Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by Occupation, 2007 (details in table note)    
COC Occupation (Standard Occupational Classification) Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
MANAGEMENT, BUSINESS, AND FINANCIAL OCCUPATIONS 23,532 17,003,181 848,866 1,019,552 5.0 6.0
10 Chief executives 1,531 1,099,412 23,703 29,706 2.2 2.7
20 General and operations managers 1,315 922,306 25,758 29,291 2.8 3.2
40 Advertising and promotions managers 86 73,694 3,631 3,631 4.9 4.9
50 Marketing and sales managers 1,095 816,943 12,258 12,258 1.5 1.5
60 Public relations managers 91 62,012 552 552 0.9 0.9
100 Administrative services managers 145 103,920 11,081 11,081 10.7 10.7
110 Computer and information systems managers 614 452,759 9,810 11,504 2.2 2.5
120 Financial managers 1,512 1,116,536 21,298 28,974 1.9 2.6
130 Human resources managers 343 246,448 11,106 11,694 4.5 4.7
140 Industrial production managers 339 257,100 7,477 8,014 2.9 3.1
150 Purchasing managers 225 157,638 9,408 10,264 6.0 6.5
160 Transportation, storage, and distribution managers 323 255,976 7,197 10,218 2.8 4.0
200 Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers 162 91,743 1,475 2,310 1.6 2.5
220 Construction managers 767 554,878 51,353 55,350 9.3 10.0
230 Education administrators 1,108 776,333 129,358 157,028 16.7 20.2
300 Engineering managers 154 118,606 5,913 5,913 5.0 5.0
310 Food service managers 947 726,037 12,705 18,157 1.7 2.5
320 Funeral directors 47 34,451 702 702 2.0 2.0
330 Gaming managers 15 6,118 0 0 0.0 0.0
340 Lodging managers 169 112,740 3,872 5,303 3.4 4.7
350 Medical and health services managers 687 472,727 23,527 29,840 5.0 6.3
360 Natural sciences managers 15 10,950 0 0 0.0 0.0
410 Property, real estate, and community association managers 525 384,272 7,987 8,886 2.1 2.3
420 Social and community service managers 521 310,529 11,688 16,958 3.8 5.5
430 Managers, all other 3,460 2,491,439 137,715 165,498 5.5 6.6
500 Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes 42 30,535 0 0 0.0 0.0
510 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products 13 7,136 1,128 1,128 15.8 15.8
520 Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products 247 177,528 5,726 7,544 3.2 4.2
530 Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products 377 269,356 16,476 20,990 6.1 7.8
540 Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators 375 284,433 15,391 15,480 5.4 5.4
560 Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation 194 133,229 17,517 21,451 13.1 16.1
600 Cost estimators 147 110,061 6,772 7,058 6.2 6.4
620 Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists 1,085 785,227 63,580 74,413 8.1 9.5
700 Logisticians 71 53,896 1,090 1,090 2.0 2.0
710 Management analysts 555 379,505 12,808 19,897 3.4 5.2
720 Meeting and convention planners 47 34,069 3,213 3,213 9.4 9.4
730 Other business operations specialists 318 220,514 21,996 26,569 10.0 12.0
800 Accountants and auditors 2,181 1,637,529 84,323 100,837 5.1 6.2
810 Appraisers and assessors of real estate 107 72,524 5,417 5,571 7.5 7.7
820 Budget analysts 83 57,371 7,905 9,706 13.8 16.9
830 Credit analysts 50 31,226 0 94 0.0 0.3
840 Financial analysts 108 77,490 1,166 2,034 1.5 2.6
850 Personal financial advisors 353 275,605 3,567 6,726 1.3 2.4
860 Insurance underwriters 143 94,445 6,000 6,129 6.4 6.5
900 Financial examiners 10 4,417 1,854 1,980 42.0 44.8
910 Loan counselors and officers 589 433,541 8,246 13,470 1.9 3.1
930 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents 78 61,630 25,024 26,993 40.6 43.8
940 Tax prepares 97 71,561 7,260 9,747 10.1 13.6
950 Financial specialists, all other 66 44,789 2,832 4,301 6.3 9.6
PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS 38,515 27,543,459 5,004,055 5,636,062 18.2 20.5
1000 Computer scientists and systems analysts 979 738,869 38,587 44,709 5.2 6.1
1010 Computer programmers 663 504,422 25,356 29,779 5.0 5.9
1020 Computer software engineers 1,147 894,382 23,502 31,816 2.6 3.6
1040 Computer support specialists 422 300,063 11,658 15,085 3.9 5.0
1060 Database administrators 137 103,831 5,826 5,826 5.6 5.6
1100 Network and computer systems administrators 280 211,795 17,967 20,730 8.5 9.8
1110 Network systems and data communications analysts 440 346,424 22,886 24,583 6.6 7.1
1200 Actuaries 27 19,201 0 0 0.0 0.0
1210 Mathematicians 4 2,620 0 0 0.0 0.0
1220 Operations research analysts 143 89,286 9,577 11,744 10.7 13.2
1230 Statisticians 51 37,640 2,087 3,228 5.5 8.6
1240 Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations 4 3,436 0 0 0.0 0.0
1300 Architects, except naval 224 167,443 4,017 6,689 2.4 4.0
1310 Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists 59 39,204 4,152 6,108 10.6 15.6
1320 Aerospace engineers 163 128,884 14,179 15,837 11.0 12.3
