5 11.1
3200 Radiation therapists 19 13,009 2,335 2,335 17.9 17.9
3210 Recreational therapists 21 15,043 2,537 3,712 16.9 24.7
3220 Respiratory therapists 141 101,608 9,870 10,602 9.7 10.4
3230 Speech-language pathologists 148 86,216 29,975 36,281 34.8 42.1
3240 Therapists, all other 114 69,243 3,506 3,506 5.1 5.1
3250 Veterinarians 49 32,169 0 2,061 0.0 6.4
3260 Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other 5 5,960 0 0 0.0 0.0
3300 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 449 317,580 26,122 31,118 8.2 9.8
3310 Dental hygienists 188 126,363 6,727 7,580 5.3 6.0
3320 Diagnostic related technologists and technicians 424 284,405 27,738 31,729 9.8 11.2
3400 Emergency medical technicians and paramedics 195 139,448 35,584 38,339 25.5 27.5
3410 Health diagnosing and treating practitioner support technicians 566 373,308 28,004 32,924 7.5 8.8
3500 Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 726 495,209 53,534 58,944 10.8 11.9
3510 Medical records and health information technicians 136 94,067 11,977 13,492 12.7 14.3
3520 Opticians, dispensing 68 43,777 593 593 1.4 1.4
3530 Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians 126 90,041 7,524 8,317 8.4 9.2
3540 Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 72 47,743 11,320 11,320 23.7 23.7
3600 Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides 2,605 1,749,636 224,891 239,343 12.9 13.7
3610 Occupational therapist assistants and aides 17 11,548 771 1,319 6.7 11.4
3620 Physical therapist assistants and aides 85 56,250 4,119 6,236 7.3 11.1
3630 Massage therapists 67 46,000 1,118 1,118 2.4 2.4
3640 Dental assistants 346 235,507 7,049 8,162 3.0 3.5
3650 Medical assistants and other healthcare support occupations 998 692,017 52,279 59,061 7.6 8.5
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 29,748 20,723,558 2,370,804 2,552,259 11.4 12.3
3700 First-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers 49 33,953 10,308 11,131 30.4 32.8
3710 First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives 177 138,206 66,419 70,082 48.1 50.7
3720 First-line supervisors/managers of fire fighting and prevention workers 65 45,056 26,546 26,692 58.9 59.2
3730 Supervisors, protective service workers, all other 121 89,657 6,983 10,563 7.8 11.8
3740 Fire fighters 382 280,300 194,893 197,866 69.5 70.6
3750 Fire inspectors 36 24,002 8,249 8,249 34.4 34.4
3800 Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers 497 379,013 177,353 185,236 46.8 48.9
3820 Detectives and criminal investigators 159 118,200 49,118 51,609 41.6 43.7
3830 Fish and game wardens 10 6,217 2,396 2,396 38.5 38.5
3840 Parking enforcement workers 7 5,282 1,655 1,655 31.3 31.3
3850 Police and sheriff's patrol officers 901 661,800 392,453 417,961 59.3 63.2
3860 Transit and railroad police 5 4,250 2,169 2,169 51.0 51.0
3900 Animal control workers 12 9,338 774 774 8.3 8.3
3910 Private detectives and investigators 100 70,322 7,866 9,146 11.2 13.0
3920 Security guards and gaming surveillance officers 1,096 796,661 96,044 106,051 12.1 13.3
3940 Crossing guards 75 46,563 5,195 5,347 11.2 11.5
3950 Lifeguards and other protective service workers 198 131,344 10,175 10,736 7.7 8.2
4000 Chefs and head cooks 410 289,705 21,994 26,850 7.6 9.3
4010 First-line supervisors/managers of food preparation and serving workers 865 610,044 29,409 31,378 4.8 5.1
4020 Cooks 2,511 1,748,446 68,876 79,370 3.9 4.5
4030 Food preparation workers 925 610,719 36,096 39,205 5.9 6.4
4040 Bartenders 558 361,333 11,553 11,970 3.2 3.3
4050 Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food 415 276,596 31,674 32,589 11.5 11.8
4060 Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop 492 340,208 5,416 7,693 1.6 2.3
4110 Waiters and waitresses 2,643 1,864,417 25,135 31,620 1.3 1.7
4120 Food servers, nonrestaurant 224 165,337 18,299 22,528 11.1 13.6
4130 Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers 528 378,977 29,241 32,947 7.7 8.7
