Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 2005 (details in table note)  
COC Occupation (Standard Occupational Classification) Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
MANAGEMENT, BUSINESS, AND FINANCIAL OCCUPATIONS 23,001 15,954,722 793,495 938,643 5.0 5.9
10 Chief executives 1,602 1,088,624 25,609 28,092 2.4 2.6
20 General and operations managers 1,175 788,898 16,721 23,768 2.1 3.0
40 Advertising and promotions managers 90 67,602 974 1,961 1.4 2.9
50 Marketing and sales managers 1,055 758,075 14,813 20,731 2.0 2.7
60 Public relations managers 72 49,201 3,073 3,073 6.2 6.2
100 Administrative services managers 118 75,938 2,953 2,953 3.9 3.9
110 Computer and information systems managers 484 337,555 7,652 9,257 2.3 2.7
120 Financial managers 1,395 983,870 15,271 17,960 1.6 1.8
130 Human resources managers 403 271,270 7,592 8,970 2.8 3.3
140 Industrial production managers 398 298,538 9,726 10,744 3.3 3.6
150 Purchasing managers 260 186,146 9,262 9,262 5.0 5.0
160 Transportation, storage, and distribution managers 314 234,092 8,158 10,777 3.5 4.6
200 Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers 143 82,993 937 1,935 1.1 2.3
220 Construction managers 628 445,408 36,456 42,491 8.2 9.5
230 Education administrators 1,140 774,554 131,820 162,961 17.0 21.0
300 Engineering managers 122 91,153 1,307 3,199 1.4 3.5
310 Food service managers 883 650,107 7,354 10,304 1.1 1.6
320 Funeral directors 48 35,739 993 993 2.8 2.8
330 Gaming managers 22 8,380 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Lodging managers 165 106,262 1,924 2,632 1.8 2.5
350 Medical and health services managers 710 459,973 23,173 26,482 5.0 5.8
360 Natural sciences managers 17 11,330 1,195 1,195 10.5 10.5
410 Property, real estate, and community association managers 549 393,720 7,456 9,642 1.9 2.4
420 Social and community service managers 505 294,500 14,376 16,573 4.9 5.6
430 Managers, all other 3,544 2,426,688 136,518 158,831 5.6 6.5
500 Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes 38 27,207 0 0 0.0 0.0
510 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 17 6,216 0 0 0.0 0.0
520 Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products 259 179,175 7,817 8,019 4.4 4.5
530 Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products 395 284,692 23,047 25,291 8.1 8.9
540 Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators 421 286,873 23,275 30,167 8.1 10.5
560 Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation 197 135,397 21,496 26,642 15.9 19.7
600 Cost estimators 125 85,154 4,680 5,515 5.5 6.5
620 Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists 933 638,234 53,975 56,921 8.5 8.9
700 Logisticians 59 46,495 1,533 2,665 3.3 5.7
710 Management analysts 473 321,539 6,807 9,583 2.1 3.0
720 Meeting and convention planners 43 35,232 1,017 1,017 2.9 2.9
730 Other business operations specialists 325 227,630 23,406 25,342 10.3 11.1
800 Accountants and auditors 2,116 1,510,435 75,884 87,057 5.0 5.8
810 Appraisers and assessors of real estate 127 81,714 8,324 11,525 10.2 14.1
820 Budget analysts 75 50,830 8,096 9,368 15.9 18.4
830 Credit analysts 57 38,093 0 0 0.0 0.0
840 Financial analysts 98 75,802 1,725 2,986 2.3 3.9
850 Personal financial advisors 387 283,626 2,892 3,018 1.0 1.1
860 Insurance underwriters 168 114,151 2,371 2,895 2.1 2.5
900 Financial examiners 14 9,375 5,607 5,607 59.8 59.8
910 Loan counselors and officers 583 413,504 7,742 9,570 1.9 2.3
930 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents 105 75,394 24,128 25,521 32.0 33.9
940 Tax prepares 92 76,269 3,391 3,951 4.4 5.2
950 Financial specialists, all other 52 31,066 968 1,196 3.1 3.9
PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS 38,196 26,271,149 4,845,181 5,446,539 18.4 20.7
1000 Computer scientists and systems analysts 920 681,434 42,811 48,934 6.3 7.2
1010 Computer programmers 718 547,588 21,994 29,875 4.0 5.5
1020 Computer software engineers 1,047 789,368 16,710 23,318 2.1 3.0
1040 Computer support specialists 488 342,477 21,063 24,528 6.2 7.2
1060 Database administrators 117 84,284 4,872 5,250 5.8 6.2
1100 Network and computer systems administrators 290 206,204 8,447 10,063 4.1 4.9
1110 Network systems and data communications analysts 383 278,970 16,174 17,749 5.8 6.4
1200 Actuaries 22 14,920 1,093 1,093 7.3 7.3
1210 Mathematicians 5 2,426 0 0 0.0 0.0
1220 Operations research analysts 128 84,257 7,762 7,869 9.2 9.3
1230 Statisticians 52 32,493 1,568 3,753 4.8 11.6
1240 Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations 3 2,596 0 0 0.0 0.0
1300 Architects, except naval 273 185,481 11,093 14,635 6.0 7.9
1310 Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists 54 31,684 3,608 4,216 11.4 13.3
1320 Aerospace engineers 119 92,932 9,264 12,499 10.0 13.4