1330 Agricultural engineers 4 1,961 0 0 0.0 0.0
1340 Biomedical engineers 18 12,760 0 0 0.0 0.0
1350 Chemical engineers 95 75,631 2,060 3,093 2.7 4.1
1360 Civil engineers 481 344,735 27,572 31,661 8.0 9.2
1400 Computer hardware engineers 81 68,902 0 619 0.0 0.9
1410 Electrical and electronic engineers 427 334,078 17,792 17,970 5.3 5.4
1420 Environmental engineers 52 32,459 4,874 4,874 15.0 15.0
1430 Industrial engineers, including health and safety 237 165,180 12,620 13,014 7.6 7.9
1440 Marine engineers and naval architects 18 11,116 136 136 1.2 1.2
1450 Materials engineers 46 35,934 2,014 2,014 5.6 5.6
1460 Mechanical engineers 365 286,945 18,553 20,974 6.5 7.3
1500 Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers 9 3,119 0 0 0.0 0.0
1510 Nuclear engineers 13 11,039 771 1,484 7.0 13.4
1520 Petroleum engineers 27 19,482 1,223 1,857 6.3 9.5
1530 Engineers, all other 442 317,976 20,364 22,597 6.4 7.1
1540 Drafters 252 173,507 6,357 6,357 3.7 3.7
1550 Engineering technicians, except drafters 581 428,411 70,611 75,115 16.5 17.5
1560 Surveying and mapping technicians 113 85,551 7,692 9,356 9.0 10.9
1600 Agricultural and food scientists 35 19,090 2,176 2,330 11.4 12.2
1610 Biological scientists 151 90,568 5,910 7,335 6.5 8.1
1640 Conservation scientists and foresters 55 30,778 4,082 4,720 13.3 15.3
1650 Medical scientists 200 153,092 5,535 9,343 3.6 6.1
1700 Astronomers and physicists 25 18,298 364 845 2.0 4.6
1710 Atmospheric and space scientists 16 7,341 752 1,238 10.2 16.9
1720 Chemists and materials scientists 169 124,303 8,084 11,259 6.5 9.1
1740 Environmental scientists and geoscientists 135 80,112 8,742 9,695 10.9 12.1
1760 Physical scientists, all other 166 122,780 5,246 5,445 4.3 4.4
1800 Economists 58 21,409 585 1,732 2.7 8.1
1810 Market and survey researchers 171 135,999 1,080 1,621 0.8 1.2
1820 Psychologists 177 122,202 40,371 46,168 33.0 37.8
1830 Sociologists 10 8,326 3,075 3,075 36.9 36.9
1840 Urban and regional planners 41 29,972 1,992 3,671 6.6 12.2
1860 Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers 72 34,423 2,914 2,914 8.5 8.5
1900 Agricultural and food science technicians 28 19,977 2,431 2,431 12.2 12.2
1910 Biological technicians 30 21,004 4,358 5,493 20.7 26.2
1920 Chemical technicians 75 58,475 4,165 5,715 7.1 9.8
1930 Geological and petroleum technicians 26 16,175 2,475 2,475 15.3 15.3
1940 Nuclear technicians 5 2,310 783 783 33.9 33.9
1960 Other life, physical, and social science technicians 215 153,369 8,131 9,678 5.3 6.3
2000 Counselors 940 662,114 131,876 151,830 19.9 22.9
2010 Social workers 951 635,641 114,546 130,810 18.0 20.6
2020 Miscellaneous community and social service specialists 444 313,744 72,430 82,789 23.1 26.4
2040 Clergy 607 416,519 5,911 8,487 1.4 2.0
2050 Directors, religious activities and education 75 54,391 0 0 0.0 0.0
2060 Religious workers, all other 144 104,699 790 790 0.8 0.8
2100 Lawyers, Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers 1,071 726,415 42,116 48,195 5.8 6.6
2140 Paralegals and legal assistants 475 334,856 12,841 13,799 3.8 4.1
2150 Miscellaneous legal support workers 321 226,894 16,465 20,670 7.3 9.1
2200 Postsecondary teachers 1,869 1,270,766 255,169 298,744 20.1 23.5
2300 Preschool and kindergarten teachers 859 651,115 124,680 146,758 19.1 22.5
2310 Elementary and middle school teachers 4,089 2,958,241 1,454,500 1,612,510 49.2 54.5
2320 Secondary school teachers 1,611 1,143,329 618,517 674,621 54.1 59.0
2330 Special education teachers 541 371,235 217,194 232,259 58.5 62.6
2340 Other teachers and instructors 796 563,763 56,471 66,475 10.0 11.8
2400 Archivists, curators, and museum technicians 78 42,262 2,891 2,891 6.8 6.8
2430 Librarians 335 221,354 59,299 66,244 26.8 29.9
2440 Library technicians 83 53,012 7,634 8,365 14.4 15.8
2540 Teacher assistants 1,392 949,872 278,798 315,654 29.4 33.2
2550 Other education, training, and library workers 97 63,355 12,000 14,659 18.9 23.1
2600 Artists and related workers 110 91,801 11,187 12,250 12.2 13.3
2630 Designers 853 631,844 18,813 25,031 3.0 4.0
2700 Actors 22 19,022 9,763 9,763 51.3 51.3
2710 Producers and directors 125 99,562 16,208 19,712 16.3 19.8
2720 Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers 288 206,195 16,084 20,892 7.8 10.1
2740 Dancers and choreographers 28 18,270 3,011 3,393 16.5 18.6
2750 Musicians, singers, and related workers 87 68,802 6,505 8,807 9.5 12.8
2760 Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other 29 20,737 377 1,634 1.8 7.9
2800 Announcers 59 42,915 7,326 7,326 17.1 17.1
2810 News analysts, reporters and correspondents 115 70,849 9,550 10,912 13.5 15.4
2820 Public relations specialists 200 123,237 4,510 6,201 3.7 5.0
2830 Editors 209 151,849 10,623 14,408 7.0 9.5
2840 Technical writers 76 54,762 1,393 1,393 2.5 2.5
