Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1983 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,567 1,352,750 228,177 268,173 16.9 19.8
63 Alabama Private 2,075 1,092,139 167,026 186,044 15.3 17.0
63 Alabama Public 492 260,611 61,151 82,130 23.5 31.5
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 129 68,036 14,833 15,579 21.8 22.9
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 665 348,767 90,308 100,214 25.9 28.7
94 Alaska Total 2,632 167,935 41,743 49,184 24.9 29.3
94 Alaska Private 1,805 115,455 19,920 22,970 17.3 19.9
94 Alaska Public 827 52,480 21,822 26,214 41.6 49.9
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 201 12,764 3,967 4,508 31.1 35.5
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 155 10,229 2,384 2,694 23.3 26.3
86 Arizona Total 2,199 1,091,732 124,961 156,410 11.4 14.3
86 Arizona Private 1,812 914,238 79,001 97,869 8.6 10.7
86 Arizona Public 387 177,494 45,960 58,542 25.9 33.0
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 120 63,498 16,007 17,572 25.2 27.7
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 301 157,796 12,350 16,512 7.8 10.5
71 Arkansas Total 1,967 748,345 82,221 103,180 11.0 13.8
71 Arkansas Private 1,597 609,682 62,433 76,159 10.2 12.5
71 Arkansas Public 370 138,663 19,789 27,022 14.3 19.5
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 73 26,873 5,334 5,334 19.8 19.8
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 513 188,638 35,326 45,545 18.7 24.1
93 California Total 15,199 9,666,217 2,118,885 2,505,159 21.9 25.9
93 California Private 12,661 8,066,842 1,423,979 1,590,663 17.7 19.7
93 California Public 2,538 1,599,375 694,906 914,496 43.4 57.2
93 California Priv. Construction 616 398,031 156,189 164,233 39.2 41.3
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 3,170 2,013,168 421,889 472,106 21.0 23.5
84 Colorado Total 3,283 1,308,965 177,890 209,550 13.6 16.0
84 Colorado Private 2,691 1,070,075 120,298 133,002 11.2 12.4
84 Colorado Public 592 238,890 57,592 76,548 24.1 32.0
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 228 90,000 17,318 18,235 19.2 20.3
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 458 180,804 23,605 27,061 13.1 15.0
16 Connecticut Total 2,292 1,381,924 314,014 345,115 22.7 25.0
16 Connecticut Private 1,984 1,200,528 199,956 223,172 16.7 18.6
16 Connecticut Public 308 181,396 114,058 121,943 62.9 67.2
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 94 56,179 20,863 21,403 37.1 38.1
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 663 392,436 110,157 122,050 28.1 31.1
51 Delaware Total 1,806 244,785 49,188 54,115 20.1 22.1
51 Delaware Private 1,517 205,069 32,646 34,662 15.9 16.9
51 Delaware Public 289 39,716 16,542 19,453 41.6 49.0
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 111 15,164 5,038 5,038 33.2 33.2
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 473 64,174 17,550 18,127 27.3 28.2
53 D.C. Total 1,707 268,327 52,353 69,381 19.5 25.9
53 D.C. Private 1,027 162,116 24,682 32,237 15.2 19.9
53 D.C. Public 680 106,211 27,671 37,144 26.1 35.0
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 43 6,804 1,393 2,189 20.5 32.2
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 46 7,175 1,266 1,592 17.6 22.2
59 Florida Total 5,443 3,851,182 393,749 532,852 10.2 13.8
59 Florida Private 4,592 3,252,153 229,813 295,335 7.1 9.1
59 Florida Public 851 599,030 163,936 237,517 27.4 39.7
59 Florida Priv. Construction 328 247,994 38,669 47,231 15.6 19.1
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 697 489,567 55,446 67,795 11.3 13.9
58 Georgia Total 3,526 2,251,024 267,041 345,076 11.9 15.3