4140 Dishwashers 438 278,272 11,121 13,822 4.0 5.0
4150 Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop 326 238,107 4,521 5,630 1.9 2.4
4160 Food preparation and serving related workers, all other 2 1,979 928 928 46.9 46.9
4200 First-line supervisors/managers of housekeeping and janitorial workers 216 148,649 21,770 23,458 14.6 15.8
4210 First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers 150 108,791 4,788 4,788 4.4 4.4
4220 Janitors and building cleaners 2,923 1,988,236 318,117 344,164 16.0 17.3
4230 Maids and housekeeping cleaners 1,858 1,267,131 80,081 86,995 6.3 6.9
4240 Pest control workers 78 69,827 2,960 2,960 4.2 4.2
4250 Grounds maintenance workers 1,351 1,014,388 62,432 66,564 6.2 6.6
4300 First-line supervisors/managers of gaming workers 159 101,316 5,326 5,949 5.3 5.9
4320 First-line supervisors/managers of personal service workers 102 71,637 1,836 2,757 2.6 3.8
4340 Animal trainers 31 23,499 1,121 1,121 4.8 4.8
4350 Nonfarm animal caretakers 135 85,001 3,806 3,806 4.5 4.5
4400 Gaming services workers 178 92,538 9,298 11,234 10.0 12.1
4410 Motion picture projectionists 8 4,934 0 0 0.0 0.0
4420 Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers 60 42,068 979 979 2.3 2.3
4430 Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers 247 164,028 9,106 10,017 5.6 6.1
4460 Funeral service workers 19 12,115 0 0 0.0 0.0
4500 Barbers 54 47,418 943 943 2.0 2.0
4510 Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists 621 439,450 3,427 3,427 0.8 0.8
4520 Miscellaneous personal appearance workers 191 160,299 3,964 4,391 2.5 2.7
4530 Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges 101 69,662 25,279 25,410 36.3 36.5
4540 Tour and travel guides 43 23,487 1,237 1,237 5.3 5.3
4550 Transportation attendants 164 123,106 72,628 75,442 59.0 61.3
4600 Child care workers 1,279 882,152 30,696 34,415 3.5 3.9
4610 Personal and home care aides 844 574,662 55,066 57,774 9.6 10.1
4620 Recreation and fitness workers 409 286,314 5,751 6,991 2.0 2.4
4640 Residential advisors 74 50,125 5,610 6,505 11.2 13.0
4650 Personal care and service workers, all other 108 77,465 1,500 1,500 1.9 1.9
SALES AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS 19,298 13,526,527 488,473 548,441 3.6 4.1
4700 First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers 3,538 2,398,241 121,245 127,877 5.1 5.3
4710 First-line supervisors/managers of non-retail sales workers 1,381 967,256 21,350 27,297 2.2 2.8
4720 Cashiers 4,180 2,949,313 206,915 224,381 7.0 7.6
4740 Counter and rental clerks 275 174,748 6,383 8,344 3.7 4.8
4750 Parts salespersons 197 132,378 1,609 1,759 1.2 1.3
4760 Retail salespersons 4,226 2,972,335 47,473 57,502 1.6 1.9
4800 Advertising sales agents 277 195,952 5,121 5,121 2.6 2.6
4810 Insurance sales agents 550 391,425 3,328 5,947 0.9 1.5
4820 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents 423 320,901 4,451 4,885 1.4 1.5
4830 Travel agents 120 82,012 0 0 0.0 0.0
4840 Sales representatives, services, all other 604 446,185 25,091 28,866 5.6 6.5
4850 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing 1,870 1,328,426 24,560 29,437 1.8 2.2
4900 Models, demonstrators, and product promoters 88 60,561 780 780 1.3 1.3
4920 Real estate brokers and sales agents 718 527,450 9,410 12,906 1.8 2.4
4930 Sales engineers 43 34,612 0 0 0.0 0.0
4940 Telemarketers 258 175,898 896 2,672 0.5 1.5
4950 Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers 206 134,117 886 1,689 0.7 1.3
4960 Sales and related workers, all other 344 234,718 8,977 8,977 3.8 3.8
OFFICE AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 27,282 18,795,420 2,004,620 2,231,732 10.7 11.9
5000 First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers 2,283 1,557,783 91,157 109,060 5.9 7.0
5010 Switchboard operators, including answering service 107 76,622 6,649 7,294 8.7 9.5
5020 Telephone operators 75 51,945 13,311 13,311 25.6 25.6
