Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 2006 (details in table note)  
COC Occupation (Standard Occupational Classification) Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
MANAGEMENT, BUSINESS, AND FINANCIAL OCCUPATIONS 23,270 16,470,712 801,625 963,933 4.9 5.9
10 Chief executives 1,548 1,088,144 16,161 29,582 1.5 2.7
20 General and operations managers 1,329 943,355 23,712 30,694 2.5 3.3
40 Advertising and promotions managers 94 68,008 717 1,440 1.1 2.1
50 Marketing and sales managers 1,124 835,090 17,086 22,917 2.0 2.7
60 Public relations managers 86 51,939 2,010 2,355 3.9 4.5
100 Administrative services managers 125 80,987 5,538 5,639 6.8 7.0
110 Computer and information systems managers 531 385,079 9,708 13,126 2.5 3.4
120 Financial managers 1,439 1,015,934 18,397 21,042 1.8 2.1
130 Human resources managers 406 274,459 4,668 6,360 1.7 2.3
140 Industrial production managers 392 296,454 12,795 12,795 4.3 4.3
150 Purchasing managers 231 164,728 8,500 12,624 5.2 7.7
160 Transportation, storage, and distribution managers 317 236,176 12,715 15,081 5.4 6.4
200 Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers 187 106,286 4,222 4,222 4.0 4.0
220 Construction managers 692 486,565 34,322 36,479 7.1 7.5
230 Education administrators 1,061 743,017 134,127 161,037 18.1 21.7
300 Engineering managers 126 92,713 1,501 3,152 1.6 3.4
310 Food service managers 823 593,710 7,857 10,630 1.3 1.8
320 Funeral directors 43 31,754 817 1,130 2.6 3.6
330 Gaming managers 23 11,062 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Lodging managers 172 114,797 1,011 1,011 0.9 0.9
350 Medical and health services managers 683 477,074 18,938 24,554 4.0 5.1
360 Natural sciences managers 19 10,427 803 803 7.7 7.7
410 Property, real estate, and community association managers 547 397,392 11,634 13,042 2.9 3.3
420 Social and community service managers 520 309,624 13,940 16,291 4.5 5.3
430 Managers, all other 3,535 2,445,605 116,917 148,575 4.8 6.1
500 Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes 39 30,582 1,047 2,222 3.4 7.3
510 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 10 8,321 381 381 4.6 4.6
520 Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products 266 206,637 2,031 2,031 1.0 1.0
530 Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products 411 291,050 16,269 18,440 5.6 6.3
540 Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators 374 268,835 27,766 29,021 10.3 10.8
560 Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation 222 156,864 27,331 33,010 17.4 21.0
600 Cost estimators 149 102,235 2,673 2,673 2.6 2.6
620 Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists 1,014 705,001 73,963 79,978 10.5 11.3
700 Logisticians 58 40,243 449 1,372 1.1 3.4
710 Management analysts 510 371,960 11,455 15,478 3.1 4.2
720 Meeting and convention planners 50 32,531 1,201 1,201 3.7 3.7
730 Other business operations specialists 285 194,851 17,156 18,748 8.8 9.6
800 Accountants and auditors 2,149 1,584,209 79,380 92,762 5.0 5.9
810 Appraisers and assessors of real estate 112 78,363 7,403 7,403 9.4 9.4
820 Budget analysts 73 53,783 5,214 6,997 9.7 13.0
830 Credit analysts 50 32,691 0 0 0.0 0.0
840 Financial analysts 88 71,036 0 405 0.0 0.6
850 Personal financial advisors 384 281,150 5,699 6,927 2.0 2.5
860 Insurance underwriters 137 92,282 4,797 4,797 5.2 5.2
900 Financial examiners 12 9,655 6,252 6,751 64.8 69.9
910 Loan counselors and officers 607 446,090 5,559 7,804 1.2 1.7
930 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents 99 65,929 24,174 26,511 36.7 40.2
940 Tax prepares 75 59,378 2,095 2,827 3.5 4.8
950 Financial specialists, all other 43 26,656 1,234 1,610 4.6 6.0
PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS 37,895 26,634,730 4,720,546 5,323,815 17.7 20.0
1000 Computer scientists and systems analysts 889 654,652 45,330 55,037 6.9 8.4
1010 Computer programmers 723 563,201 29,579 34,966 5.3 6.2
1020 Computer software engineers 1,056 819,777 12,757 22,299 1.6 2.7
1040 Computer support specialists 442 312,635 11,352 13,221 3.6 4.2
1060 Database administrators 109 84,447 4,449 5,218 5.3 6.2
1100 Network and computer systems administrators 259 178,666 4,198 10,177 2.3 5.7
1110 Network systems and data communications analysts 406 306,711 15,987 18,570 5.2 6.1
1200 Actuaries 28 20,934 0 0 0.0 0.0
1210 Mathematicians 7 3,752 995 995 26.5 26.5
1220 Operations research analysts 140 92,916 8,331 10,538 9.0 11.3
1230 Statisticians 40 25,986 311 1,089 1.2 4.2
1240 Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations 8 5,509 0 0 0.0 0.0
1300 Architects, except naval 233 172,022 3,209 5,475 1.9 3.2
1310 Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists 62 39,435 4,085 5,540 10.4 14.0
1320 Aerospace engineers 125 99,504 7,119 8,799 7.2 8.8