1330 Agricultural engineers 7 2,847 0 0 0.0 0.0
1340 Biomedical engineers 11 9,220 1,603 1,603 17.4 17.4
1350 Chemical engineers 71 51,777 1,333 1,795 2.6 3.5
1360 Civil engineers 415 282,452 29,510 32,308 10.4 11.4
1400 Computer hardware engineers 92 72,821 921 921 1.3 1.3
1410 Electrical and electronic engineers 451 336,097 24,448 30,612 7.3 9.1
1420 Environmental engineers 56 38,848 6,370 7,268 16.4 18.7
1430 Industrial engineers, including health and safety 254 189,862 11,590 16,827 6.1 8.9
1440 Marine engineers and naval architects 14 6,149 2,115 2,115 34.4 34.4
1450 Materials engineers 44 33,175 1,541 1,541 4.6 4.6
1460 Mechanical engineers 419 307,249 18,895 21,779 6.1 7.1
1500 Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers 18 8,975 0 295 0.0 3.3
1510 Nuclear engineers 16 9,554 243 243 2.5 2.5
1520 Petroleum engineers 17 11,370 0 0 0.0 0.0
1530 Engineers, all other 357 243,680 8,616 9,054 3.5 3.7
1540 Drafters 280 197,580 12,929 13,383 6.5 6.8
1550 Engineering technicians, except drafters 551 381,736 66,509 76,912 17.4 20.1
1560 Surveying and mapping technicians 143 99,773 10,319 10,609 10.3 10.6
1600 Agricultural and food scientists 58 31,594 3,198 3,198 10.1 10.1
1610 Biological scientists 181 117,855 9,674 11,104 8.2 9.4
1640 Conservation scientists and foresters 58 26,226 4,778 5,082 18.2 19.4
1650 Medical scientists 180 133,826 6,426 6,601 4.8 4.9
1700 Astronomers and physicists 38 29,802 313 1,364 1.0 4.6
1710 Atmospheric and space scientists 17 9,222 1,420 1,420 15.4 15.4
1720 Chemists and materials scientists 170 118,261 9,880 10,163 8.4 8.6
1740 Environmental scientists and geoscientists 133 90,192 9,012 9,874 10.0 10.9
1760 Physical scientists, all other 153 109,862 1,909 2,908 1.7 2.6
1800 Economists 59 25,853 1,940 3,283 7.5 12.7
1810 Market and survey researchers 169 117,702 3,494 4,296 3.0 3.6
1820 Psychologists 162 107,183 27,824 30,374 26.0 28.3
1830 Sociologists 9 5,031 2,989 3,145 59.4 62.5
1840 Urban and regional planners 54 37,775 1,638 3,195 4.3 8.5
1860 Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers 67 37,506 1,880 3,048 5.0 8.1
1900 Agricultural and food science technicians 38 25,262 163 163 0.6 0.6
1910 Biological technicians 37 29,803 6,264 6,264 21.0 21.0
1920 Chemical technicians 121 89,724 9,321 9,321 10.4 10.4
1930 Geological and petroleum technicians 25 16,254 4,004 4,004 24.6 24.6
1940 Nuclear technicians 7 3,817 1,764 1,764 46.2 46.2
1960 Other life, physical, and social science technicians 227 142,301 17,175 18,938 12.1 13.3
2000 Counselors 860 582,995 120,280 135,170 20.6 23.2
2010 Social workers 1,014 672,710 153,783 163,241 22.9 24.3
2020 Miscellaneous community and social service specialists 430 281,443 68,091 72,469 24.2 25.7
2040 Clergy 631 438,711 3,869 5,134 0.9 1.2
2050 Directors, religious activities and education 68 43,712 0 0 0.0 0.0
2060 Religious workers, all other 111 80,485 0 0 0.0 0.0
2100 Lawyers, Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers 1,074 705,455 52,015 56,303 7.4 8.0
2140 Paralegals and legal assistants 509 349,558 6,369 10,423 1.8 3.0
2150 Miscellaneous legal support workers 296 206,093 12,483 16,147 6.1 7.8
2200 Postsecondary teachers 1,802 1,177,134 213,833 259,470 18.2 22.0
2300 Preschool and kindergarten teachers 957 696,153 131,680 146,559 18.9 21.1
2310 Elementary and middle school teachers 3,788 2,548,599 1,339,117 1,481,005 52.5 58.1
2320 Secondary school teachers 1,723 1,155,402 616,630 689,621 53.4 59.7
2330 Special education teachers 638 429,816 265,293 282,090 61.7 65.6
2340 Other teachers and instructors 759 521,240 54,411 63,761 10.4 12.2
2400 Archivists, curators, and museum technicians 64 41,224 2,971 2,971 7.2 7.2
2430 Librarians 325 208,093 55,599 64,804 26.7 31.1
2440 Library technicians 54 35,610 4,041 5,290 11.3 14.9
2540 Teacher assistants 1,423 924,340 303,397 334,979 32.8 36.2
2550 Other education, training, and library workers 112 75,131 19,022 23,032 25.3 30.7
2600 Artists and related workers 131 104,119 6,887 7,848 6.6 7.5
2630 Designers 835 600,032 22,874 24,433 3.8 4.1
2700 Actors 26 24,804 9,246 9,246 37.3 37.3
2710 Producers and directors 123 85,543 11,535 12,560 13.5 14.7
2720 Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers 301 225,211 15,605 18,864 6.9 8.4
2740 Dancers and choreographers 24 22,486 2,096 2,096 9.3 9.3
2750 Musicians, singers, and related workers 151 121,534 14,164 14,907 11.7 12.3
2760 Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other 25 19,323 0 0 0.0 0.0
2800 Announcers 57 41,168 1,175 1,175 2.9 2.9
2810 News analysts, reporters and correspondents 134 79,873 6,909 8,894 8.7 11.1
2820 Public relations specialists 227 153,655 9,064 11,015 5.9 7.2
2830 Editors 191 124,270 12,563 13,581 10.1 10.9