2850 Writers and authors 151 95,476 6,617 6,805 6.9 7.1
2860 Miscellaneous media and communication workers 76 57,999 9,811 9,931 16.9 17.1
2900 Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators 114 88,228 11,957 12,077 13.6 13.7
2910 Photographers 108 80,548 2,275 4,246 2.8 5.3
2920 Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors 35 33,014 5,558 7,628 16.8 23.1
2960 Media and communication equipment workers, all other 0 0 0 0
3000 Chiropractors 15 8,810 126 126 1.4 1.4
3010 Dentists 65 54,578 0 1,260 0.0 2.3
3030 Dietitians and nutritionists 131 93,907 9,973 10,646 10.6 11.3
3040 Optometrists 22 16,945 0 1,129 0.0 6.7
3050 Pharmacists 318 222,354 19,295 19,295 8.7 8.7
3060 Physicians and surgeons 908 666,518 33,838 48,869 5.1 7.3
3110 Physician assistants 121 83,982 1,889 2,507 2.2 3.0
3120 Podiatrists 4 3,804 0 0 0.0 0.0
3130 Registered nurses 3,682 2,577,560 499,763 555,657 19.4 21.6
3140 Audiologists 15 13,617 0 0 0.0 0.0
3150 Occupational therapists 103 66,117 13,217 13,443 20.0 20.3
3160 Physical therapists 262 188,955 18,317 20,203 9.7 10.7
3200 Radiation therapists 17 10,091 145 145 1.4 1.4
3210 Recreational therapists 28 21,927 3,287 4,323 15.0 19.7
3220 Respiratory therapists 133 92,750 14,788 15,963 15.9 17.2
3230 Speech-language pathologists 164 110,984 40,718 42,796 36.7 38.6
3240 Therapists, all other 131 96,863 8,600 10,154 8.9 10.5
3250 Veterinarians 60 35,711 0 0 0.0 0.0
3260 Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other 8 5,750 0 0 0.0 0.0
3300 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 433 320,272 29,110 32,961 9.1 10.3
3310 Dental hygienists 212 149,898 2,639 2,639 1.8 1.8
3320 Diagnostic related technologists and technicians 409 286,698 33,612 37,954 11.7 13.2
3400 Emergency medical technicians and paramedics 180 146,438 29,052 32,303 19.8 22.1
3410 Health diagnosing and treating practitioner support technicians 598 454,416 44,823 50,770 9.9 11.2
3500 Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses 746 530,461 53,589 60,433 10.1 11.4
3510 Medical records and health information technicians 123 82,867 9,482 9,482 11.4 11.4
3520 Opticians, dispensing 70 49,292 0 0 0.0 0.0
3530 Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians 161 119,320 10,070 11,500 8.4 9.6
3540 Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 69 47,596 6,348 7,320 13.3 15.4
3600 Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides 2,522 1,817,544 238,569 258,397 13.1 14.2
3610 Occupational therapist assistants and aides 13 8,326 1,211 1,211 14.5 14.5
3620 Physical therapist assistants and aides 85 59,286 3,855 3,855 6.5 6.5
3630 Massage therapists 81 60,607 0 0 0.0 0.0
3640 Dental assistants 388 272,278 5,671 6,594 2.1 2.4
3650 Medical assistants and other healthcare support occupations 1,073 768,522 55,108 61,987 7.2 8.1
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS 29,485 21,784,126 2,480,593 2,692,332 11.4 12.4
3700 First-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers 56 40,740 16,590 18,463 40.7 45.3
3710 First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives 168 125,426 48,546 55,614 38.7 44.3
3720 First-line supervisors/managers of fire fighting and prevention workers 80 60,245 35,991 37,128 59.7 61.6
3730 Supervisors, protective service workers, all other 123 91,633 8,295 10,332 9.1 11.3
3740 Fire fighters 363 275,954 181,336 183,441 65.7 66.5
3750 Fire inspectors 29 14,990 3,852 6,170 25.7 41.2
3800 Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers 577 446,007 192,783 205,218 43.2 46.0
3820 Detectives and criminal investigators 183 134,997 42,721 44,838 31.6 33.2
3830 Fish and game wardens 13 7,453 3,384 4,001 45.4 53.7
3840 Parking enforcement workers 15 12,430 6,214 6,214 50.0 50.0
3850 Police and sheriff's patrol officers 861 667,476 383,371 397,361 57.4 59.5
3860 Transit and railroad police 6 5,897 1,508 1,508 25.6 25.6
3900 Animal control workers 12 9,509 1,625 1,625 17.1 17.1
3910 Private detectives and investigators 87 69,078 13,172 15,710 19.1 22.7
3920 Security guards and gaming surveillance officers 1,124 878,106 104,757 114,783 11.9 13.1
3940 Crossing guards 61 43,729 8,591 9,766 19.6 22.3
3950 Lifeguards and other protective service workers 191 141,209 12,956 14,527 9.2 10.3
4000 Chefs and head cooks 425 323,761 15,952 20,118 4.9 6.2
4010 First-line supervisors/managers of food preparation and serving workers 715 530,598 26,975 31,283 5.1 5.9
4020 Cooks 2,480 1,877,784 85,257 96,227 4.5 5.1
4030 Food preparation workers 985 696,685 41,735 47,407 6.0 6.8
4040 Bartenders 499 359,006 13,270 13,270 3.7 3.7
4050 Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food 442 302,095 29,054 30,706 9.6 10.2
4060 Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop 449 321,066 9,452 12,962 2.9 4.0
