Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1984 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,430 1,386,723 207,634 247,846 15.0 17.9
63 Alabama Private 1,987 1,134,760 155,364 171,258 13.7 15.1
63 Alabama Public 443 251,963 52,270 76,588 20.7 30.4
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 116 66,154 10,382 10,382 15.7 15.7
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 641 367,141 94,988 102,551 25.9 27.9
94 Alaska Total 2,595 183,264 44,295 51,158 24.2 27.9
94 Alaska Private 1,807 127,556 22,146 24,943 17.4 19.6
94 Alaska Public 788 55,708 22,149 26,215 39.8 47.1
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 208 14,359 5,531 6,281 38.5 43.7
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 127 8,744 1,627 1,706 18.6 19.5
86 Arizona Total 2,107 1,166,820 106,120 139,991 9.1 12.0
86 Arizona Private 1,757 989,053 70,748 89,350 7.2 9.0
86 Arizona Public 350 177,767 35,372 50,641 19.9 28.5
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 165 94,105 14,502 16,326 15.4 17.3
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 304 169,643 13,100 14,464 7.7 8.5
71 Arkansas Total 1,973 794,207 76,008 95,425 9.6 12.0
71 Arkansas Private 1,649 668,012 60,565 71,182 9.1 10.7
71 Arkansas Public 324 126,195 15,443 24,243 12.2 19.2
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 94 36,283 4,330 5,182 11.9 14.3
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 471 191,842 33,730 40,058 17.6 20.9
93 California Total 15,342 10,126,290 2,153,361 2,512,792 21.3 24.8
93 California Private 12,911 8,516,501 1,429,745 1,596,689 16.8 18.7
93 California Public 2,431 1,609,788 723,616 916,103 45.0 56.9
93 California Priv. Construction 677 454,750 152,193 158,553 33.5 34.9
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 3,320 2,155,441 430,661 471,807 20.0 21.9
84 Colorado Total 3,066 1,389,800 180,371 203,365 13.0 14.6
84 Colorado Private 2,499 1,136,707 112,178 123,674 9.9 10.9
84 Colorado Public 567 253,092 68,193 79,691 26.9 31.5
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 194 95,365 17,308 18,588 18.1 19.5
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 424 196,755 24,808 28,948 12.6 14.7
16 Connecticut Total 2,367 1,443,684 293,766 320,301 20.3 22.2
16 Connecticut Private 2,048 1,255,043 170,423 193,085 13.6 15.4
16 Connecticut Public 319 188,640 123,344 127,216 65.4 67.4
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 91 56,093 16,098 16,098 28.7 28.7
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 683 416,937 78,336 90,255 18.8 21.6
51 Delaware Total 2,005 264,024 46,613 51,107 17.7 19.4
51 Delaware Private 1,695 223,436 30,132 32,161 13.5 14.4
51 Delaware Public 310 40,588 16,481 18,945 40.6 46.7
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 119 15,217 2,829 3,079 18.6 20.2
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 464 63,420 15,922 16,806 25.1 26.5
53 D.C. Total 1,760 269,874 47,083 60,068 17.4 22.3
53 D.C. Private 1,089 169,796 24,581 29,845 14.5 17.6
53 D.C. Public 671 100,079 22,503 30,223 22.5 30.2
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 46 6,902 3,312 3,312 48.0 48.0
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 62 9,792 2,435 2,848 24.9 29.1
59 Florida Total 5,665 4,111,012 383,771 523,436 9.3 12.7
59 Florida Private 4,742 3,438,385 204,560 255,249 5.9 7.4
59 Florida Public 923 672,627 179,210 268,188 26.6 39.9
59 Florida Priv. Construction 392 297,338 29,700 31,079 10.0 10.5
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 727 515,956 53,936 66,800 10.5 12.9
58 Georgia Total 3,353 2,336,510 238,012 296,224 10.2 12.7