1330 Agricultural engineers 6 2,061 0 0 0.0 0.0
1340 Biomedical engineers 8 5,786 491 491 8.5 8.5
1350 Chemical engineers 89 66,072 1,668 1,668 2.5 2.5
1360 Civil engineers 402 285,458 22,738 25,222 8.0 8.8
1400 Computer hardware engineers 101 78,166 176 1,302 0.2 1.7
1410 Electrical and electronic engineers 462 366,583 19,943 22,348 5.4 6.1
1420 Environmental engineers 54 40,626 8,245 9,425 20.3 23.2
1430 Industrial engineers, including health and safety 239 165,524 10,928 12,240 6.6 7.4
1440 Marine engineers and naval architects 11 7,508 2,659 2,659 35.4 35.4
1450 Materials engineers 42 35,361 846 846 2.4 2.4
1460 Mechanical engineers 408 325,249 18,332 24,330 5.6 7.5
1500 Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers 17 5,996 0 0 0.0 0.0
1510 Nuclear engineers 8 4,994 220 220 4.4 4.4
1520 Petroleum engineers 31 19,682 911 911 4.6 4.6
1530 Engineers, all other 387 279,801 16,853 22,132 6.0 7.9
1540 Drafters 235 163,219 10,947 11,560 6.7 7.1
1550 Engineering technicians, except drafters 586 417,370 60,826 73,853 14.6 17.7
1560 Surveying and mapping technicians 122 88,806 6,521 7,419 7.3 8.4
1600 Agricultural and food scientists 54 35,198 3,729 3,729 10.6 10.6
1610 Biological scientists 192 122,671 13,318 15,325 10.9 12.5
1640 Conservation scientists and foresters 63 30,725 3,461 3,580 11.3 11.7
1650 Medical scientists 207 160,319 6,529 9,778 4.1 6.1
1700 Astronomers and physicists 44 30,141 0 2,124 0.0 7.0
1710 Atmospheric and space scientists 13 7,428 289 289 3.9 3.9
1720 Chemists and materials scientists 173 123,776 10,970 12,695 8.9 10.3
1740 Environmental scientists and geoscientists 147 92,824 11,229 12,636 12.1 13.6
1760 Physical scientists, all other 164 110,340 6,897 7,706 6.3 7.0
1800 Economists 63 29,166 2,266 2,456 7.8 8.4
1810 Market and survey researchers 148 107,374 1,548 1,979 1.4 1.8
1820 Psychologists 171 114,334 32,120 36,568 28.1 32.0
1830 Sociologists 2 1,486 726 726 48.8 48.8
1840 Urban and regional planners 42 33,722 7,353 10,460 21.8 31.0
1860 Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers 60 27,227 1,680 1,680 6.2 6.2
1900 Agricultural and food science technicians 31 20,774 0 0 0.0 0.0
1910 Biological technicians 30 22,038 2,009 2,009 9.1 9.1
1920 Chemical technicians 97 71,075 10,927 10,927 15.4 15.4
1930 Geological and petroleum technicians 21 9,201 240 1,312 2.6 14.3
1940 Nuclear technicians 8 4,930 567 567 11.5 11.5
1960 Other life, physical, and social science technicians 248 160,266 14,399 18,096 9.0 11.3
2000 Counselors 866 574,439 119,427 128,121 20.8 22.3
2010 Social workers 989 678,152 133,573 146,582 19.7 21.6
2020 Miscellaneous community and social service specialists 433 291,328 69,589 75,164 23.9 25.8
2040 Clergy 593 422,058 2,889 5,527 0.7 1.3
2050 Directors, religious activities and education 73 54,697 0 0 0.0 0.0
2060 Religious workers, all other 108 78,455 1,094 1,094 1.4 1.4
2100 Lawyers, Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers 1,036 709,769 43,571 46,792 6.1 6.6
2140 Paralegals and legal assistants 493 342,129 5,894 7,892 1.7 2.3
2150 Miscellaneous legal support workers 347 230,278 18,083 18,523 7.9 8.0
2200 Postsecondary teachers 1,767 1,167,237 221,667 267,226 19.0 22.9
2300 Preschool and kindergarten teachers 935 681,970 118,848 136,069 17.4 20.0
2310 Elementary and middle school teachers 3,798 2,667,356 1,362,347 1,504,304 51.1 56.4
2320 Secondary school teachers 1,628 1,094,226 596,964 651,994 54.6 59.6
2330 Special education teachers 610 399,472 230,754 261,562 57.8 65.5
2340 Other teachers and instructors 773 555,599 51,075 62,919 9.2 11.3
2400 Archivists, curators, and museum technicians 78 45,212 2,612 2,612 5.8 5.8
2430 Librarians 329 222,233 55,014 60,081 24.8 27.0
2440 Library technicians 56 40,045 6,161 7,149 15.4 17.9
2540 Teacher assistants 1,421 934,159 285,386 320,744 30.6 34.3
2550 Other education, training, and library workers 119 80,180 11,478 12,416 14.3 15.5
2600 Artists and related workers 109 88,151 5,561 6,497 6.3 7.4
2630 Designers 855 632,104 23,352 25,137 3.7 4.0
2700 Actors 24 21,797 10,629 10,629 48.8 48.8
2710 Producers and directors 131 92,968 10,294 10,294 11.1 11.1
2720 Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers 313 224,659 15,145 16,856 6.7 7.5
2740 Dancers and choreographers 32 22,750 2,312 2,312 10.2 10.2
2750 Musicians, singers, and related workers 141 105,565 7,453 7,453 7.1 7.1
2760 Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other 12 9,794 0 0 0.0 0.0
2800 Announcers 52 37,755 1,943 2,322 5.1 6.2
2810 News analysts, reporters and correspondents 124 75,081 7,245 8,051 9.6 10.7
2820 Public relations specialists 201 120,759 9,127 10,880 7.6 9.0
2830 Editors 202 144,433 7,829 10,965 5.4 7.6
2840 Technical writers 75 53,334 459 1,837 0.9 3.4