4110 Waiters and waitresses 2,576 1,956,190 25,689 32,118 1.3 1.6
4120 Food servers, nonrestaurant 231 174,901 30,640 32,782 17.5 18.7
4130 Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers 527 387,385 35,682 42,881 9.2 11.1
4140 Dishwashers 392 275,598 5,605 5,605 2.0 2.0
4150 Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop 378 286,281 4,814 5,233 1.7 1.8
4160 Food preparation and serving related workers, all other 9 8,567 473 473 5.5 5.5
4200 First-line supervisors/managers of housekeeping and janitorial workers 295 202,355 31,732 35,534 15.7 17.6
4210 First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers 146 107,088 2,540 2,540 2.4 2.4
4220 Janitors and building cleaners 2,735 1,949,124 309,305 336,403 15.9 17.3
4230 Maids and housekeeping cleaners 1,811 1,303,993 87,674 96,344 6.7 7.4
4240 Pest control workers 82 70,112 2,187 2,187 3.1 3.1
4250 Grounds maintenance workers 1,255 1,009,218 63,586 75,970 6.3 7.5
4300 First-line supervisors/managers of gaming workers 163 105,126 934 934 0.9 0.9
4320 First-line supervisors/managers of personal service workers 85 61,978 3,072 4,945 5.0 8.0
4340 Animal trainers 19 12,482 0 0 0.0 0.0
4350 Nonfarm animal caretakers 135 100,476 3,387 3,387 3.4 3.4
4400 Gaming services workers 176 110,236 11,780 12,177 10.7 11.0
4410 Motion picture projectionists 9 6,482 0 0 0.0 0.0
4420 Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers 67 52,982 1,959 1,959 3.7 3.7
4430 Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers 210 160,855 6,603 7,579 4.1 4.7
4460 Funeral service workers 18 9,372 0 0 0.0 0.0
4500 Barbers 58 51,477 1,908 1,908 3.7 3.7
4510 Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists 639 485,882 4,885 4,885 1.0 1.0
4520 Miscellaneous personal appearance workers 201 170,942 3,260 3,260 1.9 1.9
4530 Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges 83 59,214 21,461 21,461 36.2 36.2
4540 Tour and travel guides 56 35,870 2,713 3,166 7.6 8.8
4550 Transportation attendants 194 146,428 87,439 89,346 59.7 61.0
4600 Child care workers 1,278 932,080 46,869 52,848 5.0 5.7
4610 Personal and home care aides 972 694,699 63,459 71,442 9.1 10.3
4620 Recreation and fitness workers 393 295,311 10,365 14,527 3.5 4.9
4640 Residential advisors 82 61,176 17,205 18,159 28.1 29.7
4650 Personal care and service workers, all other 104 77,812 1,564 1,564 2.0 2.0
SALES AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS 18,920 14,078,838 461,603 520,942 3.3 3.7
4700 First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers 3,478 2,533,710 110,322 122,559 4.4 4.8
4710 First-line supervisors/managers of non-retail sales workers 1,208 899,628 29,837 33,750 3.3 3.8
4720 Cashiers 4,052 3,024,867 180,157 191,500 6.0 6.3
4740 Counter and rental clerks 199 152,748 2,951 4,174 1.9 2.7
4750 Parts salespersons 173 129,775 5,244 5,766 4.0 4.4
4760 Retail salespersons 4,402 3,282,809 54,799 66,159 1.7 2.0
4800 Advertising sales agents 290 215,341 4,547 5,409 2.1 2.5
4810 Insurance sales agents 555 389,229 6,835 8,287 1.8 2.1
4820 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents 396 318,781 3,495 3,873 1.1 1.2
4830 Travel agents 130 95,694 1,808 1,808 1.9 1.9
4840 Sales representatives, services, all other 689 540,858 12,570 15,825 2.3 2.9
4850 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing 1,735 1,307,391 31,430 33,497 2.4 2.6
4900 Models, demonstrators, and product promoters 76 56,807 1,397 2,097 2.5 3.7
4920 Real estate brokers and sales agents 817 609,361 9,497 16,531 1.6 2.7
4930 Sales engineers 48 38,870 0 0 0.0 0.0
4940 Telemarketers 227 171,059 1,676 2,856 1.0 1.7
4950 Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers 180 119,395 566 1,211 0.5 1.0
4960 Sales and related workers, all other 265 192,516 4,471 5,641 2.3 2.9
OFFICE AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS 26,137 18,899,607 1,924,604 2,137,961 10.2 11.3
5000 First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers 2,126 1,525,518 93,665 108,340 6.1 7.1
5010 Switchboard operators, including answering service 62 43,788 5,901 5,901 13.5 13.5
5020 Telephone operators 63 41,127 8,143 8,245 19.8 20.0
5030 Communications equipment operators, all other 8 6,631 864 864 13.0 13.0
5100 Bill and account collectors 294 209,819 11,275 11,275 5.4 5.4
5110 Billing and posting clerks and machine operators 576 425,009 24,736 28,738 5.8 6.8
5120 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 1,832 1,265,979 48,627 54,341 3.8 4.3
5130 Gaming cage workers 25 13,919 936 936 6.7 6.7
5140 Payroll and timekeeping clerks 237 180,140 19,327 21,165 10.7 11.7
5150 Procurement clerks 34 24,499 1,884 4,143 7.7 16.9
5160 Tellers 631 464,573 7,431 7,431 1.6 1.6
5200 Brokerage clerks 13 6,492 0 0 0.0 0.0
5210 Correspondence clerks 13 7,014 898 1,778 12.8 25.3