58 Georgia Private 2,871 1,830,469 202,352 256,489 11.1 14.0
58 Georgia Public 655 420,554 64,689 88,587 15.4 21.1
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 182 114,657 20,567 21,303 17.9 18.6
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 830 517,727 87,419 107,094 16.9 20.7
95 Hawaii Total 2,045 385,425 112,565 124,919 29.2 32.4
95 Hawaii Private 1,544 290,449 63,601 68,806 21.9 23.7
95 Hawaii Public 501 94,976 48,964 56,114 51.6 59.3
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 89 15,723 10,204 10,204 64.9 64.9
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 136 24,787 8,815 9,766 35.6 39.4
82 Idaho Total 1,990 331,694 41,312 53,711 12.5 16.2
82 Idaho Private 1,576 262,091 27,034 33,208 10.3 12.7
82 Idaho Public 414 69,602 14,278 20,503 20.5 29.5
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 88 15,834 2,876 3,043 18.2 19.2
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 296 48,834 9,298 11,013 19.0 22.6
33 Illinois Total 6,541 4,393,652 1,063,754 1,205,080 24.2 27.4
33 Illinois Private 5,511 3,695,193 795,770 866,300 21.5 23.4
33 Illinois Public 1,030 698,459 267,984 338,780 38.4 48.5
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 233 160,251 88,479 91,308 55.2 57.0
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,604 1,079,988 349,423 380,308 32.4 35.2
32 Indiana Total 3,307 2,019,118 503,303 544,498 24.9 27.0
32 Indiana Private 2,790 1,707,804 427,285 445,908 25.0 26.1
32 Indiana Public 517 311,314 76,018 98,589 24.4 31.7
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 97 59,894 25,357 26,512 42.3 44.3
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 1,014 610,142 297,095 305,288 48.7 50.0
42 Iowa Total 2,673 1,078,254 185,873 231,348 17.2 21.5
42 Iowa Private 2,063 841,401 123,216 144,096 14.6 17.1
42 Iowa Public 610 236,854 62,657 87,251 26.5 36.8
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 92 37,655 7,145 8,574 19.0 22.8
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 525 211,555 85,196 93,515 40.3 44.2
47 Kansas Total 2,133 910,989 125,217 170,363 13.7 18.7
47 Kansas Private 1,692 735,719 89,919 112,391 12.2 15.3
47 Kansas Public 441 175,269 35,298 57,972 20.1 33.1
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 78 34,391 5,989 6,976 17.4 20.3
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 396 180,618 46,026 62,375 25.5 34.6
61 Kentucky Total 2,237 1,249,436 223,715 259,807 17.9 20.8
61 Kentucky Private 1,808 1,011,863 184,077 201,085 18.2 19.9
61 Kentucky Public 429 237,573 39,638 58,721 16.7 24.7
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 92 54,713 12,481 13,530 22.8 24.7
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 511 281,600 105,352 109,164 37.4 38.8
72 Louisiana Total 2,264 1,480,074 204,208 267,775 13.8 18.1
72 Louisiana Private 1,749 1,146,989 125,823 149,423 11.0 13.0
72 Louisiana Public 515 333,085 78,385 118,352 23.5 35.5
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 193 125,872 37,562 41,764 29.8 33.2
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 277 180,047 44,829 50,767 24.9 28.2
11 Maine Total 2,208 418,269 87,990 100,408 21.0 24.0
11 Maine Private 1,804 339,059 48,179 53,137 14.2 15.7
11 Maine Public 404 79,211 39,811 47,272 50.3 59.7
11 Maine Priv. Construction 85 16,918 2,207 2,420 13.0 14.3
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 670 121,360 30,077 30,814 24.8 25.4
52 Maryland Total 3,407 1,868,079 346,490 423,064 18.5 22.7
52 Maryland Private 2,487 1,365,035 196,109 222,074 14.4 16.3
52 Maryland Public 920 503,045 150,382 200,990 29.9 40.0