58 Georgia Private 2,799 1,958,874 190,472 219,029 9.7 11.2
58 Georgia Public 554 377,636 47,540 77,195 12.6 20.4
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 195 142,256 19,590 20,460 13.8 14.4
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 815 553,770 87,252 97,075 15.8 17.5
95 Hawaii Total 1,960 392,019 114,512 126,506 29.2 32.3
95 Hawaii Private 1,478 295,771 63,050 68,947 21.3 23.3
95 Hawaii Public 482 96,248 51,462 57,559 53.5 59.8
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 88 16,664 10,223 10,732 61.3 64.4
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 109 22,148 7,508 8,270 33.9 37.3
82 Idaho Total 2,101 350,141 31,640 39,978 9.0 11.4
82 Idaho Private 1,685 282,379 21,077 25,975 7.5 9.2
82 Idaho Public 416 67,762 10,563 14,003 15.6 20.7
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 105 17,314 2,845 3,277 16.4 18.9
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 299 50,221 8,695 9,549 17.3 19.0
33 Illinois Total 6,727 4,536,709 1,016,852 1,125,912 22.4 24.8
33 Illinois Private 5,686 3,830,268 761,856 816,832 19.9 21.3
33 Illinois Public 1,041 706,441 254,996 309,079 36.1 43.8
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 245 166,472 83,958 85,182 50.4 51.2
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,664 1,117,179 329,182 354,799 29.5 31.8
32 Indiana Total 3,387 2,148,109 539,536 585,843 25.1 27.3
32 Indiana Private 2,888 1,839,437 443,435 469,250 24.1 25.5
32 Indiana Public 499 308,671 96,101 116,593 31.1 37.8
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 126 85,374 31,418 31,418 36.8 36.8
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 1,080 676,416 314,190 331,488 46.4 49.0
42 Iowa Total 2,518 1,061,947 181,182 215,152 17.1 20.3
42 Iowa Private 1,988 838,947 123,369 139,915 14.7 16.7
42 Iowa Public 530 223,000 57,812 75,237 25.9 33.7
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 75 32,384 5,516 5,516 17.0 17.0
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 526 219,624 83,605 92,529 38.1 42.1
47 Kansas Total 2,272 949,393 110,537 150,213 11.6 15.8
47 Kansas Private 1,837 778,663 81,236 101,195 10.4 13.0
47 Kansas Public 435 170,730 29,301 49,018 17.2 28.7
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 111 46,428 7,635 8,252 16.4 17.8
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 434 192,880 38,792 47,675 20.1 24.7
61 Kentucky Total 2,212 1,340,938 225,150 255,395 16.8 19.0
61 Kentucky Private 1,824 1,104,405 189,070 203,087 17.1 18.4
61 Kentucky Public 388 236,533 36,080 52,308 15.3 22.1
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 79 46,329 11,469 12,094 24.8 26.1
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 518 317,095 103,107 107,963 32.5 34.0
72 Louisiana Total 2,208 1,526,765 166,436 205,065 10.9 13.4
72 Louisiana Private 1,726 1,203,441 106,295 122,197 8.8 10.2
72 Louisiana Public 482 323,324 60,141 82,869 18.6 25.7
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 199 138,874 20,698 24,324 14.9 17.5
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 248 170,701 39,387 42,037 23.1 24.6
11 Maine Total 2,197 443,017 84,524 103,001 19.1 23.3
11 Maine Private 1,781 358,568 47,129 53,693 13.1 15.0
11 Maine Public 416 84,449 37,395 49,308 44.3 58.4
11 Maine Priv. Construction 93 20,170 2,208 2,208 10.9 10.9
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 635 124,522 32,233 34,377 25.9 27.6
52 Maryland Total 3,362 1,913,924 350,910 421,894 18.3 22.0
52 Maryland Private 2,452 1,398,999 190,226 217,053 13.6 15.5
52 Maryland Public 910 514,925 160,684 204,842 31.2 39.8