5220 Court, municipal, and license clerks 153 99,761 27,572 29,073 27.6 29.1
5230 Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks 74 47,015 2,027 2,609 4.3 5.5
5240 Customer service representatives 2,557 1,908,854 133,972 150,066 7.0 7.9
5250 Eligibility interviewers, government programs 108 69,969 25,229 27,058 36.1 38.7
5260 File Clerks 526 400,420 41,830 49,253 10.4 12.3
5300 Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks 186 120,603 5,416 5,416 4.5 4.5
5310 Interviewers, except eligibility and loan 193 138,892 13,939 15,073 10.0 10.9
5320 Library assistants, clerical 160 117,654 24,057 27,705 20.4 23.5
5330 Loan interviewers and clerks 176 132,721 1,419 1,419 1.1 1.1
5340 New accounts clerks 21 15,005 1,109 1,109 7.4 7.4
5350 Order clerks 154 106,883 3,908 3,908 3.7 3.7
5360 Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping 73 49,316 5,531 7,693 11.2 15.6
5400 Receptionists and information clerks 1,961 1,460,221 58,781 64,586 4.0 4.4
5410 Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks 216 157,110 32,799 34,917 20.9 22.2
5420 Information and record clerks, all other 129 96,841 12,569 13,093 13.0 13.5
5500 Cargo and freight agents 29 20,370 5,121 6,158 25.1 30.2
5510 Couriers and messengers 325 240,131 60,319 60,742 25.1 25.3
5520 Dispatchers 391 292,888 59,485 64,017 20.3 21.9
5530 Meter readers, utilities 49 39,630 12,478 12,478 31.5 31.5
5540 Postal service clerks 228 164,660 110,568 117,006 67.1 71.1
5550 Postal service mail carriers 488 348,538 242,051 260,045 69.4 74.6
5560 Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators 116 86,385 48,367 55,620 56.0 64.4
5600 Production, planning, and expediting clerks 371 256,403 25,481 29,126 9.9 11.4
5610 Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks 699 515,491 70,517 76,567 13.7 14.9
5620 Stock clerks and order fillers 1,998 1,498,457 151,613 166,229 10.1 11.1
5630 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping 80 62,232 6,884 6,884 11.1 11.1
5700 Secretaries and administrative assistants 4,689 3,274,382 230,758 277,505 7.0 8.5
5800 Computer operators 212 159,664 10,862 12,122 6.8 7.6
5810 Data entry keyers 631 457,839 41,585 48,572 9.1 10.6
5820 Word processors and typists 300 227,480 35,725 39,804 15.7 17.5
5830 Desktop publishers 6 3,110 0 0 0.0 0.0
5840 Insurance claims and policy processing clerks 373 274,074 6,264 6,264 2.3 2.3
5850 Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service 167 123,561 13,787 17,076 11.2 13.8
5860 Office clerks, general 1,454 1,056,964 118,854 130,394 11.2 12.3
5900 Office machine operators, except computer 59 45,728 5,787 5,787 12.7 12.7
5910 Proofreaders and copy markers 21 12,941 0 0 0.0 0.0
5920 Statistical assistants 29 21,743 2,232 2,232 10.3 10.3
5930 Office and administrative support workers, all other 821 581,166 52,021 57,198 9.0 9.8
FARMING, FISHING, AND FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS 1,295 875,511 23,475 28,000 2.7 3.2
6000 First-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing, and forestry workers 61 39,586 365 1,788 0.9 4.5
6010 Agricultural inspectors 24 11,368 4,332 4,522 38.1 39.8
6020 Animal breeders 2 940 0 0 0.0 0.0
6040 Graders and sorters, agricultural products 104 75,077 7,262 9,671 9.7 12.9
6050 Miscellaneous agricultural workers 990 670,956 10,463 10,966 1.6 1.6
6100 Fishers and related fishing workers 17 8,599 169 169 2.0 2.0
6110 Hunters and trappers 2 736 736 736 100.0 100.0
6120 Forest and conservation workers 12 6,144 0 0 0.0 0.0
6130 Logging workers 83 62,105 149 149 0.2 0.2
CONSTRUCTION AND EXTRACTION OCCUPATIONS 10,144 7,707,575 1,433,798 1,480,126 18.6 19.2
6200 First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers 953 691,589 130,799 133,413 18.9 19.3
6210 Boilermakers 30 20,295 11,991 12,435 59.1 61.3
6220 Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons 203 174,784 29,354 29,354 16.8 16.8
6230 Carpenters 1,706 1,279,160 199,321 205,281 15.6 16.0
6240 Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers 192 163,617 17,157 17,157 10.5 10.5
6250 Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers 114 91,178 14,990 16,127 16.4 17.7
6260 Construction laborers 1,904 1,538,433 183,750 190,944 11.9 12.4
6300 Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators 35 27,375 9,843 9,843 36.0 36.0
6310 Pile-driver operators 7 6,200 1,379 1,379 22.2 22.2
6320 Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators 604 388,069 93,543 95,369 24.1 24.6
6330 Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers 247 198,589 17,048 20,949 8.6 10.5
6350 Electricians 1,060 794,011 264,414 268,412 33.3 33.8
6360 Glaziers 53 44,916 6,850 6,850 15.3 15.3
6400 Insulation workers 67 50,368 11,539 11,539 22.9 22.9
6420 Painters, construction and maintenance 559 484,298 40,562 42,363 8.4 8.7