5030 Communications equipment operators, all other 12 6,760 2,040 2,040 30.2 30.2
5100 Bill and account collectors 307 223,549 15,198 16,977 6.8 7.6
5110 Billing and posting clerks and machine operators 618 420,547 30,892 32,363 7.3 7.7
5120 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 1,999 1,332,702 58,184 63,717 4.4 4.8
5130 Gaming cage workers 14 9,050 473 473 5.2 5.2
5140 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 214 154,922 11,668 15,401 7.5 9.9
5150 Procurement clerks 24 16,055 3,496 3,496 21.8 21.8
5160 Tellers 632 432,900 10,537 13,902 2.4 3.2
5200 Brokerage clerks 15 11,402 0 702 0.0 6.2
5210 Correspondence clerks 13 6,515 111 1,027 1.7 15.8
5220 Court, municipal, and license clerks 146 95,009 24,617 27,344 25.9 28.8
5230 Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks 90 57,770 0 143 0.0 0.2
5240 Customer service representatives 2,411 1,693,952 134,674 158,188 8.0 9.3
5250 Eligibility interviewers, government programs 100 66,087 24,363 26,498 36.9 40.1
5260 File Clerks 549 399,190 25,114 28,093 6.3 7.0
5300 Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks 162 100,276 3,622 3,807 3.6 3.8
5310 Interviewers, except eligibility and loan 213 141,987 16,317 19,237 11.5 13.5
5320 Library assistants, clerical 164 115,972 24,694 26,347 21.3 22.7
5330 Loan interviewers and clerks 261 185,904 2,606 2,606 1.4 1.4
5340 New accounts clerks 28 19,042 0 0 0.0 0.0
5350 Order clerks 157 108,889 8,473 8,610 7.8 7.9
5360 Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping 93 60,204 7,726 7,726 12.8 12.8
5400 Receptionists and information clerks 1,970 1,353,174 56,760 69,629 4.2 5.1
5410 Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks 241 155,313 32,911 38,467 21.2 24.8
5420 Information and record clerks, all other 136 92,695 4,848 6,725 5.2 7.3
5500 Cargo and freight agents 23 15,611 4,011 4,011 25.7 25.7
5510 Couriers and messengers 358 247,725 67,675 70,259 27.3 28.4
5520 Dispatchers 357 251,419 45,014 48,917 17.9 19.5
5530 Meter readers, utilities 71 49,532 18,118 18,118 36.6 36.6
5540 Postal service clerks 253 172,989 120,173 129,615 69.5 74.9
5550 Postal service mail carriers 493 341,014 242,151 254,443 71.0 74.6
5560 Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators 161 109,866 77,666 83,121 70.7 75.7
5600 Production, planning, and expediting clerks 414 282,496 35,547 37,461 12.6 13.3
5610 Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks 798 586,780 71,043 76,579 12.1 13.1
5620 Stock clerks and order fillers 1,887 1,345,303 168,455 179,511 12.5 13.3
5630 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping 92 61,222 10,582 12,334 17.3 20.1
5700 Secretaries and administrative assistants 4,975 3,315,234 232,039 270,189 7.0 8.1
5800 Computer operators 277 191,515 20,801 23,727 10.9 12.4
5810 Data entry keyers 733 502,328 49,826 54,379 9.9 10.8
5820 Word processors and typists 446 310,586 33,291 40,523 10.7 13.0
5830 Desktop publishers 12 6,670 1,329 1,329 19.9 19.9
5840 Insurance claims and policy processing clerks 390 275,236 11,772 13,150 4.3 4.8
5850 Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service 210 165,769 19,563 23,946 11.8 14.4
5860 Office clerks, general 1,346 959,280 104,502 116,847 10.9 12.2
5900 Office machine operators, except computer 98 64,761 2,035 2,756 3.1 4.3
5910 Proofreaders and copy markers 25 17,964 0 0 0.0 0.0
5920 Statistical assistants 43 28,062 3,782 3,782 13.5 13.5
5930 Office and administrative support workers, all other 786 547,844 54,803 63,553 10.0 11.6
FARMING, FISHING, AND FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS 1,376 862,002 26,994 34,043 3.1 3.9
6000 First-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing, and forestry workers 56 43,494 2,907 2,907 6.7 6.7
6010 Agricultural inspectors 30 14,814 3,803 3,803 25.7 25.7
6020 Animal breeders 1 1,192 0 0 0.0 0.0
6040 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 101 68,161 6,507 10,408 9.5 15.3