2850 Writers and authors 142 88,333 6,997 7,697 7.9 8.7
2860 Miscellaneous media and communication workers 78 52,461 4,867 6,275 9.3 12.0
2900 Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators 93 72,694 4,051 4,613 5.6 6.3
2910 Photographers 96 69,372 5,318 6,480 7.7 9.3
2920 Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors 23 17,688 1,580 1,580 8.9 8.9
2960 Media and communication equipment workers, all other 0 0 0 0
3000 Chiropractors 26 15,962 0 0 0.0 0.0
3010 Dentists 67 51,150 3,897 3,897 7.6 7.6
3030 Dietitians and nutritionists 123 92,181 14,030 14,030 15.2 15.2
3040 Optometrists 25 17,284 0 962 0.0 5.6
3050 Pharmacists 324 232,460 19,186 21,131 8.3 9.1
3060 Physicians and surgeons 835 609,852 27,299 36,007 4.5 5.9
3110 Physician assistants 116 81,233 4,338 4,338 5.3 5.3
3120 Podiatrists 5 3,674 0 0 0.0 0.0
3130 Registered nurses 3,541 2,472,288 413,397 455,846 16.7 18.4
3140 Audiologists 27 20,140 3,652 3,652 18.1 18.1
3150 Occupational therapists 105 68,641 11,627 15,835 16.9 23.1
3160 Physical therapists 248 178,280 13,242 15,097 7.4 8.5
3200 Radiation therapists 18 12,517 0 0 0.0 0.0
3210 Recreational therapists 27 22,467 3,438 5,566 15.3 24.8
3220 Respiratory therapists 120 85,909 5,501 6,211 6.4 7.2
3230 Speech-language pathologists 160 106,715 48,393 52,977 45.3 49.6
3240 Therapists, all other 113 78,045 11,069 11,780 14.2 15.1
3250 Veterinarians 67 39,902 0 0 0.0 0.0
3260 Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other 2 735 0 0 0.0 0.0
3300 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 455 321,146 17,575 25,312 5.5 7.9
3310 Dental hygienists 210 143,929 1,566 2,610 1.1 1.8
3320 Diagnostic related technologists and technicians 405 281,421 24,510 29,987 8.7 10.7
3400 Emergency medical technicians and paramedics 199 158,711 46,887 51,033 29.5 32.2
3410 Health diagnosing and treating practitioner support technicians 569 414,651 41,298 48,379 10.0 11.7
3500 Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 766 529,794 58,576 64,781 11.1 12.2
3510 Medical records and health information technicians 165 107,806 11,977 14,301 11.1 13.3
3520 Opticians, dispensing 73 55,040 1,107 1,107 2.0 2.0
3530 Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians 149 114,872 5,070 5,452 4.4 4.7
3540 Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 87 65,809 12,058 13,684 18.3 20.8
3600 Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides 2,541 1,860,382 249,170 266,967 13.4 14.4
3610 Occupational therapist assistants and aides 17 12,596 107 107 0.9 0.9
3620 Physical therapist assistants and aides 98 63,151 1,235 1,235 2.0 2.0
3630 Massage therapists 79 55,722 253 2,404 0.5 4.3
3640 Dental assistants 367 274,008 6,804 8,750 2.5 3.2
3650 Medical assistants and other healthcare support occupations 1,057 732,798 54,475 60,586 7.4 8.3
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 29,917 21,568,715 2,459,941 2,657,642 11.4 12.3
3700 First-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers 67 51,077 18,265 19,442 35.8 38.1
3710 First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives 149 101,554 42,269 43,433 41.6 42.8
3720 First-line supervisors/managers of fire fighting and prevention workers 56 37,590 22,154 24,709 58.9 65.7
3730 Supervisors, protective service workers, all other 128 98,927 13,482 14,425 13.6 14.6
3740 Fire fighters 367 262,846 180,713 184,846 68.8 70.3
3750 Fire inspectors 31 20,231 6,103 7,108 30.2 35.1
3800 Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers 555 441,687 179,759 194,719 40.7 44.1
3820 Detectives and criminal investigators 206 149,428 52,572 54,619 35.2 36.6
3830 Fish and game wardens 7 3,008 605 605 20.1 20.1
3840 Parking enforcement workers 13 7,837 2,569 2,569 32.8 32.8
3850 Police and sheriff's patrol officers 862 659,531 370,146 387,017 56.1 58.7
3860 Transit and railroad police 4 2,798 0 0 0.0 0.0
3900 Animal control workers 13 10,231 4,713 4,713 46.1 46.1
3910 Private detectives and investigators 96 70,294 14,055 14,055 20.0 20.0
3920 Security guards and gaming surveillance officers 1,094 827,329 86,341 95,268 10.4 11.5
3940 Crossing guards 63 46,222 10,393 11,310 22.5 24.5
3950 Lifeguards and other protective service workers 190 128,003 8,252 8,252 6.4 6.4
4000 Chefs and head cooks 421 300,153 15,449 18,894 5.1 6.3
4010 First-line supervisors/managers of food preparation and serving workers 823 590,631 20,054 22,763 3.4 3.9
4020 Cooks 2,510 1,813,633 85,160 93,526 4.7 5.2
4030 Food preparation workers 1,005 698,379 44,395 48,099 6.4 6.9
4040 Bartenders 542 386,843 10,236 11,453 2.6 3.0
4050 Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food 487 332,163 34,771 36,726 10.5 11.1
4060 Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop 455 312,284 4,437 4,437 1.4 1.4