6430 Paperhangers 5 3,446 0 0 0.0 0.0
6440 Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 808 597,896 170,299 177,063 28.5 29.6
6460 Plasterers and stucco masons 73 67,716 4,527 4,527 6.7 6.7
6500 Reinforcing iron and rebar workers 8 6,546 2,415 2,415 36.9 36.9
6510 Roofers 258 217,534 20,181 21,236 9.3 9.8
6520 Sheet metal workers 171 127,941 34,642 36,245 27.1 28.3
6530 Structural iron and steel workers 104 77,841 36,808 37,139 47.3 47.7
6600 Helpers, construction trades 124 105,996 4,279 4,279 4.0 4.0
6660 Construction and building inspectors 131 99,904 25,482 27,768 25.5 27.8
6700 Elevator installers and repairers 38 31,550 17,104 17,104 54.2 54.2
6710 Fence erectors 35 28,425 4,391 4,391 15.4 15.4
6720 Hazardous materials removal workers 30 21,857 5,232 6,186 23.9 28.3
6730 Highway maintenance workers 163 106,949 41,776 44,834 39.1 41.9
6740 Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators 21 11,360 9,968 9,968 87.7 87.7
6750 Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners 6 4,146 1,408 1,408 34.0 34.0
6760 Miscellaneous construction and related workers 45 36,208 4,459 4,459 12.3 12.3
6800 Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil, gas, and mining 84 42,533 1,181 1,181 2.8 2.8
6820 Earth drillers, except oil and gas 55 30,176 465 465 1.5 1.5
6830 Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters 13 3,993 155 155 3.9 3.9
6840 Mining machine operators 110 58,581 10,783 10,783 18.4 18.4
6910 Roof bolters, mining 8 3,415 841 841 24.6 24.6
6920 Roustabouts, oil and gas 10 4,553 0 0 0.0 0.0
6930 Helpers--extraction workers 12 7,191 0 0 0.0 0.0
6940 Other extraction workers 98 58,937 4,864 6,268 8.3 10.6
INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OCCUPATIONS 6,332 4,741,603 794,450 854,632 16.8 18.0
7000 First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers 439 328,328 33,994 37,717 10.4 11.5
7010 Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers 368 274,141 12,754 13,657 4.7 5.0
7020 Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers 263 193,366 59,352 63,678 30.7 32.9
7030 Avionics technicians 23 12,924 3,305 4,911 25.6 38.0
7040 Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers 37 26,232 1,732 1,732 6.6 6.6
7050 Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment 8 4,757 3,652 3,652 76.8 76.8
7100 Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility 18 14,963 3,981 3,981 26.6 26.6
7110 Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles 30 27,359 8,844 8,844 32.3 32.3
7120 Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers 63 49,680 1,020 2,386 2.1 4.8
7130 Security and fire alarm systems installers 68 59,149 4,486 4,486 7.6 7.6
7140 Aircraft mechanics and service technicians 171 130,428 39,314 41,916 30.1 32.1
7150 Automotive body and related repairers 159 123,952 6,192 8,510 5.0 6.9
7160 Automotive glass installers and repairers 18 10,949 0 0 0.0 0.0
7200 Automotive service technicians and mechanics 908 704,590 41,912 48,755 5.9 6.9
7210 Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists 480 340,295 68,140 70,499 20.0 20.7
7220 Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics 341 227,762 61,037 62,587 26.8 27.5
7240 Small engine mechanics 70 53,363 3,255 4,424 6.1 8.3
7260 Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers 116 86,418 1,847 2,763 2.1 3.2
7300 Control and valve installers and repairers 29 19,663 10,124 10,124 51.5 51.5
7310 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers 462 357,528 59,311 61,967 16.6 17.3
7320 Home appliance repairers 54 39,536 130 130 0.3 0.3
7330 Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics 537 402,302 81,441 88,661 20.2 22.0
7340 Maintenance and repair workers, general 628 469,309 78,549 86,915 16.7 18.5
7350 Maintenance workers, machinery 71 55,075 12,210 13,482 22.2 24.5
7360 Millwrights 95 75,890 36,059 36,059 47.5 47.5
7410 Electrical power-line installers and repairers 163 100,615 52,310 54,081 52.0 53.8
7420 Telecommunications line installers and repairers 273 214,231 68,531 74,146 32.0 34.6
7430 Precision instrument and equipment repairers 64 47,302 9,453 9,453 20.0 20.0
7510 Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers 75 56,045 4,671 4,671 8.3 8.3
7520 Commercial divers 7 7,250 0 1,094 0.0 15.1
7540 Locksmiths and safe repairers 27 20,817 3,464 3,965 16.6 19.0
7550 Manufactured building and mobile home installers 15 13,003 984 1,709 7.6 13.1
7560 Riggers 11 6,537 194 194 3.0 3.0
7600 Signal and track switch repairers 14 10,087 7,413 7,779 73.5 77.1
7610 Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers 26 22,412 2,060 2,060 9.2 9.2
7620 Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers 201 155,348 12,730 13,643 8.2 8.8
PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS 11,815 8,902,587 1,243,011 1,313,530 14.0 14.8