6050 Miscellaneous agricultural workers 1,033 635,423 8,566 11,714 1.3 1.8
6100 Fishers and related fishing workers 38 22,421 0 0 0.0 0.0
6110 Hunters and trappers 1 614 0 0 0.0 0.0
6120 Forest and conservation workers 22 12,328 584 584 4.7 4.7
6130 Logging workers 94 63,555 4,626 4,626 7.3 7.3
CONSTRUCTION AND EXTRACTION OCCUPATIONS 9,375 6,679,759 1,312,063 1,370,291 19.6 20.5
6200 First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers 901 594,227 108,754 111,796 18.3 18.8
6210 Boilermakers 29 21,100 11,055 11,055 52.4 52.4
6220 Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons 222 185,939 40,440 40,843 21.7 22.0
6230 Carpenters 1,801 1,259,323 191,431 198,904 15.2 15.8
6240 Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers 190 156,556 7,812 7,812 5.0 5.0
6250 Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers 126 101,109 12,892 12,892 12.8 12.8
6260 Construction laborers 1,444 1,103,117 129,201 137,365 11.7 12.5
6300 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 34 23,159 7,687 7,687 33.2 33.2
6310 Pile-driver operators 3 3,146 3,146 3,146 100.0 100.0
6320 Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators 558 341,578 86,878 93,124 25.4 27.3
6330 Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers 210 164,768 22,338 22,800 13.6 13.8
6350 Electricians 1,012 682,798 248,904 257,647 36.5 37.7
6360 Glaziers 49 37,932 3,546 3,546 9.3 9.3
6400 Insulation workers 62 35,688 7,221 7,221 20.2 20.2
6420 Painters, construction and maintenance 590 466,878 48,115 52,417 10.3 11.2
6430 Paperhangers 8 7,624 817 1,535 10.7 20.1
6440 Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 716 505,465 153,161 158,683 30.3 31.4
6460 Plasterers and stucco masons 40 31,015 2,720 2,720 8.8 8.8
6500 Reinforcing iron and rebar workers 9 7,514 1,841 1,841 24.5 24.5
6510 Roofers 260 214,693 27,039 29,084 12.6 13.5
6520 Sheet metal workers 208 137,067 55,416 56,092 40.4 40.9
6530 Structural iron and steel workers 84 56,798 28,234 28,234 49.7 49.7
6600 Helpers, construction trades 141 114,728 7,058 7,058 6.2 6.2
6660 Construction and building inspectors 127 89,807 17,651 22,617 19.7 25.2
6700 Elevator installers and repairers 30 24,403 18,899 18,899 77.4 77.4
6710 Fence erectors 28 21,094 1,517 1,517 7.2 7.2
6720 Hazardous materials removal workers 54 33,698 5,739 5,739 17.0 17.0
6730 Highway maintenance workers 133 84,750 24,895 29,818 29.4 35.2
6740 Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators 27 14,710 9,269 9,269 63.0 63.0
6750 Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners 10 7,126 2,449 2,449 34.4 34.4
6760 Miscellaneous construction and related workers 30 26,805 3,837 3,837 14.3 14.3
6800 Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining 48 30,409 1,708 1,796 5.6 5.9
6820 Earth drillers, except oil and gas 43 25,003 2,622 2,622 10.5 10.5
6830 Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters 16 5,878 434 434 7.4 7.4
6840 Mining machine operators 81 40,130 12,802 13,256 31.9 33.0
6910 Roof bolters, mining 4 2,544 860 860 33.8 33.8
6920 Roustabouts, oil and gas 2 475 0 0 0.0 0.0
6930 Helpers--extraction workers 3 1,381 0 0 0.0 0.0
6940 Other extraction workers 42 19,322 3,674 3,674 19.0 19.0
INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 6,540 4,539,703 882,562 938,760 19.4 20.7
7000 First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers 491 329,135 47,711 51,925 14.5 15.8
7010 Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers 462 331,188 27,691 31,178 8.4 9.4
7020 Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers 309 222,482 88,332 90,416 39.7 40.6
7030 Avionics technicians 18 11,327 1,082 1,082 9.6 9.6
7040 Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers 65 48,053 12,093 12,093 25.2 25.2
7050 Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment 6 4,852 4,852 4,852 100.0 100.0
7100 Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility 29 18,699 7,465 8,166 39.9 43.7