2840 Technical writers 74 51,106 1,838 2,298 3.6 4.5
2850 Writers and authors 141 87,690 6,125 6,125 7.0 7.0
2860 Miscellaneous media and communication workers 47 38,310 5,530 7,857 14.4 20.5
2900 Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators 102 73,131 17,946 19,864 24.5 27.2
2910 Photographers 114 79,457 4,507 6,425 5.7 8.1
2920 Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors 37 25,226 3,934 4,052 15.6 16.1
2960 Media and communication equipment workers, all other 0 0 0 0
3000 Chiropractors 26 19,042 0 0 0.0 0.0
3010 Dentists 61 44,163 4,605 4,605 10.4 10.4
3030 Dietitians and nutritionists 104 63,746 7,250 9,560 11.4 15.0
3040 Optometrists 28 22,614 1,047 1,047 4.6 4.6
3050 Pharmacists 333 234,884 18,730 19,750 8.0 8.4
3060 Physicians and surgeons 821 621,261 39,839 54,503 6.4 8.8
3110 Physician assistants 112 71,813 4,626 6,116 6.4 8.5
3120 Podiatrists 0 0 0 0
3130 Registered nurses 3,578 2,402,429 398,447 450,247 16.6 18.7
3140 Audiologists 21 20,218 2,981 2,981 14.7 14.7
3150 Occupational therapists 134 84,978 10,918 12,399 12.8 14.6
3160 Physical therapists 223 156,185 9,088 9,910 5.8 6.3
3200 Radiation therapists 24 15,846 1,158 1,158 7.3 7.3
3210 Recreational therapists 26 17,678 2,330 3,853 13.2 21.8
3220 Respiratory therapists 137 95,396 8,150 9,341 8.5 9.8
3230 Speech-language pathologists 149 96,298 30,385 35,649 31.6 37.0
3240 Therapists, all other 117 83,009 5,963 6,244 7.2 7.5
3250 Veterinarians 54 27,687 0 0 0.0 0.0
3260 Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other 6 4,599 0 0 0.0 0.0
3300 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 491 335,456 35,202 36,955 10.5 11.0
3310 Dental hygienists 199 132,781 4,755 7,194 3.6 5.4
3320 Diagnostic related technologists and technicians 390 260,270 26,560 32,170 10.2 12.4
3400 Emergency medical technicians and paramedics 236 165,582 39,510 42,463 23.9 25.6
3410 Health diagnosing and treating practitioner support technicians 582 388,751 43,665 48,318 11.2 12.4
3500 Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 713 495,930 56,260 64,044 11.3 12.9
3510 Medical records and health information technicians 171 118,613 10,945 11,532 9.2 9.7
3520 Opticians, dispensing 64 40,211 653 653 1.6 1.6
3530 Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians 131 92,753 7,322 7,733 7.9 8.3
3540 Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 89 62,779 11,442 13,853 18.2 22.1
3600 Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides 2,637 1,865,230 227,379 247,252 12.2 13.3
3610 Occupational therapist assistants and aides 18 13,047 910 910 7.0 7.0
3620 Physical therapist assistants and aides 80 57,196 1,393 2,371 2.4 4.1
3630 Massage therapists 68 52,109 2,221 4,444 4.3 8.5
3640 Dental assistants 354 250,074 5,363 5,363 2.1 2.1
3650 Medical assistants and other healthcare support occupations 1,080 733,823 49,114 56,189 6.7 7.7
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 29,839 21,074,228 2,445,960 2,658,513 11.6 12.6
3700 First-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers 52 39,791 15,745 17,031 39.6 42.8
3710 First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives 169 123,880 61,704 67,400 49.8 54.4
3720 First-line supervisors/managers of fire fighting and prevention workers 65 45,140 28,793 29,059 63.8 64.4
3730 Supervisors, protective service workers, all other 132 87,345 4,911 8,621 5.6 9.9
3740 Fire fighters 348 245,357 179,822 185,051 73.3 75.4
3750 Fire inspectors 24 16,167 5,006 5,879 31.0 36.4
3800 Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers 535 410,907 181,720 188,569 44.2 45.9
3820 Detectives and criminal investigators 180 123,034 52,016 54,396 42.3 44.2
3830 Fish and game wardens 9 3,676 243 243 6.6 6.6
3840 Parking enforcement workers 9 5,654 1,322 1,322 23.4 23.4
3850 Police and sheriff's patrol officers 897 680,266 392,395 409,515 57.7 60.2
3860 Transit and railroad police 6 4,290 2,937 2,937 68.5 68.5
3900 Animal control workers 22 14,001 3,999 3,999 28.6 28.6
3910 Private detectives and investigators 102 75,059 7,127 8,539 9.5 11.4
3920 Security guards and gaming surveillance officers 1,072 791,974 100,458 110,645 12.7 14.0
3940 Crossing guards 75 48,208 9,504 9,619 19.7 20.0
3950 Lifeguards and other protective service workers 201 128,508 3,781 6,550 2.9 5.1
4000 Chefs and head cooks 443 302,067 18,494 20,326 6.1 6.7
4010 First-line supervisors/managers of food preparation and serving workers 791 540,472 17,348 23,832 3.2 4.4
4020 Cooks 2,598 1,838,445 85,017 101,787 4.6 5.5
4030 Food preparation workers 973 677,007 41,745 43,944 6.2 6.5
4040 Bartenders 552 372,873 17,963 17,963 4.8 4.8
4050 Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food 465 300,470 31,451 36,021 10.5 12.0
4060 Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop 470 325,682 5,413 5,413 1.7 1.7