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 163 94,837 18,437 18,970 19.4 20.0
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 389 221,255 62,628 64,694 28.3 29.2
14 Massachusetts Total 5,580 2,609,009 555,859 610,177 21.3 23.4
14 Massachusetts Private 4,761 2,216,259 333,792 365,213 15.1 16.5
14 Massachusetts Public 819 392,750 222,067 244,964 56.5 62.4
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 214 98,990 30,426 30,426 30.7 30.7
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,524 715,254 161,052 173,374 22.5 24.2
34 Michigan Total 5,993 3,447,737 1,004,251 1,085,961 29.1 31.5
34 Michigan Private 5,115 2,939,756 738,109 795,310 25.1 27.1
34 Michigan Public 878 507,982 266,142 290,651 52.4 57.2
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 194 110,178 35,808 36,434 32.5 33.1
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 1,837 1,057,556 480,702 513,385 45.5 48.5
41 Minnesota Total 3,519 1,777,514 406,551 453,788 22.9 25.5
41 Minnesota Private 2,887 1,471,266 257,729 278,876 17.5 19.0
41 Minnesota Public 632 306,248 148,822 174,911 48.6 57.2
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 141 69,292 29,747 30,198 42.9 43.6
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 711 348,571 81,055 87,582 23.3 25.1
64 Mississippi Total 2,014 823,197 79,022 90,055 9.6 10.9
64 Mississippi Private 1,615 661,318 58,544 65,032 8.9 9.8
64 Mississippi Public 399 161,880 20,478 25,023 12.6 15.5
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 113 45,880 6,769 6,769 14.8 14.8
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 515 213,240 35,044 38,849 16.4 18.2
43 Missouri Total 3,037 1,888,294 373,518 421,478 19.8 22.3
43 Missouri Private 2,537 1,579,567 314,428 334,242 19.9 21.2
43 Missouri Public 500 308,727 59,090 87,236 19.1 28.3
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 138 87,384 39,121 39,121 44.8 44.8
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 687 418,985 136,052 145,883 32.5 34.8
81 Montana Total 2,126 281,757 50,758 56,327 18.0 20.0
81 Montana Private 1,631 219,740 29,816 32,267 13.6 14.7
81 Montana Public 495 62,018 20,941 24,060 33.8 38.8
81 Montana Priv. Construction 94 14,220 2,486 2,486 17.5 17.5
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 181 22,292 6,699 6,699 30.1 30.1
46 Nebraska Total 2,201 605,741 82,355 103,021 13.6 17.0
46 Nebraska Private 1,762 485,353 54,659 64,330 11.3 13.3
46 Nebraska Public 439 120,388 27,695 38,692 23.0 32.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 97 27,105 5,169 5,169 19.1 19.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 329 90,783 18,830 23,437 20.7 25.8
88 Nevada Total 2,008 420,440 98,833 114,090 23.5 27.1
88 Nevada Private 1,703 356,337 75,533 83,852 21.2 23.5
88 Nevada Public 305 64,102 23,299 30,238 36.3 47.2
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 122 27,517 10,736 10,970 39.0 39.9
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 98 21,151 3,744 4,582 17.7 21.7
12 New Hampshire Total 1,920 444,223 45,923 55,204 10.3 12.4
12 New Hampshire Private 1,674 388,270 28,278 32,026 7.3 8.2
12 New Hampshire Public 246 55,953 17,646 23,178 31.5 41.4
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 101 22,041 4,259 4,956 19.3 22.5
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 616 144,567 13,358 15,143 9.2 10.5
22 New Jersey Total 5,844 3,262,129 811,028 903,535 24.9 27.7
22 New Jersey Private 4,884 2,725,106 513,075 567,726 18.8 20.8
22 New Jersey Public 960 537,023 297,953 335,809 55.5 62.5
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 222 123,809 37,707 41,466 30.5 33.5