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 185 99,572 15,883 16,480 16.0 16.6
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 438 242,663 70,962 79,911 29.2 32.9
14 Massachusetts Total 4,659 2,540,621 603,187 661,410 23.7 26.0
14 Massachusetts Private 3,974 2,173,542 381,474 421,248 17.6 19.4
14 Massachusetts Public 685 367,078 221,713 240,162 60.4 65.4
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 186 102,397 36,991 38,018 36.1 37.1
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,247 678,248 180,975 199,293 26.7 29.4
34 Michigan Total 5,607 3,306,799 1,005,446 1,084,631 30.4 32.8
34 Michigan Private 4,692 2,773,152 702,208 758,261 25.3 27.3
34 Michigan Public 915 533,646 303,238 326,370 56.8 61.2
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 163 93,001 35,112 36,712 37.8 39.5
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,635 968,847 447,168 472,759 46.2 48.8
41 Minnesota Total 3,330 1,697,950 393,944 439,440 23.2 25.9
41 Minnesota Private 2,721 1,395,648 238,596 262,596 17.1 18.8
41 Minnesota Public 609 302,302 155,348 176,844 51.4 58.5
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 129 61,798 27,220 27,220 44.0 44.0
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 675 347,873 77,573 84,879 22.3 24.4
64 Mississippi Total 2,112 799,794 79,351 99,685 9.9 12.5
64 Mississippi Private 1,662 630,204 56,961 66,610 9.0 10.6
64 Mississippi Public 450 169,590 22,390 33,075 13.2 19.5
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 126 49,467 4,986 7,023 10.1 14.2
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 506 196,731 37,155 41,076 18.9 20.9
43 Missouri Total 3,086 1,798,243 374,444 416,670 20.8 23.2
43 Missouri Private 2,517 1,469,410 316,242 339,739 21.5 23.1
43 Missouri Public 569 328,833 58,202 76,931 17.7 23.4
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 120 69,627 29,528 30,613 42.4 44.0
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 690 394,042 144,398 151,230 36.6 38.4
81 Montana Total 2,084 270,358 49,515 55,490 18.3 20.6
81 Montana Private 1,578 208,621 30,917 33,519 14.8 16.1
81 Montana Public 506 61,737 18,599 21,971 30.1 35.7
81 Montana Priv. Construction 99 13,987 3,279 3,312 23.4 23.7
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 177 23,833 7,860 7,860 33.0 33.0
46 Nebraska Total 2,273 593,362 80,641 94,846 13.6 16.0
46 Nebraska Private 1,814 474,610 46,259 51,965 9.7 10.9
46 Nebraska Public 459 118,752 34,382 42,881 29.0 36.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 95 25,203 3,256 3,535 12.9 14.0
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 293 76,802 14,648 17,521 19.1 22.8
88 Nevada Total 1,983 401,042 89,953 106,749 22.4 26.6
88 Nevada Private 1,692 342,495 67,118 75,969 19.6 22.2
88 Nevada Public 291 58,546 22,834 30,780 39.0 52.6
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 95 18,987 8,797 8,955 46.3 47.2
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 90 18,733 2,024 2,414 10.8 12.9
12 New Hampshire Total 1,954 423,414 48,539 60,815 11.5 14.4
12 New Hampshire Private 1,670 364,170 27,313 31,619 7.5 8.7
12 New Hampshire Public 284 59,244 21,227 29,197 35.8 49.3
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 93 19,504 3,956 4,354 20.3 22.3
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 577 124,957 13,185 14,774 10.6 11.8
22 New Jersey Total 4,994 3,060,227 822,105 918,189 26.9 30.0
22 New Jersey Private 4,156 2,553,873 539,757 592,036 21.1 23.2
22 New Jersey Public 838 506,354 282,348 326,153 55.8 64.4
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 209 130,661 44,751 48,311 34.2 37.0