4110 Waiters and waitresses 2,662 1,970,156 45,719 49,422 2.3 2.5
4120 Food servers, nonrestaurant 220 163,564 16,676 18,728 10.2 11.5
4130 Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers 496 367,263 35,398 38,846 9.6 10.6
4140 Dishwashers 418 285,126 6,240 6,450 2.2 2.3
4150 Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop 366 254,749 2,471 3,461 1.0 1.4
4160 Food preparation and serving related workers, all other 4 2,653 0 0 0.0 0.0
4200 First-line supervisors/managers of housekeeping and janitorial workers 292 194,359 24,447 30,489 12.6 15.7
4210 First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers 152 108,061 4,498 4,498 4.2 4.2
4220 Janitors and building cleaners 2,845 1,985,180 337,006 368,101 17.0 18.5
4230 Maids and housekeeping cleaners 1,891 1,341,415 95,275 103,646 7.1 7.7
4240 Pest control workers 73 63,628 1,415 1,415 2.2 2.2
4250 Grounds maintenance workers 1,321 1,010,040 44,485 52,456 4.4 5.2
4300 First-line supervisors/managers of gaming workers 141 90,048 1,962 2,336 2.2 2.6
4320 First-line supervisors/managers of personal service workers 98 65,751 0 0 0.0 0.0
4340 Animal trainers 25 16,491 629 629 3.8 3.8
4350 Nonfarm animal caretakers 141 94,950 2,090 2,090 2.2 2.2
4400 Gaming services workers 168 101,067 8,982 9,379 8.9 9.3
4410 Motion picture projectionists 10 7,449 0 0 0.0 0.0
4420 Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers 55 43,871 4,560 5,876 10.4 13.4
4430 Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers 203 143,889 9,569 13,660 6.7 9.5
4460 Funeral service workers 22 14,867 629 1,563 4.2 10.5
4500 Barbers 55 46,230 2,601 2,601 5.6 5.6
4510 Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists 620 470,046 3,041 4,775 0.6 1.0
4520 Miscellaneous personal appearance workers 172 142,355 1,845 1,845 1.3 1.3
4530 Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges 108 87,906 28,490 28,490 32.4 32.4
4540 Tour and travel guides 59 31,804 0 160 0.0 0.5
4550 Transportation attendants 177 132,562 86,301 88,319 65.1 66.6
4600 Child care workers 1,227 894,949 64,426 74,014 7.2 8.3
4610 Personal and home care aides 963 643,040 57,088 61,180 8.9 9.5
4620 Recreation and fitness workers 435 295,430 17,211 21,216 5.8 7.2
4640 Residential advisors 88 63,417 15,306 15,853 24.1 25.0
4650 Personal care and service workers, all other 107 85,057 2,641 3,106 3.1 3.7
SALES AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS 18,940 13,882,986 429,980 489,232 3.1 3.5
4700 First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers 3,423 2,455,081 98,803 111,867 4.0 4.6
4710 First-line supervisors/managers of non-retail sales workers 1,372 1,002,955 26,989 30,328 2.7 3.0
4720 Cashiers 4,123 3,021,418 162,277 180,833 5.4 6.0
4740 Counter and rental clerks 192 132,137 3,397 3,397 2.6 2.6
4750 Parts salespersons 194 144,865 3,442 3,442 2.4 2.4
4760 Retail salespersons 4,268 3,159,744 44,794 49,326 1.4 1.6
4800 Advertising sales agents 267 195,216 9,312 10,761 4.8 5.5
4810 Insurance sales agents 581 420,025 1,657 4,149 0.4 1.0
4820 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents 418 324,522 3,331 8,354 1.0 2.6
4830 Travel agents 97 63,030 430 2,025 0.7 3.2
4840 Sales representatives, services, all other 658 505,597 19,128 23,213 3.8 4.6
4850 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing 1,767 1,296,029 24,244 26,522 1.9 2.0
4900 Models, demonstrators, and product promoters 79 62,039 2,418 2,418 3.9 3.9
4920 Real estate brokers and sales agents 809 614,403 16,500 17,780 2.7 2.9
4930 Sales engineers 57 40,652 0 0 0.0 0.0
4940 Telemarketers 169 116,717 1,532 1,532 1.3 1.3
4950 Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers 177 119,361 2,903 4,463 2.4 3.7
4960 Sales and related workers, all other 289 209,195 8,823 8,823 4.2 4.2
OFFICE AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 26,869 19,103,125 1,888,938 2,083,811 9.9 10.9
5000 First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers 2,128 1,509,784 98,354 114,565 6.5 7.6
5010 Switchboard operators, including answering service 73 48,116 4,901 4,901 10.2 10.2
5020 Telephone operators 74 54,146 7,053 7,053 13.0 13.0
5030 Communications equipment operators, all other 12 8,594 3,013 3,013 35.1 35.1
5100 Bill and account collectors 294 216,741 7,606 7,606 3.5 3.5
5110 Billing and posting clerks and machine operators 565 421,745 26,471 27,589 6.3 6.5
5120 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 1,859 1,292,119 53,535 61,638 4.1 4.8
5130 Gaming cage workers 31 20,820 2,181 2,181 10.5 10.5
5140 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 232 157,828 17,922 21,716 11.4 13.8
5150 Procurement clerks 41 28,109 3,985 3,985 14.2 14.2
5160 Tellers 621 430,505 7,732 9,353 1.8 2.2