4110 Waiters and waitresses 2,666 1,914,647 31,601 35,065 1.7 1.8
4120 Food servers, nonrestaurant 226 155,304 24,512 28,647 15.8 18.4
4130 Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers 540 392,646 26,765 32,841 6.8 8.4
4140 Dishwashers 429 284,233 11,132 11,132 3.9 3.9
4150 Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop 362 253,169 4,334 4,724 1.7 1.9
4160 Food preparation and serving related workers, all other 5 4,196 0 0 0.0 0.0
4200 First-line supervisors/managers of housekeeping and janitorial workers 286 194,139 19,989 24,685 10.3 12.7
4210 First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers 150 105,217 5,474 5,638 5.2 5.4
4220 Janitors and building cleaners 2,833 1,978,432 335,120 365,929 16.9 18.5
4230 Maids and housekeeping cleaners 1,813 1,266,121 78,854 86,825 6.2 6.9
4240 Pest control workers 67 55,044 4,230 4,230 7.7 7.7
4250 Grounds maintenance workers 1,243 926,001 60,824 66,107 6.6 7.1
4300 First-line supervisors/managers of gaming workers 153 94,620 2,401 3,797 2.5 4.0
4320 First-line supervisors/managers of personal service workers 89 67,199 3,817 3,817 5.7 5.7
4340 Animal trainers 21 13,752 0 0 0.0 0.0
4350 Nonfarm animal caretakers 157 105,023 4,453 4,975 4.2 4.7
4400 Gaming services workers 159 95,116 7,214 10,458 7.6 11.0
4410 Motion picture projectionists 13 9,283 658 658 7.1 7.1
4420 Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers 51 41,802 3,286 4,372 7.9 10.5
4430 Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers 235 157,501 8,184 10,044 5.2 6.4
4460 Funeral service workers 21 14,060 1,081 1,081 7.7 7.7
4500 Barbers 49 42,772 0 0 0.0 0.0
4510 Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists 596 439,042 4,539 4,698 1.0 1.1
4520 Miscellaneous personal appearance workers 195 164,373 1,342 1,342 0.8 0.8
4530 Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges 96 73,079 32,527 32,527 44.5 44.5
4540 Tour and travel guides 50 26,329 2,432 2,432 9.2 9.2
4550 Transportation attendants 157 108,250 71,640 75,114 66.2 69.4
4600 Child care workers 1,223 867,894 43,362 48,235 5.0 5.6
4610 Personal and home care aides 892 628,840 71,841 79,207 11.4 12.6
4620 Recreation and fitness workers 443 295,305 13,970 17,344 4.7 5.9
4640 Residential advisors 87 55,733 8,739 11,052 15.7 19.8
4650 Personal care and service workers, all other 105 73,355 6,345 6,345 8.7 8.7
SALES AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS 19,162 13,629,829 451,222 519,155 3.3 3.8
4700 First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers 3,662 2,536,282 102,369 116,270 4.0 4.6
4710 First-line supervisors/managers of non-retail sales workers 1,336 967,709 30,812 35,435 3.2 3.7
4720 Cashiers 4,143 2,984,701 185,828 203,496 6.2 6.8
4740 Counter and rental clerks 269 180,634 2,189 2,984 1.2 1.7
4750 Parts salespersons 198 137,349 5,207 5,207 3.8 3.8
4760 Retail salespersons 4,259 3,009,465 35,714 46,693 1.2 1.6
4800 Advertising sales agents 299 220,012 10,471 12,533 4.8 5.7
4810 Insurance sales agents 533 374,454 4,440 6,528 1.2 1.7
4820 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents 407 310,658 1,069 2,291 0.3 0.7
4830 Travel agents 105 73,580 1,554 2,013 2.1 2.7
4840 Sales representatives, services, all other 590 409,998 18,632 19,143 4.5 4.7
4850 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing 1,714 1,222,332 17,494 24,926 1.4 2.0
4900 Models, demonstrators, and product promoters 61 45,477 815 815 1.8 1.8
4920 Real estate brokers and sales agents 817 611,303 21,693 25,789 3.5 4.2
4930 Sales engineers 42 30,446 0 972 0.0 3.2
4940 Telemarketers 252 183,810 1,869 1,869 1.0 1.0
4950 Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers 181 127,968 6,851 7,434 5.4 5.8
4960 Sales and related workers, all other 294 203,649 4,215 4,755 2.1 2.3
OFFICE AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 27,147 18,910,701 1,933,888 2,151,745 10.2 11.4
5000 First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers 2,227 1,528,488 111,227 123,753 7.3 8.1
5010 Switchboard operators, including answering service 71 45,863 4,864 5,605 10.6 12.2
5020 Telephone operators 73 49,895 6,849 6,849 13.7 13.7
5030 Communications equipment operators, all other 16 12,847 2,660 2,660 20.7 20.7
5100 Bill and account collectors 276 196,834 7,143 7,974 3.6 4.1
5110 Billing and posting clerks and machine operators 587 415,640 29,438 32,074 7.1 7.7
5120 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 1,846 1,238,749 57,718 72,758 4.7 5.9
5130 Gaming cage workers 24 17,078 3,074 3,074 18.0 18.0
5140 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 228 157,803 15,244 18,971 9.7 12.0
5150 Procurement clerks 45 31,235 5,537 6,006 17.7 19.2
5160 Tellers 616 423,464 11,069 14,642 2.6 3.5