7700 First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers 1,166 889,576 75,527 81,844 8.5 9.2
7710 Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers 12 8,122 2,288 2,549 28.2 31.4
7720 Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers 262 207,483 16,991 16,991 8.2 8.2
7730 Engine and other machine assemblers 21 16,168 5,366 5,366 33.2 33.2
7740 Structural metal fabricators and fitters 42 30,946 5,114 6,189 16.5 20.0
7750 Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators 1,341 1,035,832 164,206 168,056 15.9 16.2
7800 Bakers 217 164,416 25,592 29,036 15.6 17.7
7810 Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers 397 268,941 68,512 68,952 25.5 25.6
7830 Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders 18 13,814 1,464 1,464 10.6 10.6
7840 Food batchmakers 118 85,414 13,183 13,366 15.4 15.6
7850 Food cooking machine operators and tenders 10 6,230 2,072 2,072 33.3 33.3
7900 Computer control programmers and operators 77 55,417 5,313 5,693 9.6 10.3
7920 Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 25 18,365 3,286 3,286 17.9 17.9
7930 Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 9 8,742 2,147 2,147 24.6 24.6
7940 Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 16 12,676 1,798 1,798 14.2 14.2
7950 Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 149 121,822 26,581 26,939 21.8 22.1
7960 Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 5 1,669 0 0 0.0 0.0
8000 Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and pl 63 50,888 7,583 8,538 14.9 16.8
8010 Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 14 12,977 2,702 2,702 20.8 20.8
8020 Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 5 2,910 0 0 0.0 0.0
8030 Machinists 552 412,955 69,756 72,889 16.9 17.7
8040 Metal furnace and kiln operators and tenders 32 22,934 3,993 3,993 17.4 17.4
8060 Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic 17 13,548 3,930 3,930 29.0 29.0
8100 Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 96 75,980 13,348 13,348 17.6 17.6
8120 Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 7 5,192 2,270 2,270 43.7 43.7
8130 Tool and die makers 105 77,211 25,580 25,580 33.1 33.1
8140 Welding, soldering, and brazing workers 773 549,594 95,975 97,927 17.5 17.8
8150 Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 14 11,502 5,689 5,689 49.5 49.5
8160 Lay-out workers, metal and plastic 11 7,448 2,936 3,959 39.4 53.2
8200 Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 24 15,968 2,728 2,728 17.1 17.1
8210 Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners 9 4,885 0 0 0.0 0.0
8220 Metalworkers and plastic workers, all other 552 429,852 55,734 61,276 13.0 14.3
8230 Bookbinders and bindery workers 63 46,727 7,014 7,014 15.0 15.0
8240 Job printers 44 38,508 958 2,759 2.5 7.2
8250 Prepress technicians and workers 81 56,513 2,459 2,459 4.4 4.4
8260 Printing machine operators 254 189,955 23,539 24,466 12.4 12.9
8300 Laundry and dry-cleaning workers 284 207,132 8,060 8,060 3.9 3.9
8310 Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials 75 62,069 5,299 5,299 8.5 8.5
8320 Sewing machine operators 288 242,287 11,654 12,519 4.8 5.2
8330 Shoe and leather workers and repairers 6 5,836 0 0 0.0 0.0
8340 Shoe machine operators and tenders 18 11,971 2,639 2,639 22.0 22.0
8350 Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers 79 63,359 5,924 5,924 9.3 9.3
8360 Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders 6 4,625 0 0 0.0 0.0
8400 Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders 11 7,817 0 0 0.0 0.0
8410 Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders 15 11,332 0 0 0.0 0.0
8420 Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders 29 26,397 0 0 0.0 0.0
8430 Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers 1 141 0 0 0.0 0.0
8440 Fabric and apparel patternmakers 5 5,618 0 0 0.0 0.0
8450 Upholsterers 37 34,038 0 0 0.0 0.0
8460 Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other 16 11,666 157 157 1.3 1.3
8500 Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters 87 70,291 3,937 3,937 5.6 5.6
8510 Furniture finishers 15 10,727 1,363 1,363 12.7 12.7
8520 Model makers and patternmakers, wood 1 975 0 0 0.0 0.0
8530 Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood 75 55,925 3,859 5,201 6.9 9.3
8540 Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing 37 27,280 2,041 2,041 7.5 7.5
8550 Woodworkers, all other 37 21,024 914 2,308 4.3 11.0
8600 Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers 78 47,112 21,035 21,230 44.6 45.1
8610 Stationary engineers and boiler operators 126 89,817 26,926 26,926 30.0 30.0
8620 Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators 104 74,605 25,674 26,565 34.4 35.6