5200 Brokerage clerks 15 12,091 0 0 0.0 0.0
5210 Correspondence clerks 8 5,895 0 0 0.0 0.0
5220 Court, municipal, and license clerks 154 119,617 26,538 27,459 22.2 23.0
5230 Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks 78 56,795 0 1,200 0.0 2.1
5240 Customer service representatives 2,661 1,935,383 150,581 165,058 7.8 8.5
5250 Eligibility interviewers, government programs 108 69,568 26,969 30,742 38.8 44.2
5260 File Clerks 498 353,040 25,905 29,032 7.3 8.2
5300 Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks 165 107,381 4,616 4,616 4.3 4.3
5310 Interviewers, except eligibility and loan 218 143,348 12,741 13,285 8.9 9.3
5320 Library assistants, clerical 181 132,630 22,369 23,715 16.9 17.9
5330 Loan interviewers and clerks 256 195,057 6,268 6,268 3.2 3.2
5340 New accounts clerks 27 19,387 0 0 0.0 0.0
5350 Order clerks 169 126,312 8,401 8,777 6.7 6.9
5360 Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping 94 57,708 4,219 4,794 7.3 8.3
5400 Receptionists and information clerks 1,980 1,425,709 47,006 54,050 3.3 3.8
5410 Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks 231 146,737 28,594 29,613 19.5 20.2
5420 Information and record clerks, all other 131 88,754 10,408 10,862 11.7 12.2
5500 Cargo and freight agents 26 16,453 6,218 6,218 37.8 37.8
5510 Couriers and messengers 313 238,725 45,799 48,000 19.2 20.1
5520 Dispatchers 400 289,080 58,726 60,641 20.3 21.0
5530 Meter readers, utilities 62 47,379 16,755 17,788 35.4 37.5
5540 Postal service clerks 224 151,695 96,778 105,854 63.8 69.8
5550 Postal service mail carriers 483 335,914 248,537 267,031 74.0 79.5
5560 Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators 138 101,230 68,293 73,060 67.5 72.2
5600 Production, planning, and expediting clerks 399 282,740 26,978 30,542 9.5 10.8
5610 Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks 726 555,971 61,512 66,544 11.1 12.0
5620 Stock clerks and order fillers 2,006 1,486,589 141,006 152,084 9.5 10.2
5630 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping 107 78,327 6,236 6,236 8.0 8.0
5700 Secretaries and administrative assistants 4,854 3,331,435 248,363 291,063 7.5 8.7
5800 Computer operators 257 194,390 17,019 19,355 8.8 10.0
5810 Data entry keyers 663 475,564 36,575 41,932 7.7 8.8
5820 Word processors and typists 336 243,904 30,741 33,455 12.6 13.7
5830 Desktop publishers 10 6,116 0 0 0.0 0.0
5840 Insurance claims and policy processing clerks 395 273,195 8,238 9,371 3.0 3.4
5850 Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service 173 119,403 18,281 20,532 15.3 17.2
5860 Office clerks, general 1,395 994,345 95,975 104,878 9.7 10.5
5900 Office machine operators, except computer 85 56,929 4,447 5,569 7.8 9.8
5910 Proofreaders and copy markers 19 12,996 591 591 4.5 4.5
5920 Statistical assistants 38 26,055 2,731 3,051 10.5 11.7
5930 Office and administrative support workers, all other 856 600,769 41,771 46,947 7.0 7.8
FARMING, FISHING, AND FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS 1,317 879,735 31,075 32,798 3.5 3.7
6000 First-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing, and forestry workers 46 34,911 1,205 1,205 3.5 3.5
6010 Agricultural inspectors 25 14,844 4,256 5,087 28.7 34.3
6020 Animal breeders 1 431 0 0 0.0 0.0
6040 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 102 73,434 7,394 7,394 10.1 10.1
6050 Miscellaneous agricultural workers 1,009 672,551 14,120 15,011 2.1 2.2
6100 Fishers and related fishing workers 22 12,236 722 722 5.9 5.9
6110 Hunters and trappers 1 426 0 0 0.0 0.0
6120 Forest and conservation workers 19 11,812 657 657 5.6 5.6
6130 Logging workers 92 59,089 2,720 2,720 4.6 4.6
CONSTRUCTION AND EXTRACTION OCCUPATIONS 10,396 7,616,578 1,336,866 1,395,669 17.6 18.3
6200 First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers 947 664,181 102,077 107,463 15.4 16.2
6210 Boilermakers 27 20,368 9,041 9,395 44.4 46.1
6220 Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons 244 195,083 31,185 33,251 16.0 17.0
6230 Carpenters 1,772 1,275,439 168,128 175,479 13.2 13.8
6240 Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers 219 176,607 15,304 15,304 8.7 8.7
6250 Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers 125 98,804 12,493 12,493 12.6 12.6
6260 Construction laborers 1,881 1,479,735 164,716 172,430 11.1 11.7
6300 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 30 22,781 5,104 5,104 22.4 22.4
6310 Pile-driver operators 6 6,523 819 819 12.6 12.6
6320 Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators 684 412,175 117,360 123,544 28.5 30.0
6330 Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers 290 236,898 31,847 32,339 13.4 13.7
6350 Electricians 1,109 791,924 245,564 250,806 31.0 31.7
6360 Glaziers 48 35,625 8,501 8,501 23.9 23.9