5200 Brokerage clerks 16 11,682 0 0 0.0 0.0
5210 Correspondence clerks 15 8,713 244 1,557 2.8 17.9
5220 Court, municipal, and license clerks 163 104,563 23,287 27,637 22.3 26.4
5230 Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks 92 67,900 2,856 2,856 4.2 4.2
5240 Customer service representatives 2,547 1,821,847 140,321 160,326 7.7 8.8
5250 Eligibility interviewers, government programs 80 52,943 18,298 22,442 34.6 42.4
5260 File Clerks 515 373,156 34,456 38,295 9.2 10.3
5300 Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks 202 135,145 5,037 6,085 3.7 4.5
5310 Interviewers, except eligibility and loan 240 169,081 14,644 18,947 8.7 11.2
5320 Library assistants, clerical 176 118,462 21,337 24,944 18.0 21.1
5330 Loan interviewers and clerks 252 187,663 2,213 3,151 1.2 1.7
5340 New accounts clerks 23 16,708 0 0 0.0 0.0
5350 Order clerks 202 147,569 13,927 15,040 9.4 10.2
5360 Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping 90 62,577 3,517 3,517 5.6 5.6
5400 Receptionists and information clerks 1,976 1,376,331 52,024 56,973 3.8 4.1
5410 Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks 239 161,752 29,310 32,780 18.1 20.3
5420 Information and record clerks, all other 139 94,767 16,652 17,762 17.6 18.7
5500 Cargo and freight agents 30 20,791 7,857 7,857 37.8 37.8
5510 Couriers and messengers 400 289,979 66,633 69,913 23.0 24.1
5520 Dispatchers 412 295,409 39,892 44,568 13.5 15.1
5530 Meter readers, utilities 64 48,693 19,764 19,764 40.6 40.6
5540 Postal service clerks 229 154,738 105,707 112,644 68.3 72.8
5550 Postal service mail carriers 473 330,371 231,346 246,199 70.0 74.5
5560 Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators 167 113,484 73,888 79,460 65.1 70.0
5600 Production, planning, and expediting clerks 422 294,291 27,039 31,517 9.2 10.7
5610 Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks 752 529,929 74,478 78,043 14.1 14.7
5620 Stock clerks and order fillers 1,997 1,458,066 153,497 166,797 10.5 11.4
5630 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping 106 67,751 4,681 4,681 6.9 6.9
5700 Secretaries and administrative assistants 4,903 3,302,266 242,863 273,939 7.4 8.3
5800 Computer operators 258 189,377 14,399 15,738 7.6 8.3
5810 Data entry keyers 728 509,776 45,034 49,909 8.8 9.8
5820 Word processors and typists 419 291,869 43,865 54,090 15.0 18.5
5830 Desktop publishers 12 8,595 0 0 0.0 0.0
5840 Insurance claims and policy processing clerks 383 266,314 10,081 11,415 3.8 4.3
5850 Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service 176 132,098 17,450 18,202 13.2 13.8
5860 Office clerks, general 1,344 958,835 72,290 81,751 7.5 8.5
5900 Office machine operators, except computer 77 57,023 1,209 1,827 2.1 3.2
5910 Proofreaders and copy markers 16 8,741 1,175 1,175 13.4 13.4
5920 Statistical assistants 39 25,430 5,150 5,150 20.3 20.3
5930 Office and administrative support workers, all other 764 528,119 42,643 50,427 8.1 9.5
FARMING, FISHING, AND FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS 1,367 898,248 35,315 38,280 3.9 4.3
6000 First-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing, and forestry workers 41 28,015 1,029 1,126 3.7 4.0
6010 Agricultural inspectors 34 20,505 4,864 5,580 23.7 27.2
6020 Animal breeders 4 1,240 921 921 74.2 74.2
6040 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 104 71,224 6,744 7,866 9.5 11.0
6050 Miscellaneous agricultural workers 1,042 687,434 13,375 14,404 1.9 2.1
6100 Fishers and related fishing workers 22 10,348 0 0 0.0 0.0
6110 Hunters and trappers 3 2,759 0 0 0.0 0.0
6120 Forest and conservation workers 20 11,356 836 836 7.4 7.4
6130 Logging workers 97 65,368 7,548 7,548 11.5 11.5
CONSTRUCTION AND EXTRACTION OCCUPATIONS 10,063 7,295,744 1,282,799 1,347,824 17.6 18.5
6200 First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers 946 666,226 112,404 118,369 16.9 17.8
6210 Boilermakers 24 18,233 5,589 5,589 30.7 30.7
6220 Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons 234 174,962 35,537 36,616 20.3 20.9
6230 Carpenters 1,817 1,303,336 174,221 179,091 13.4 13.7
6240 Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers 239 206,675 7,957 8,859 3.8 4.3
6250 Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers 122 97,484 17,055 19,144 17.5 19.6
6260 Construction laborers 1,675 1,306,700 144,095 152,073 11.0 11.6
6300 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 31 20,756 3,198 3,198 15.4 15.4
6310 Pile-driver operators 2 1,576 1,576 1,576 100.0 100.0
6320 Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators 612 374,864 100,996 110,620 26.9 29.5
6330 Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers 273 197,075 26,464 28,901 13.4 14.7
6350 Electricians 1,088 767,049 234,997 241,729 30.6 31.5
6360 Glaziers 58 42,544 6,711 6,711 15.8 15.8