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,211 739,155 231,981 249,180 31.4 33.7
85 New Mexico Total 1,958 445,708 52,557 70,615 11.8 15.9
85 New Mexico Private 1,364 308,648 31,154 36,473 10.1 11.8
85 New Mexico Public 594 137,060 21,403 34,142 15.6 25.0
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 118 25,402 4,797 5,681 18.9 22.5
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 151 32,823 3,896 4,630 11.9 14.1
21 New York Total 10,345 6,624,973 2,155,623 2,385,947 32.5 36.0
21 New York Private 8,387 5,376,480 1,290,869 1,436,252 24.0 26.7
21 New York Public 1,958 1,248,493 864,755 949,695 69.3 76.1
21 New York Priv. Construction 377 244,768 117,671 121,643 48.1 49.7
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 2,046 1,319,608 409,074 442,860 31.0 33.6
56 North Carolina Total 3,400 2,338,878 178,656 238,116 7.6 10.2
56 North Carolina Private 2,790 1,912,982 102,359 123,498 5.4 6.5
56 North Carolina Public 610 425,896 76,297 114,619 17.9 26.9
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 129 89,945 1,976 1,976 2.2 2.2
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 1,171 802,993 55,297 64,655 6.9 8.1
44 North Dakota Total 2,047 215,376 28,405 35,121 13.2 16.3
44 North Dakota Private 1,570 166,106 15,772 18,298 9.5 11.0
44 North Dakota Public 477 49,270 12,633 16,822 25.6 34.1
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 102 11,164 3,600 3,678 32.2 32.9
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 120 12,172 3,330 3,516 27.4 28.9
31 Ohio Total 6,712 4,032,348 1,011,045 1,125,015 25.1 27.9
31 Ohio Private 5,674 3,415,924 768,806 829,811 22.5 24.3
31 Ohio Public 1,038 616,424 242,239 295,204 39.3 47.9
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 230 140,515 45,793 49,201 32.6 35.0
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 1,893 1,130,684 461,915 486,164 40.9 43.0
73 Oklahoma Total 2,443 1,143,939 131,539 168,204 11.5 14.7
73 Oklahoma Private 1,981 928,575 84,521 99,681 9.1 10.7
73 Oklahoma Public 462 215,364 47,018 68,523 21.8 31.8
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 119 55,818 9,816 10,104 17.6 18.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 345 154,982 39,058 44,397 25.2 28.6
92 Oregon Total 2,205 998,677 222,878 261,888 22.3 26.2
92 Oregon Private 1,755 800,623 131,228 145,305 16.4 18.2
92 Oregon Public 450 198,054 91,650 116,583 46.3 58.9
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 60 26,402 8,651 9,264 32.8 35.1
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 471 207,037 59,434 61,348 28.7 29.6
23 Pennsylvania Total 6,737 4,346,126 1,195,686 1,349,987 27.5 31.1
23 Pennsylvania Private 5,696 3,683,184 854,975 943,728 23.2 25.6
23 Pennsylvania Public 1,041 662,942 340,711 406,259 51.4 61.3
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 266 177,141 63,702 68,216 36.0 38.5
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,675 1,077,927 455,564 484,596 42.3 45.0
15 Rhode Island Total 1,889 399,721 85,801 93,749 21.5 23.5
15 Rhode Island Private 1,618 342,535 46,857 51,835 13.7 15.1
15 Rhode Island Public 271 57,186 38,944 41,914 68.1 73.3
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 62 13,310 4,276 4,276 32.1 32.1
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 583 122,827 20,701 22,497 16.9 18.3
57 South Carolina Total 1,977 1,175,193 69,566 100,585 5.9 8.6
57 South Carolina Private 1,590 950,463 37,403 55,194 3.9 5.8
57 South Carolina Public 387 224,730 32,163 45,391 14.3 20.2
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 135 83,656 4,197 4,197 5.0 5.0