6400 Insulation workers 78 59,850 8,133 12,309 13.6 20.6
6420 Painters, construction and maintenance 590 478,389 44,001 47,690 9.2 10.0
6430 Paperhangers 3 1,606 0 0 0.0 0.0
6440 Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 815 580,135 172,395 177,756 29.7 30.6
6460 Plasterers and stucco masons 76 64,957 7,209 7,209 11.1 11.1
6500 Reinforcing iron and rebar workers 7 5,928 2,175 2,175 36.7 36.7
6510 Roofers 248 197,091 17,100 17,100 8.7 8.7
6520 Sheet metal workers 176 123,751 36,588 38,948 29.6 31.5
6530 Structural iron and steel workers 76 53,463 16,478 16,478 30.8 30.8
6600 Helpers, construction trades 148 121,834 5,660 6,553 4.6 5.4
6660 Construction and building inspectors 113 82,582 22,455 24,284 27.2 29.4
6700 Elevator installers and repairers 40 33,977 20,758 20,758 61.1 61.1
6710 Fence erectors 33 24,383 1,270 1,941 5.2 8.0
6720 Hazardous materials removal workers 38 30,316 5,657 5,972 18.7 19.7
6730 Highway maintenance workers 155 109,128 33,107 35,589 30.3 32.6
6740 Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators 18 9,468 7,150 7,150 75.5 75.5
6750 Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners 13 9,045 3,867 3,867 42.8 42.8
6760 Miscellaneous construction and related workers 44 35,476 3,415 3,415 9.6 9.6
6800 Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining 66 40,461 0 1,331 0.0 3.3
6820 Earth drillers, except oil and gas 45 25,531 3,343 3,343 13.1 13.1
6830 Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters 15 8,235 107 107 1.3 1.3
6840 Mining machine operators 117 46,559 9,123 9,761 19.6 21.0
6910 Roof bolters, mining 7 3,979 0 0 0.0 0.0
6920 Roustabouts, oil and gas 7 3,166 0 0 0.0 0.0
6930 Helpers--extraction workers 10 5,476 0 0 0.0 0.0
6940 Other extraction workers 76 45,647 4,735 5,002 10.4 11.0
INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 6,709 4,869,714 770,506 819,736 15.8 16.8
7000 First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers 485 348,022 35,064 37,617 10.1 10.8
7010 Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers 438 328,999 22,759 24,884 6.9 7.6
7020 Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers 272 191,894 50,524 54,661 26.3 28.5
7030 Avionics technicians 24 18,986 2,799 2,799 14.7 14.7
7040 Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers 51 38,570 5,421 5,421 14.1 14.1
7050 Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment 4 4,741 1,054 1,054 22.2 22.2
7100 Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility 18 9,520 3,152 3,152 33.1 33.1
7110 Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles 24 21,456 8,011 8,011 37.3 37.3
7120 Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers 51 39,713 2,708 2,708 6.8 6.8
7130 Security and fire alarm systems installers 79 64,388 5,957 6,792 9.3 10.5
7140 Aircraft mechanics and service technicians 195 141,304 46,747 49,102 33.1 34.7
7150 Automotive body and related repairers 178 133,803 5,309 5,309 4.0 4.0
7160 Automotive glass installers and repairers 21 12,784 0 0 0.0 0.0
7200 Automotive service technicians and mechanics 988 732,281 50,685 52,035 6.9 7.1
7210 Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists 482 343,528 78,849 82,457 23.0 24.0
7220 Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics 352 220,204 50,831 53,280 23.1 24.2
7240 Small engine mechanics 76 49,100 3,700 3,700 7.5 7.5
7260 Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers 113 74,613 2,322 2,322 3.1 3.1
7300 Control and valve installers and repairers 33 22,615 5,433 6,126 24.0 27.1
7310 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers 471 347,252 49,172 52,244 14.2 15.0
7320 Home appliance repairers 47 35,923 4,413 4,413 12.3 12.3
7330 Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics 600 425,530 76,769 80,731 18.0 19.0
7340 Maintenance and repair workers, general 576 425,347 56,263 60,932 13.2 14.3
7350 Maintenance workers, machinery 93 69,192 10,377 12,332 15.0 17.8
7360 Millwrights 89 64,388 32,220 33,332 50.0 51.8
7410 Electrical power-line installers and repairers 160 114,955 56,789 59,970 49.4 52.2
7420 Telecommunications line installers and repairers 256 193,112 58,795 62,766 30.4 32.5
7430 Precision instrument and equipment repairers 74 58,328 8,604 11,413 14.8 19.6
7510 Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers 75 51,300 8,747 8,747 17.0 17.0
7520 Commercial divers 5 4,166 189 189 4.5 4.5
7540 Locksmiths and safe repairers 24 18,427 2,410 2,410 13.1 13.1
7550 Manufactured building and mobile home installers 14 10,303 1,042 1,959 10.1 19.0
7560 Riggers 16 8,675 2,835 2,835 32.7 32.7
7600 Signal and track switch repairers 7 3,282 3,282 3,282 100.0 100.0
7610 Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers 41 33,420 1,052 1,052 3.1 3.1