7110 Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles 34 28,879 15,818 15,818 54.8 54.8
7120 Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers 65 54,970 3,847 4,877 7.0 8.9
7130 Security and fire alarm systems installers 69 55,482 5,798 5,798 10.5 10.5
7140 Aircraft mechanics and service technicians 172 118,044 51,041 54,401 43.2 46.1
7150 Automotive body and related repairers 174 115,820 4,623 6,672 4.0 5.8
7160 Automotive glass installers and repairers 23 13,257 0 0 0.0 0.0
7200 Automotive service technicians and mechanics 1,059 778,523 64,456 67,586 8.3 8.7
7210 Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists 460 306,981 81,511 88,752 26.6 28.9
7220 Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics 325 193,742 47,361 50,298 24.4 26.0
7240 Small engine mechanics 65 41,308 2,667 3,248 6.5 7.9
7260 Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers 133 89,250 1,113 1,113 1.2 1.2
7300 Control and valve installers and repairers 32 20,750 11,026 11,681 53.1 56.3
7310 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers 443 312,292 49,496 53,292 15.8 17.1
7320 Home appliance repairers 49 32,093 1,831 1,831 5.7 5.7
7330 Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics 622 428,734 105,360 111,850 24.6 26.1
7340 Maintenance and repair workers, general 446 297,386 51,457 55,884 17.3 18.8
7350 Maintenance workers, machinery 55 35,153 12,229 13,078 34.8 37.2
7360 Millwrights 82 60,001 32,192 33,957 53.7 56.6
7410 Electrical power-line installers and repairers 177 115,457 55,849 57,072 48.4 49.4
7420 Telecommunications line installers and repairers 191 135,365 48,816 52,264 36.1 38.6
7430 Precision instrument and equipment repairers 63 38,812 7,314 7,314 18.8 18.8
7510 Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers 72 47,086 2,464 2,617 5.2 5.6
7520 Commercial divers 2 934 116 116 12.5 12.5
7540 Locksmiths and safe repairers 23 19,756 4,524 4,524 22.9 22.9
7550 Manufactured building and mobile home installers 13 9,875 0 0 0.0 0.0
7560 Riggers 10 6,542 2,322 2,322 35.5 35.5
7600 Signal and track switch repairers 7 4,276 3,191 3,913 74.6 91.5
7610 Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers 28 19,678 3,020 3,622 15.3 18.4
7620 Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers 266 193,523 23,894 25,148 12.3 13.0
PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS 12,760 9,084,547 1,484,892 1,581,723 16.3 17.4
7700 First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers 1,240 886,706 92,741 100,595 10.5 11.3
7710 Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers 8 7,857 1,733 2,800 22.1 35.6
7720 Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers 297 222,326 27,044 29,704 12.2 13.4
7730 Engine and other machine assemblers 24 20,445 3,657 4,581 17.9 22.4
7740 Structural metal fabricators and fitters 36 24,103 8,797 8,797 36.5 36.5
7750 Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators 1,453 1,037,448 225,561 233,724 21.7 22.5
7800 Bakers 232 168,278 21,733 26,016 12.9 15.5
7810 Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers 435 288,371 63,291 66,575 21.9 23.1
7830 Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders 19 11,045 800 1,287 7.2 11.7
7840 Food batchmakers 117 87,280 21,063 22,355 24.1 25.6
7850 Food cooking machine operators and tenders 26 16,891 1,918 1,918 11.4 11.4
7900 Computer control programmers and operators 66 44,834 10,060 10,060 22.4 22.4
7920 Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 20 17,479 3,634 3,634 20.8 20.8
7930 Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 18 13,178 6,869 6,869 52.1 52.1
7940 Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 25 15,590 619 1,001 4.0 6.4
7950 Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 184 141,470 35,170 36,623 24.9 25.9
7960 Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 13 7,345 1,713 1,713 23.3 23.3