6400 Insulation workers 63 37,590 3,831 3,831 10.2 10.2
6420 Painters, construction and maintenance 559 439,765 31,436 31,436 7.1 7.1
6430 Paperhangers 3 2,619 0 0 0.0 0.0
6440 Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 780 560,711 164,770 176,601 29.4 31.5
6460 Plasterers and stucco masons 53 45,397 4,535 4,535 10.0 10.0
6500 Reinforcing iron and rebar workers 13 12,074 3,835 3,835 31.8 31.8
6510 Roofers 278 224,605 20,762 22,563 9.2 10.0
6520 Sheet metal workers 194 135,601 41,643 43,002 30.7 31.7
6530 Structural iron and steel workers 90 62,568 29,270 30,327 46.8 48.5
6600 Helpers, construction trades 161 127,037 5,673 7,401 4.5 5.8
6660 Construction and building inspectors 125 87,666 23,888 25,283 27.2 28.8
6700 Elevator installers and repairers 31 23,741 16,903 18,061 71.2 76.1
6710 Fence erectors 39 28,003 300 300 1.1 1.1
6720 Hazardous materials removal workers 42 30,179 3,419 3,554 11.3 11.8
6730 Highway maintenance workers 136 89,341 30,387 31,614 34.0 35.4
6740 Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators 19 10,076 5,649 5,649 56.1 56.1
6750 Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners 13 8,423 1,997 1,997 23.7 23.7
6760 Miscellaneous construction and related workers 41 28,623 4,081 4,081 14.3 14.3
6800 Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining 59 34,663 0 0 0.0 0.0
6820 Earth drillers, except oil and gas 42 25,621 2,693 3,143 10.5 12.3
6830 Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters 13 7,068 1,469 1,469 20.8 20.8
6840 Mining machine operators 96 44,328 10,634 11,334 24.0 25.6
6910 Roof bolters, mining 12 6,783 1,148 1,148 16.9 16.9
6920 Roustabouts, oil and gas 6 2,780 0 0 0.0 0.0
6930 Helpers--extraction workers 7 6,439 0 0 0.0 0.0
6940 Other extraction workers 67 36,567 3,677 4,185 10.1 11.4
INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 6,659 4,713,039 811,315 851,430 17.2 18.1
7000 First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers 456 311,796 34,953 37,015 11.2 11.9
7010 Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers 516 363,002 25,078 29,331 6.9 8.1
7020 Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers 289 212,668 90,179 90,747 42.4 42.7
7030 Avionics technicians 20 12,051 3,561 3,995 29.6 33.2
7040 Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers 55 42,099 5,355 5,355 12.7 12.7
7050 Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment 3 1,422 1,129 1,129 79.4 79.4
7100 Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility 28 20,615 10,421 10,421 50.6 50.6
7110 Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles 34 25,554 9,480 9,480 37.1 37.1
7120 Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers 66 50,347 2,907 2,907 5.8 5.8
7130 Security and fire alarm systems installers 67 56,649 8,692 9,352 15.3 16.5
7140 Aircraft mechanics and service technicians 195 138,534 55,775 57,983 40.3 41.9
7150 Automotive body and related repairers 196 142,859 3,791 3,791 2.7 2.7
7160 Automotive glass installers and repairers 20 15,832 844 844 5.3 5.3
7200 Automotive service technicians and mechanics 1,039 769,674 62,460 65,391 8.1 8.5
7210 Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists 499 335,114 71,941 76,511 21.5 22.8
7220 Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics 347 225,991 49,107 50,435 21.7 22.3
7240 Small engine mechanics 67 45,301 1,678 1,678 3.7 3.7
7260 Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers 124 86,366 2,089 2,089 2.4 2.4
7300 Control and valve installers and repairers 30 19,928 5,724 7,252 28.7 36.4
7310 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers 457 321,221 55,493 61,074 17.3 19.0
7320 Home appliance repairers 50 37,731 4,989 4,989 13.2 13.2
7330 Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics 638 448,146 76,415 82,323 17.1 18.4
7340 Maintenance and repair workers, general 453 315,583 57,807 61,829 18.3 19.6
7350 Maintenance workers, machinery 66 44,031 10,791 11,884 24.5 27.0
7360 Millwrights 87 58,877 35,150 35,991 59.7 61.1
7410 Electrical power-line installers and repairers 168 106,939 45,366 46,134 42.4 43.1
7420 Telecommunications line installers and repairers 203 145,142 46,680 46,680 32.2 32.2
7430 Precision instrument and equipment repairers 75 57,409 5,685 6,119 9.9 10.7
7510 Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers 61 48,592 2,220 2,220 4.6 4.6
7520 Commercial divers 8 4,976 1,224 1,224 24.6 24.6
7540 Locksmiths and safe repairers 21 17,642 2,663 2,663 15.1 15.1
7550 Manufactured building and mobile home installers 18 13,652 0 0 0.0 0.0
7560 Riggers 12 6,492 1,876 1,876 28.9 28.9
7600 Signal and track switch repairers 2 922 922 922 100.0 100.0
7610 Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers 33 26,829 2,227 2,227 8.3 8.3