8630 Miscellaneous plant and system operators 64 41,571 7,391 7,391 17.8 17.8
8640 Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders 60 45,930 22,753 22,753 49.5 49.5
8650 Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers 152 107,875 13,892 14,892 12.9 13.8
8710 Cutting workers 106 88,524 8,458 9,322 9.6 10.5
8720 Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders 41 31,843 5,910 5,910 18.6 18.6
8730 Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders 17 12,300 3,576 4,824 29.1 39.2
8740 Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers 972 726,479 88,534 98,751 12.2 13.6
8750 Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers 34 22,225 0 0 0.0 0.0
8760 Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians 124 92,633 4,827 4,827 5.2 5.2
8800 Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders 375 277,355 32,247 35,535 11.6 12.8
8810 Painting workers 226 176,982 14,700 17,377 8.3 9.8
8830 Photographic process workers and processing machine operators 75 65,403 4,350 4,483 6.7 6.9
8840 Semiconductor processors 4 3,800 0 0 0.0 0.0
8850 Cementing and gluing machine operators and tenders 23 18,013 3,516 3,516 19.5 19.5
8860 Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders 15 12,096 316 316 2.6 2.6
8900 Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders 7 5,982 2,044 2,044 34.2 34.2
8910 Etchers and engravers 9 4,191 0 0 0.0 0.0
8920 Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic 47 30,945 3,978 3,978 12.9 12.9
8930 Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders 69 48,198 10,178 11,144 21.1 23.1
8940 Tire builders 22 17,713 7,709 7,709 43.5 43.5
8950 Helpers--production workers 50 41,067 2,553 2,553 6.2 6.2
8960 Production workers, all other 1,292 968,237 140,966 154,765 14.6 16.0
TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS 10,848 8,230,515 1,455,892 1,560,205 17.7 19.0
9000 Supervisors, transportation and material moving workers 285 212,949 27,970 33,152 13.1 15.6
9030 Aircraft pilots and flight engineers 157 113,520 62,302 62,762 54.9 55.3
9040 Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists 45 30,888 14,924 17,561 48.3 56.9
9110 Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians 17 15,492 1,067 2,371 6.9 15.3
9120 Bus drivers 783 571,505 193,297 212,282 33.8 37.1
9130 Driver/sales workers and truck drivers 4,113 3,061,595 453,346 479,135 14.8 15.6
9140 Taxi drivers and chauffeurs 333 267,346 17,696 24,061 6.6 9.0
9150 Motor vehicle operators, all other 88 65,199 6,371 8,374 9.8 12.8
9200 Locomotive engineers and operators 93 54,101 39,470 40,286 73.0 74.5
9230 Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators 11 7,238 5,405 5,405 74.7 74.7
9240 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 76 51,570 43,077 43,077 83.5 83.5
9260 Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers 23 17,271 10,879 10,879 63.0 63.0
9300 Sailors and marine oilers 23 15,632 1,653 1,653 10.6 10.6
9310 Ship and boat captains and operators 60 41,938 2,349 2,349 5.6 5.6
9330 Ship engineers 4 3,177 183 183 5.8 5.8
9340 Bridge and lock tenders 5 2,561 1,790 1,790 69.9 69.9
9350 Parking lot attendants 96 90,565 12,156 13,803 13.4 15.2
9360 Service station attendants 115 85,706 2,677 2,677 3.1 3.1
9410 Transportation inspectors 54 42,243 17,160 19,230 40.6 45.5
9420 Other transportation workers 29 21,596 7,925 7,925 36.7 36.7
9500 Conveyor operators and tenders 7 7,392 968 968 13.1 13.1
9510 Crane and tower operators 77 56,122 22,792 24,231 40.6 43.2
9520 Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators 70 46,619 8,715 9,569 18.7 20.5
9560 Hoist and winch operators 11 7,067 94 94 1.3 1.3
9600 Industrial truck and tractor operators 653 554,788 107,293 107,651 19.3 19.4
9610 Cleaners of vehicles and equipment 363 303,152 18,035 19,996 5.9 6.6
9620 Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 2,481 1,912,944 304,697 333,528 15.9 17.4
9630 Machine feeders and offbearers 44 27,234 5,733 5,733 21.1 21.1
9640 Packers and packagers, hand 519 406,114 35,520 36,164 8.7 8.9
9650 Pumping station operators 37 19,034 1,018 1,018 5.3 5.3
9720 Refuse and recyclable material collectors 99 71,007 17,386 18,532 24.5 26.1
9730 Shuttle car operators 6 2,878 736 736 25.6 25.6
9740 Tank car, truck, and ship loaders 8 4,335 1,916 1,916 44.2 44.2
9750 Material moving workers, all other 63 39,735 9,290 11,113 23.4 28.0
               
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 2007. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: COC=1990 Census occupation code
used in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are
union members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers
who are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2008 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.