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,404 779,967 221,939 240,875 28.5 30.9
85 New Mexico Total 2,016 485,954 46,648 66,921 9.6 13.8
85 New Mexico Private 1,403 338,922 27,799 33,935 8.2 10.0
85 New Mexico Public 613 147,033 18,850 32,986 12.8 22.4
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 128 30,933 2,569 3,217 8.3 10.4
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 156 38,490 5,342 6,264 13.9 16.3
21 New York Total 10,589 6,747,928 2,170,028 2,405,452 32.2 35.7
21 New York Private 8,525 5,420,914 1,281,660 1,430,791 23.6 26.4
21 New York Public 2,064 1,327,014 888,368 974,661 66.9 73.5
21 New York Priv. Construction 385 246,057 113,256 119,768 46.0 48.7
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 2,052 1,321,788 396,607 431,791 30.0 32.7
56 North Carolina Total 3,878 2,521,452 185,150 228,623 7.3 9.1
56 North Carolina Private 3,244 2,104,730 100,372 118,224 4.8 5.6
56 North Carolina Public 634 416,722 84,778 110,399 20.3 26.5
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 198 131,424 799 799 0.6 0.6
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 1,310 873,037 57,853 65,703 6.6 7.5
44 North Dakota Total 2,111 228,594 28,242 36,350 12.4 15.9
44 North Dakota Private 1,610 175,378 13,972 16,881 8.0 9.6
44 North Dakota Public 501 53,215 14,269 19,470 26.8 36.6
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 92 10,130 2,376 2,466 23.5 24.3
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 146 15,336 2,500 3,979 16.3 25.9
31 Ohio Total 7,063 4,183,616 992,784 1,093,684 23.7 26.1
31 Ohio Private 6,051 3,586,051 753,451 804,474 21.0 22.4
31 Ohio Public 1,012 597,565 239,333 289,209 40.1 48.4
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 223 135,434 42,211 42,747 31.2 31.6
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 2,044 1,207,886 460,202 487,465 38.1 40.4
73 Oklahoma Total 2,519 1,213,668 124,009 150,010 10.2 12.4
73 Oklahoma Private 2,065 992,913 84,557 96,840 8.5 9.8
73 Oklahoma Public 454 220,755 39,451 53,170 17.9 24.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 121 56,072 7,454 7,971 13.3 14.2
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 399 180,251 44,977 50,739 25.0 28.1
92 Oregon Total 2,145 982,823 241,216 274,433 24.5 27.9
92 Oregon Private 1,712 792,594 148,203 165,351 18.7 20.9
92 Oregon Public 433 190,229 93,014 109,082 48.9 57.3
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 57 24,696 6,811 7,181 27.6 29.1
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 481 216,572 64,108 68,489 29.6 31.6
23 Pennsylvania Total 6,948 4,519,022 1,123,013 1,236,884 24.9 27.4
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,021 3,923,247 829,488 887,064 21.1 22.6
23 Pennsylvania Public 927 595,775 293,524 349,821 49.3 58.7
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 291 194,519 58,487 62,827 30.1 32.3
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,843 1,202,559 454,954 475,339 37.8 39.5
15 Rhode Island Total 1,906 418,180 93,882 102,315 22.5 24.5
15 Rhode Island Private 1,620 355,531 49,353 54,207 13.9 15.2
15 Rhode Island Public 286 62,648 44,530 48,108 71.1 76.8
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 59 12,735 3,762 3,762 29.5 29.5
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 610 136,407 23,928 27,011 17.5 19.8
57 South Carolina Total 1,995 1,252,086 51,821 67,261 4.1 5.4
57 South Carolina Private 1,621 1,023,372 35,363 46,978 3.5 4.6
57 South Carolina Public 374 228,715 16,458 20,284 7.2 8.9
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 147 96,832 2,164 4,418 2.2 4.6