8000 Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and pl 111 80,154 17,644 19,041 22.0 23.8
8010 Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 26 16,918 5,548 5,548 32.8 32.8
8020 Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 7 3,495 0 235 0.0 6.7
8030 Machinists 606 415,384 75,182 81,815 18.1 19.7
8040 Metal furnace and kiln operators and tenders 44 31,922 11,233 12,344 35.2 38.7
8060 Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic 22 16,361 3,676 3,676 22.5 22.5
8100 Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 94 71,296 10,055 10,055 14.1 14.1
8120 Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 8 6,413 146 146 2.3 2.3
8130 Tool and die makers 119 84,067 21,028 21,769 25.0 25.9
8140 Welding, soldering, and brazing workers 779 550,872 105,892 111,979 19.2 20.3
8150 Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 8 4,693 241 241 5.1 5.1
8160 Lay-out workers, metal and plastic 14 8,144 2,378 2,378 29.2 29.2
8200 Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 31 20,041 4,185 4,519 20.9 22.5
8210 Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners 17 10,438 2,246 2,246 21.5 21.5
8220 Metalworkers and plastic workers, all other 557 404,381 77,312 81,105 19.1 20.1
8230 Bookbinders and bindery workers 45 26,912 3,498 3,498 13.0 13.0
8240 Job printers 86 55,232 7,565 8,800 13.7 15.9
8250 Prepress technicians and workers 73 49,598 4,733 4,733 9.5 9.5
8260 Printing machine operators 281 182,597 23,892 24,320 13.1 13.3
8300 Laundry and dry-cleaning workers 272 181,515 13,050 14,359 7.2 7.9
8310 Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials 100 81,817 1,627 4,002 2.0 4.9
8320 Sewing machine operators 351 278,455 19,665 20,975 7.1 7.5
8330 Shoe and leather workers and repairers 9 4,662 0 0 0.0 0.0
8340 Shoe machine operators and tenders 10 5,899 1,251 1,251 21.2 21.2
8350 Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers 80 58,956 7,181 8,345 12.2 14.2
8360 Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders 9 3,669 985 985 26.8 26.8
8400 Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders 19 17,287 0 0 0.0 0.0
8410 Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders 29 23,006 759 759 3.3 3.3
8420 Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders 40 39,210 1,866 1,866 4.8 4.8
8430 Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers 1 1,020 0 0 0.0 0.0
8440 Fabric and apparel patternmakers 4 3,482 0 0 0.0 0.0
8450 Upholsterers 43 33,377 760 760 2.3 2.3
8460 Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other 40 33,731 2,360 2,360 7.0 7.0
8500 Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters 93 61,266 5,138 5,279 8.4 8.6
8510 Furniture finishers 36 27,014 1,055 2,563 3.9 9.5
8520 Model makers and patternmakers, wood 0 0 0 0
8530 Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood 61 40,551 1,747 2,086 4.3 5.1
8540 Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing 57 39,907 6,589 7,761 16.5 19.4
8550 Woodworkers, all other 25 15,522 0 0 0.0 0.0
8600 Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers 57 32,777 15,426 16,645 47.1 50.8
8610 Stationary engineers and boiler operators 161 103,733 38,243 41,995 36.9 40.5
8620 Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators 82 48,566 14,383 14,383 29.6 29.6
8630 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 66 41,469 6,497 6,497 15.7 15.7
8640 Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders 92 66,389 24,931 25,295 37.6 38.1
8650 Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers 151 110,793 18,812 19,961 17.0 18.0
8710 Cutting workers 114 82,779 9,191 10,055 11.1 12.1
8720 Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders 61 41,264 6,976 7,986 16.9 19.4
8730 Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders 17 9,013 3,646 3,646 40.5 40.5
8740 Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers 958 674,584 88,181 96,789 13.1 14.3