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 514 295,940 16,291 21,750 5.5 7.3
45 South Dakota Total 2,437 233,171 26,817 34,763 11.5 14.9
45 South Dakota Private 1,801 177,677 14,283 16,017 8.0 9.0
45 South Dakota Public 636 55,494 12,534 18,745 22.6 33.8
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 71 7,380 518 518 7.0 7.0
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 261 27,246 5,182 5,474 19.0 20.1
62 Tennessee Total 2,406 1,668,152 252,358 300,948 15.1 18.0
62 Tennessee Private 1,999 1,385,190 172,429 203,010 12.4 14.7
62 Tennessee Public 407 282,963 79,928 97,939 28.2 34.6
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 109 78,087 12,899 13,585 16.5 17.4
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 715 507,422 108,476 124,957 21.4 24.6
74 Texas Total 8,752 6,010,470 583,715 712,818 9.7 11.9
74 Texas Private 7,357 5,086,767 411,971 479,521 8.1 9.4
74 Texas Public 1,395 923,703 171,744 233,297 18.6 25.3
74 Texas Priv. Construction 712 492,137 65,173 72,174 13.2 14.7
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,402 957,548 153,702 177,463 16.1 18.5
87 Utah Total 2,609 535,063 81,569 100,890 15.2 18.9
87 Utah Private 2,054 423,874 47,921 55,614 11.3 13.1
87 Utah Public 555 111,189 33,648 45,276 30.3 40.7
87 Utah Priv. Construction 166 34,788 9,257 10,095 26.6 29.0
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 383 79,553 11,874 13,455 14.9 16.9
13 Vermont Total 1,873 205,998 25,874 31,484 12.6 15.3
13 Vermont Private 1,573 175,011 11,804 14,567 6.7 8.3
13 Vermont Public 300 30,987 14,071 16,917 45.4 54.6
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 112 12,369 779 1,007 6.3 8.1
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 411 44,683 6,030 6,870 13.5 15.4
54 Virginia Total 3,628 2,291,003 268,307 346,087 11.7 15.1
54 Virginia Private 2,737 1,742,476 177,250 220,749 10.2 12.7
54 Virginia Public 891 548,527 91,057 125,338 16.6 22.9
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 197 128,845 8,613 12,995 6.7 10.1
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 675 437,315 92,538 119,771 21.2 27.4
91 Washington Total 2,480 1,549,392 419,894 499,740 27.1 32.3
91 Washington Private 1,989 1,243,087 273,021 311,143 22.0 25.1
91 Washington Public 491 306,305 146,872 188,598 47.9 61.6
91 Washington Priv. Construction 123 76,810 23,592 26,018 30.7 33.9
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 453 279,274 99,157 112,796 35.5 40.5
55 West Virginia Total 1,729 563,953 142,703 160,644 25.3 28.5
55 West Virginia Private 1,387 452,305 118,152 126,660 26.1 28.0
55 West Virginia Public 342 111,648 24,551 33,984 22.0 30.6
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 74 24,047 8,543 9,142 35.5 38.0
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 301 99,876 41,260 45,465 41.3 45.5
35 Wisconsin Total 3,066 1,955,834 465,467 526,686 23.8 26.9
35 Wisconsin Private 2,561 1,639,362 324,392 355,888 19.8 21.7
35 Wisconsin Public 505 316,473 141,075 170,797 44.6 54.0
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 109 68,746 29,182 30,110 42.4 43.8
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 850 546,595 197,032 212,942 36.0 39.0
83 Wyoming Total 1,731 195,551 27,142 31,763 13.9 16.2
83 Wyoming Private 1,296 144,357 15,050 18,090 10.4 12.5
83 Wyoming Public 435 51,194 12,092 13,673 23.6 26.7
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 110 12,202 1,439 1,648 11.8 13.5
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 77 8,325 1,216 1,415 14.6 17.0
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1983. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.