7620 Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers 256 183,051 16,643 17,567 9.1 9.6
PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS 12,505 9,006,517 1,539,480 1,616,510 17.1 17.9
7700 First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers 1,194 842,946 85,895 95,652 10.2 11.3
7710 Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers 20 17,475 9,065 9,065 51.9 51.9
7720 Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers 282 199,984 30,723 31,629 15.4 15.8
7730 Engine and other machine assemblers 21 16,426 6,739 6,739 41.0 41.0
7740 Structural metal fabricators and fitters 37 32,273 4,400 4,400 13.6 13.6
7750 Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators 1,508 1,101,433 227,244 232,420 20.6 21.1
7800 Bakers 242 159,194 26,373 28,271 16.6 17.8
7810 Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers 445 295,568 64,098 70,909 21.7 24.0
7830 Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders 17 11,618 6,966 6,966 60.0 60.0
7840 Food batchmakers 114 82,049 18,268 19,154 22.3 23.3
7850 Food cooking machine operators and tenders 17 11,939 695 695 5.8 5.8
7900 Computer control programmers and operators 81 53,902 6,079 6,079 11.3 11.3
7920 Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 32 19,980 6,145 6,145 30.8 30.8
7930 Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 10 6,571 3,805 3,805 57.9 57.9
7940 Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 22 15,829 5,005 5,572 31.6 35.2
7950 Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 166 122,555 28,122 28,122 22.9 22.9
7960 Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 11 6,799 500 500 7.3 7.3
8000 Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and pl 85 58,055 8,331 9,725 14.4 16.8
8010 Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 21 12,998 3,471 3,471 26.7 26.7
8020 Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 9 5,182 0 0 0.0 0.0
8030 Machinists 565 410,612 76,127 81,249 18.5 19.8
8040 Metal furnace and kiln operators and tenders 42 31,057 13,589 13,740 43.8 44.2
8060 Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic 9 6,822 681 681 10.0 10.0
8100 Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 89 61,371 13,669 13,669 22.3 22.3
8120 Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 11 8,072 2,690 2,690 33.3 33.3
8130 Tool and die makers 130 93,031 20,727 20,871 22.3 22.4
8140 Welding, soldering, and brazing workers 771 556,258 109,322 115,425 19.7 20.8
8150 Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 11 5,274 1,351 1,351 25.6 25.6
8160 Lay-out workers, metal and plastic 11 9,035 2,014 2,014 22.3 22.3
8200 Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 31 20,143 1,900 1,900 9.4 9.4
8210 Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners 13 9,510 558 558 5.9 5.9
8220 Metalworkers and plastic workers, all other 585 460,408 99,138 100,988 21.5 21.9
8230 Bookbinders and bindery workers 53 35,664 2,538 2,538 7.1 7.1
8240 Job printers 79 52,055 6,743 7,130 13.0 13.7
8250 Prepress technicians and workers 74 48,682 5,698 5,698 11.7 11.7
8260 Printing machine operators 297 216,786 25,184 27,780 11.6 12.8
8300 Laundry and dry-cleaning workers 252 161,940 13,735 14,666 8.5 9.1
8310 Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials 82 65,566 4,844 4,844 7.4 7.4
8320 Sewing machine operators 330 267,245 22,911 23,951 8.6 9.0
8330 Shoe and leather workers and repairers 13 8,373 0 0 0.0 0.0
8340 Shoe machine operators and tenders 9 5,623 0 0 0.0 0.0
8350 Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers 75 55,677 1,144 1,144 2.1 2.1
8360 Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders 5 1,909 1,150 1,150 60.2 60.2
8400 Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders 11 8,182 0 0 0.0 0.0
8410 Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders 21 16,433 0 0 0.0 0.0
8420 Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders 35 32,121 4,672 4,672 14.5 14.5
8430 Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers 3 3,139 3,139 3,139 100.0 100.0
8440 Fabric and apparel patternmakers 7 6,034 0 0 0.0 0.0
8450 Upholsterers 50 40,332 932 1,859 2.3 4.6
8460 Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other 40 30,769 2,370 2,370 7.7 7.7
8500 Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters 91 56,412 1,522 1,522 2.7 2.7
8510 Furniture finishers 38 26,230 662 662 2.5 2.5
8520 Model makers and patternmakers, wood 0 0 0 0
8530 Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood 73 55,121 3,647 3,647 6.6 6.6
8540 Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing 60 42,123 3,949 4,105 9.4 9.7
8550 Woodworkers, all other 26 14,769 0 0 0.0 0.0
8600 Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers 66 43,469 18,323 19,424 42.2 44.7