8750 Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers 67 44,045 640 640 1.5 1.5
8760 Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians 115 86,580 3,864 4,008 4.5 4.6
8800 Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders 442 323,139 49,590 55,131 15.3 17.1
8810 Painting workers 272 186,601 23,785 25,487 12.7 13.7
8830 Photographic process workers and processing machine operators 87 56,654 7,529 7,529 13.3 13.3
8840 Semiconductor processors 8 6,908 1,047 1,047 15.2 15.2
8850 Cementing and gluing machine operators and tenders 26 22,542 389 389 1.7 1.7
8860 Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders 18 13,817 2,307 2,307 16.7 16.7
8900 Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders 6 6,610 524 524 7.9 7.9
8910 Etchers and engravers 17 12,778 631 631 4.9 4.9
8920 Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic 44 25,976 2,446 3,191 9.4 12.3
8930 Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders 65 47,159 17,728 17,728 37.6 37.6
8940 Tire builders 29 21,979 6,824 6,824 31.0 31.0
8950 Helpers--production workers 69 57,823 4,970 4,970 8.6 8.6
8960 Production workers, all other 1,316 960,654 169,438 178,010 17.6 18.5
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 11,040 7,891,078 1,483,019 1,574,377 18.8 20.0
9000 Supervisors, transportation and material moving workers 266 193,332 30,974 33,835 16.0 17.5
9030 Aircraft pilots and flight engineers 174 114,128 64,259 67,697 56.3 59.3
9040 Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists 57 38,145 17,321 18,681 45.4 49.0
9110 Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians 12 8,033 187 187 2.3 2.3
9120 Bus drivers 851 581,123 198,300 209,373 34.1 36.0
9130 Driver/sales workers and truck drivers 4,044 2,860,748 423,514 444,485 14.8 15.5
9140 Taxi drivers and chauffeurs 295 223,921 22,754 27,376 10.2 12.2
9150 Motor vehicle operators, all other 81 58,148 3,040 3,040 5.2 5.2
9200 Locomotive engineers and operators 78 42,338 32,428 32,428 76.6 76.6
9230 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 19 10,166 6,681 6,681 65.7 65.7
9240 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 84 56,730 50,775 50,857 89.5 89.6
9260 Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers 19 13,995 9,489 9,489 67.8 67.8
9300 Sailors and marine oilers 17 11,216 2,917 4,001 26.0 35.7
9310 Ship and boat captains and operators 36 21,996 7,529 7,529 34.2 34.2
9330 Ship engineers 11 6,763 3,902 3,902 57.7 57.7
9340 Bridge and lock tenders 6 4,585 2,874 2,874 62.7 62.7
9350 Parking lot attendants 99 73,037 12,939 13,269 17.7 18.2
9360 Service station attendants 161 112,062 3,230 3,622 2.9 3.2
9410 Transportation inspectors 57 38,066 12,388 12,869 32.5 33.8
9420 Other transportation workers 16 10,400 3,222 3,434 31.0 33.0
9500 Conveyor operators and tenders 15 14,409 2,467 2,467 17.1 17.1
9510 Crane and tower operators 89 67,574 31,119 34,728 46.1 51.4
9520 Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators 101 59,142 5,412 5,412 9.2 9.2
9560 Hoist and winch operators 6 4,438 350 350 7.9 7.9
9600 Industrial truck and tractor operators 684 539,006 103,859 109,399 19.3 20.3
9610 Cleaners of vehicles and equipment 430 320,714 29,186 31,099 9.1 9.7
9620 Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 2,455 1,774,642 315,040 337,381 17.8 19.0
9630 Machine feeders and offbearers 69 49,429 8,982 9,245 18.2 18.7
9640 Packers and packagers, hand 571 426,705 34,761 42,496 8.1 10.0
9650 Pumping station operators 36 18,859 1,825 1,825 9.7 9.7
9720 Refuse and recyclable material collectors 102 73,159 15,678 17,122 21.4 23.4
9730 Shuttle car operators 9 6,705 5,366 5,366 80.0 80.0
9740 Tank car, truck, and ship loaders 9 5,835 2,338 2,338 40.1 40.1
9750 Material moving workers, all other 81 51,531 17,915 19,520 34.8 37.9
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2004. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2005 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.