7620 Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers 277 209,593 16,226 19,700 7.7 9.4
PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS 12,216 8,964,349 1,392,069 1,467,595 15.5 16.4
7700 First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers 1,164 832,268 73,450 82,243 8.8 9.9
7710 Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers 16 12,009 2,351 2,773 19.6 23.1
7720 Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers 293 222,976 21,226 23,570 9.5 10.6
7730 Engine and other machine assemblers 19 15,155 2,024 2,024 13.4 13.4
7740 Structural metal fabricators and fitters 42 30,487 6,442 6,442 21.1 21.1
7750 Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators 1,407 1,086,329 175,879 184,337 16.2 17.0
7800 Bakers 247 171,143 25,123 27,768 14.7 16.2
7810 Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers 444 282,311 64,040 66,290 22.7 23.5
7830 Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders 19 12,053 4,190 4,190 34.8 34.8
7840 Food batchmakers 122 84,497 16,122 17,403 19.1 20.6
7850 Food cooking machine operators and tenders 11 6,689 393 393 5.9 5.9
7900 Computer control programmers and operators 79 50,135 8,441 8,441 16.8 16.8
7920 Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 22 15,927 3,863 3,863 24.3 24.3
7930 Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 13 12,448 3,116 3,116 25.0 25.0
7940 Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 23 18,811 1,845 1,845 9.8 9.8
7950 Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 153 111,760 23,412 25,401 20.9 22.7
7960 Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 12 6,626 875 1,569 13.2 23.7
8000 Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and pl 79 62,244 9,098 9,098 14.6 14.6
8010 Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 40 26,925 2,145 2,145 8.0 8.0
8020 Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 6 3,668 757 1,710 20.6 46.6
8030 Machinists 562 410,789 74,982 75,877 18.3 18.5
8040 Metal furnace and kiln operators and tenders 30 25,362 7,802 7,802 30.8 30.8
8060 Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic 13 8,605 657 657 7.6 7.6
8100 Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 88 64,312 16,788 17,690 26.1 27.5
8120 Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 10 6,172 2,567 2,567 41.6 41.6
8130 Tool and die makers 119 97,817 26,201 26,201 26.8 26.8
8140 Welding, soldering, and brazing workers 712 503,395 96,705 99,880 19.2 19.8
8150 Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 16 8,719 2,303 2,303 26.4 26.4
8160 Lay-out workers, metal and plastic 8 4,914 976 1,911 19.9 38.9
8200 Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 35 22,785 3,314 3,314 14.5 14.5
8210 Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners 11 7,748 0 0 0.0 0.0
8220 Metalworkers and plastic workers, all other 587 461,733 83,955 85,480 18.2 18.5
8230 Bookbinders and bindery workers 57 40,427 4,662 4,908 11.5 12.1
8240 Job printers 61 45,882 6,319 7,070 13.8 15.4
8250 Prepress technicians and workers 56 40,770 3,362 3,873 8.2 9.5
8260 Printing machine operators 275 201,979 21,807 21,807 10.8 10.8
8300 Laundry and dry-cleaning workers 245 164,095 13,629 14,899 8.3 9.1
8310 Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials 84 65,412 1,913 2,064 2.9 3.2
8320 Sewing machine operators 326 267,704 8,034 10,385 3.0 3.9
8330 Shoe and leather workers and repairers 10 8,565 492 492 5.7 5.7
8340 Shoe machine operators and tenders 11 5,258 1,184 1,184 22.5 22.5
8350 Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers 77 64,384 3,732 3,732 5.8 5.8
8360 Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders 9 7,643 1,150 1,150 15.1 15.1
8400 Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders 15 11,799 0 0 0.0 0.0
8410 Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders 19 13,492 844 844 6.3 6.3
8420 Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders 19 19,346 0 0 0.0 0.0
8430 Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers 6 3,513 999 999 28.4 28.4
8440 Fabric and apparel patternmakers 2 859 0 0 0.0 0.0
8450 Upholsterers 45 40,032 2,163 4,081 5.4 10.2
8460 Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other 27 22,405 0 0 0.0 0.0
8500 Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters 121 90,796 5,401 5,865 5.9 6.5
8510 Furniture finishers 33 23,263 3,301 3,301 14.2 14.2
8520 Model makers and patternmakers, wood 0 0 0 0
8530 Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood 58 42,069 7,588 7,588 18.0 18.0
8540 Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing 61 45,768 4,946 4,946 10.8 10.8
8550 Woodworkers, all other 30 16,143 0 0 0.0 0.0
8600 Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers 79 43,533 12,337 13,690 28.3 31.4