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 519 312,878 19,988 25,767 6.4 8.2
45 South Dakota Total 2,522 250,897 26,894 35,216 10.7 14.0
45 South Dakota Private 1,883 189,681 13,669 16,201 7.2 8.5
45 South Dakota Public 639 61,216 13,225 19,015 21.6 31.1
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 102 10,162 1,079 1,173 10.6 11.5
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 309 32,190 5,349 6,395 16.6 19.9
62 Tennessee Total 2,352 1,771,078 236,421 299,247 13.3 16.9
62 Tennessee Private 1,957 1,471,199 163,496 194,253 11.1 13.2
62 Tennessee Public 395 299,879 72,925 104,993 24.3 35.0
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 116 90,877 14,825 16,781 16.3 18.5
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 685 523,918 98,908 115,556 18.9 22.1
74 Texas Total 8,853 6,387,664 499,815 639,002 7.8 10.0
74 Texas Private 7,429 5,382,932 331,402 400,551 6.2 7.4
74 Texas Public 1,424 1,004,732 168,413 238,451 16.8 23.7
74 Texas Priv. Construction 731 528,607 57,466 62,252 10.9 11.8
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,438 1,038,637 118,254 150,238 11.4 14.5
87 Utah Total 2,540 583,184 77,372 99,541 13.3 17.1
87 Utah Private 1,981 458,543 42,005 49,999 9.2 10.9
87 Utah Public 559 124,641 35,367 49,542 28.4 39.7
87 Utah Priv. Construction 176 39,884 6,960 7,175 17.4 18.0
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 400 93,489 12,340 14,561 13.2 15.6
13 Vermont Total 1,885 224,378 25,106 33,312 11.2 14.9
13 Vermont Private 1,572 188,333 12,071 15,411 6.4 8.2
13 Vermont Public 313 36,045 13,036 17,901 36.2 49.7
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 102 12,159 693 942 5.7 7.7
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 439 51,063 7,118 8,570 13.9 16.8
54 Virginia Total 3,498 2,427,627 258,749 341,622 10.7 14.1
54 Virginia Private 2,685 1,879,208 186,100 230,550 9.9 12.3
54 Virginia Public 813 548,420 72,649 111,071 13.2 20.3
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 197 137,471 12,217 13,515 8.9 9.8
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 657 466,426 99,737 124,097 21.4 26.6
91 Washington Total 2,303 1,556,126 398,288 470,722 25.6 30.3
91 Washington Private 1,803 1,212,124 239,729 277,502 19.8 22.9
91 Washington Public 500 344,002 158,559 193,220 46.1 56.2
91 Washington Priv. Construction 100 67,478 20,436 23,020 30.3 34.1
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 411 275,639 108,218 121,788 39.3 44.3
55 West Virginia Total 1,743 583,692 139,661 156,830 23.9 26.9
55 West Virginia Private 1,372 459,579 109,692 116,615 23.9 25.4
55 West Virginia Public 371 124,113 29,969 40,215 24.1 32.4
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 66 20,801 7,496 7,676 36.0 36.9
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 278 95,587 39,877 41,209 41.7 43.1
35 Wisconsin Total 2,917 1,963,693 483,852 532,879 24.6 27.1
35 Wisconsin Private 2,487 1,672,424 343,880 367,125 20.6 22.0
35 Wisconsin Public 430 291,269 139,972 165,754 48.1 56.9
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 113 73,697 24,935 25,571 33.8 34.7
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 807 542,517 213,700 226,008 39.4 41.7
83 Wyoming Total 1,616 197,288 30,404 36,907 15.4 18.7
83 Wyoming Private 1,166 141,740 16,164 19,195 11.4 13.5
83 Wyoming Public 450 55,549 14,240 17,712 25.6 31.9
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 107 13,683 2,095 2,497 15.3 18.2
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 71 8,355 1,829 1,968 21.9 23.6
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1984. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.