8610 Stationary engineers and boiler operators 159 112,055 39,624 42,018 35.4 37.5
8620 Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators 107 72,756 26,334 28,007 36.2 38.5
8630 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 52 35,630 11,593 12,788 32.5 35.9
8640 Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders 70 57,307 18,019 18,608 31.4 32.5
8650 Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers 133 98,880 17,662 17,931 17.9 18.1
8710 Cutting workers 145 103,313 9,786 9,786 9.5 9.5
8720 Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders 53 42,103 13,783 13,923 32.7 33.1
8730 Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders 22 16,091 3,054 3,054 19.0 19.0
8740 Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers 913 662,729 85,617 90,682 12.9 13.7
8750 Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers 52 29,883 1,076 1,076 3.6 3.6
8760 Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians 117 85,022 1,945 1,945 2.3 2.3
8800 Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders 424 310,378 53,998 56,115 17.4 18.1
8810 Painting workers 266 186,820 26,082 28,330 14.0 15.2
8830 Photographic process workers and processing machine operators 99 72,832 1,601 1,601 2.2 2.2
8840 Semiconductor processors 5 3,269 0 0 0.0 0.0
8850 Cementing and gluing machine operators and tenders 35 22,646 2,205 2,205 9.7 9.7
8860 Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders 17 11,851 3,030 3,030 25.6 25.6
8900 Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders 4 3,279 0 0 0.0 0.0
8910 Etchers and engravers 16 12,307 958 958 7.8 7.8
8920 Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic 38 24,809 5,166 5,875 20.8 23.7
8930 Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders 80 60,381 19,496 20,100 32.3 33.3
8940 Tire builders 24 16,909 5,796 5,796 34.3 34.3
8950 Helpers--production workers 67 50,730 6,359 8,344 12.5 16.4
8960 Production workers, all other 1,215 875,518 179,441 189,579 20.5 21.7
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 11,209 8,135,085 1,546,732 1,654,727 19.0 20.3
9000 Supervisors, transportation and material moving workers 270 206,060 30,123 31,215 14.6 15.1
9030 Aircraft pilots and flight engineers 189 120,981 73,667 77,467 60.9 64.0
9040 Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists 52 37,627 15,792 20,224 42.0 53.7
9110 Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians 13 6,522 101 101 1.6 1.6
9120 Bus drivers 831 577,459 208,643 226,585 36.1 39.2
9130 Driver/sales workers and truck drivers 4,215 3,006,368 437,188 466,832 14.5 15.5
9140 Taxi drivers and chauffeurs 283 221,848 25,240 28,156 11.4 12.7
9150 Motor vehicle operators, all other 82 60,084 5,799 6,031 9.7 10.0
9200 Locomotive engineers and operators 86 54,197 42,613 42,613 78.6 78.6
9230 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 20 13,906 10,316 11,033 74.2 79.3
9240 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 76 50,014 43,874 43,874 87.7 87.7
9260 Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers 14 12,297 6,293 6,293 51.2 51.2
9300 Sailors and marine oilers 30 25,943 1,562 1,562 6.0 6.0
9310 Ship and boat captains and operators 39 26,108 7,102 7,201 27.2 27.6
9330 Ship engineers 5 3,794 1,109 1,756 29.2 46.3
9340 Bridge and lock tenders 11 7,687 2,727 3,726 35.5 48.5
9350 Parking lot attendants 96 69,074 12,526 13,648 18.1 19.8
9360 Service station attendants 152 100,827 2,616 2,616 2.6 2.6
9410 Transportation inspectors 51 37,640 21,801 22,881 57.9 60.8
9420 Other transportation workers 27 18,426 4,183 4,183 22.7 22.7
9500 Conveyor operators and tenders 9 6,060 2,114 3,147 34.9 51.9
9510 Crane and tower operators 93 69,231 27,510 29,423 39.7 42.5
9520 Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators 110 68,623 6,975 8,459 10.2 12.3
9560 Hoist and winch operators 9 4,783 164 164 3.4 3.4
9600 Industrial truck and tractor operators 670 534,636 89,967 94,041 16.8 17.6
9610 Cleaners of vehicles and equipment 422 307,954 26,272 30,495 8.5 9.9
9620 Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 2,458 1,822,803 339,542 363,679 18.6 20.0
9630 Machine feeders and offbearers 69 47,020 8,877 9,106 18.9 19.4
9640 Packers and packagers, hand 596 457,936 56,798 60,891 12.4 13.3
9650 Pumping station operators 41 16,635 1,281 1,281 7.7 7.7
9720 Refuse and recyclable material collectors 95 71,450 12,384 14,135 17.3 19.8
9730 Shuttle car operators 4 2,770 323 323 11.7 11.7
9740 Tank car, truck, and ship loaders 6 4,756 1,025 1,025 21.6 21.6
9750 Material moving workers, all other 85 63,568 20,224 20,564 31.8 32.3
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2005. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2006 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.