8610 Stationary engineers and boiler operators 144 96,451 34,639 34,850 35.9 36.1
8620 Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators 137 98,105 32,989 34,195 33.6 34.9
8630 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 70 38,955 12,652 14,226 32.5 36.5
8640 Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders 82 57,682 14,527 16,091 25.2 27.9
8650 Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers 127 98,099 9,489 11,506 9.7 11.7
8710 Cutting workers 102 77,959 9,780 9,780 12.5 12.5
8720 Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders 58 48,491 13,111 13,698 27.0 28.2
8730 Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders 18 12,141 2,176 2,176 17.9 17.9
8740 Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers 955 706,701 104,891 110,912 14.8 15.7
8750 Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers 38 24,875 2,228 2,228 9.0 9.0
8760 Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians 114 82,622 2,520 2,520 3.1 3.1
8800 Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders 382 271,037 38,612 43,609 14.2 16.1
8810 Painting workers 226 166,877 23,276 24,440 13.9 14.6
8830 Photographic process workers and processing machine operators 87 66,648 3,786 3,786 5.7 5.7
8840 Semiconductor processors 6 1,764 0 0 0.0 0.0
8850 Cementing and gluing machine operators and tenders 24 15,642 430 430 2.7 2.7
8860 Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders 14 10,521 1,084 1,084 10.3 10.3
8900 Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders 4 1,211 391 391 32.3 32.3
8910 Etchers and engravers 15 7,549 0 0 0.0 0.0
8920 Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic 35 26,267 2,992 3,930 11.4 15.0
8930 Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders 63 41,151 16,202 16,202 39.4 39.4
8940 Tire builders 30 24,713 10,501 11,508 42.5 46.6
8950 Helpers--production workers 73 58,970 6,615 7,457 11.2 12.6
8960 Production workers, all other 1,284 957,960 184,270 191,392 19.2 20.0
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 11,132 8,246,538 1,527,555 1,625,948 18.5 19.7
9000 Supervisors, transportation and material moving workers 292 205,520 36,487 37,662 17.8 18.3
9030 Aircraft pilots and flight engineers 173 111,658 65,406 67,992 58.6 60.9
9040 Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists 49 37,304 15,998 17,316 42.9 46.4
9110 Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians 19 12,895 1,862 2,645 14.4 20.5
9120 Bus drivers 786 559,719 214,662 229,811 38.4 41.1
9130 Driver/sales workers and truck drivers 4,227 3,092,929 455,458 480,705 14.7 15.5
9140 Taxi drivers and chauffeurs 270 208,725 17,803 25,387 8.5 12.2
9150 Motor vehicle operators, all other 88 67,163 8,905 9,292 13.3 13.8
9200 Locomotive engineers and operators 64 36,002 27,051 27,051 75.1 75.1
9230 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 18 10,865 6,982 6,982 64.3 64.3
9240 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 74 52,601 40,553 40,553 77.1 77.1
9260 Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers 21 19,285 13,184 13,184 68.4 68.4
9300 Sailors and marine oilers 26 17,928 3,751 3,751 20.9 20.9
9310 Ship and boat captains and operators 49 30,532 4,182 4,182 13.7 13.7
9330 Ship engineers 8 4,890 844 844 17.3 17.3
9340 Bridge and lock tenders 8 7,273 2,185 2,185 30.0 30.0
9350 Parking lot attendants 80 58,724 4,073 5,542 6.9 9.4
9360 Service station attendants 138 98,001 3,804 4,878 3.9 5.0
9410 Transportation inspectors 68 48,934 21,870 23,750 44.7 48.5
9420 Other transportation workers 25 15,567 7,196 7,196 46.2 46.2
9500 Conveyor operators and tenders 8 4,229 3,000 3,152 70.9 74.5
9510 Crane and tower operators 67 49,879 17,163 17,266 34.4 34.6
9520 Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators 83 48,471 7,886 8,886 16.3 18.3
9560 Hoist and winch operators 8 7,393 1,156 1,156 15.6 15.6
9600 Industrial truck and tractor operators 665 560,401 109,113 115,704 19.5 20.6
9610 Cleaners of vehicles and equipment 480 386,249 34,391 36,648 8.9 9.5
9620 Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 2,489 1,851,441 317,546 341,552 17.2 18.4
9630 Machine feeders and offbearers 60 43,798 7,650 7,650 17.5 17.5
9640 Packers and packagers, hand 561 443,146 46,990 51,470 10.6 11.6
9650 Pumping station operators 43 24,639 1,412 1,412 5.7 5.7
9720 Refuse and recyclable material collectors 105 79,340 16,731 17,884 21.1 22.5
9730 Shuttle car operators 5 2,728 667 667 24.5 24.5
9740 Tank car, truck, and ship loaders 8 7,986 0 0 0.0 0.0
9750 Material moving workers, all other 67 40,320 11,592 11,592 28.7 28.7
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2006. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2007 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.