Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1985 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 1,898 1,444,755 226,614 254,861 15.7 17.6
63 Alabama Private 1,527 1,154,373 156,023 168,244 13.5 14.6
63 Alabama Public 371 290,382 70,591 86,617 24.3 29.8
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 82 61,695 12,937 14,688 21.0 23.8
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 476 359,881 90,790 95,193 25.2 26.5
94 Alaska Total 2,763 191,067 47,705 53,422 25.0 28.0
94 Alaska Private 1,939 133,415 22,714 24,762 17.0 18.6
94 Alaska Public 824 57,652 24,990 28,660 43.3 49.7
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 203 14,424 4,885 5,357 33.9 37.1
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 142 11,236 2,124 2,190 18.9 19.5
86 Arizona Total 1,791 1,210,792 115,593 145,713 9.5 12.0
86 Arizona Private 1,473 1,006,329 79,151 93,566 7.9 9.3
86 Arizona Public 318 204,463 36,442 52,147 17.8 25.5
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 160 114,021 22,650 24,960 19.9 21.9
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 274 188,606 14,666 17,790 7.8 9.4
71 Arkansas Total 1,938 815,686 91,594 108,423 11.2 13.3
71 Arkansas Private 1,640 690,572 65,362 78,752 9.5 11.4
71 Arkansas Public 298 125,114 26,231 29,671 21.0 23.7
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 95 39,819 3,761 3,761 9.4 9.4
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 487 202,945 41,488 48,778 20.4 24.0
93 California Total 14,553 10,407,706 2,123,121 2,485,763 20.4 23.9
93 California Private 12,230 8,721,580 1,378,224 1,534,746 15.8 17.6
93 California Public 2,323 1,686,126 744,897 951,016 44.2 56.4
93 California Priv. Construction 680 521,788 160,938 166,479 30.8 31.9
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 3,158 2,196,503 408,080 458,091 18.6 20.9
84 Colorado Total 2,305 1,393,892 165,174 191,073 11.8 13.7
84 Colorado Private 1,890 1,156,141 102,491 115,409 8.9 10.0
84 Colorado Public 415 237,751 62,683 75,664 26.4 31.8
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 142 87,485 13,496 13,944 15.4 15.9
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 311 195,568 18,264 21,831 9.3 11.2
16 Connecticut Total 2,440 1,468,633 306,463 325,899 20.9 22.2
16 Connecticut Private 2,137 1,286,515 185,587 200,840 14.4 15.6
16 Connecticut Public 303 182,118 120,876 125,059 66.4 68.7
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 93 55,012 10,164 10,164 18.5 18.5
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 720 434,587 88,526 96,096 20.4 22.1
51 Delaware Total 2,050 275,184 45,618 50,865 16.6 18.5
51 Delaware Private 1,733 232,344 29,770 32,058 12.8 13.8
51 Delaware Public 317 42,841 15,848 18,807 37.0 43.9
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 129 17,534 3,233 3,458 18.4 19.7
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 496 68,188 16,057 17,335 23.5 25.4
53 D.C. Total 1,912 274,109 45,208 58,226 16.5 21.2
53 D.C. Private 1,181 170,170 23,650 28,198 13.9 16.6
53 D.C. Public 731 103,939 21,558 30,028 20.7 28.9
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 54 8,361 1,720 2,433 20.6 29.1
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 72 10,220 2,501 3,177 24.5 31.1
59 Florida Total 7,026 4,332,346 395,169 515,733 9.1 11.9
59 Florida Private 5,929 3,651,653 195,247 239,432 5.3 6.6
59 Florida Public 1,097 680,693 199,922 276,301 29.4 40.6
59 Florida Priv. Construction 532 335,315 28,578 32,630 8.5 9.7
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 895 545,421 44,652 56,066 8.2 10.3
58 Georgia Total 2,598 2,389,005 239,520 273,069 10.0 11.4
58 Georgia Private 2,187 2,018,824 183,056 200,833 9.1 9.9
58 Georgia Public 411 370,181 56,464 72,236 15.3 19.5
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 129 123,718 11,282 11,282 9.1 9.1
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 614 550,083 75,778 85,054 13.8 15.5
95 Hawaii Total 1,794 394,123 109,600 121,204 27.8 30.8
95 Hawaii Private 1,336 294,779 58,042 62,699 19.7 21.3
95 Hawaii Public 458 99,343 51,558 58,505 51.9 58.9
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 88 18,584 7,821 8,214 42.1 44.2
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 100 21,726 7,571 7,714 34.8 35.5
82 Idaho Total 2,145 357,194 41,725 48,436 11.7 13.6
82 Idaho Private 1,729 288,545 28,148 31,142 9.8 10.8
82 Idaho Public 416 68,649 13,576 17,295 19.8 25.2
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 87 15,191 2,609 2,609 17.2 17.2
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 336 56,650 12,172 13,067 21.5 23.1
33 Illinois Total 7,408 4,638,389 1,031,719 1,124,879 22.2 24.3
33 Illinois Private 6,307 3,962,306 762,602 802,550 19.2 20.3
33 Illinois Public 1,101 676,083 269,116 322,329 39.8 47.7
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 255 156,650 81,506 81,506 52.0 52.0
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,722 1,095,657 338,108 351,649 30.9 32.1
32 Indiana Total 3,031 2,237,682 476,651 524,387 21.3 23.4
32 Indiana Private 2,606 1,928,295 400,193 423,428 20.8 22.0
32 Indiana Public 425 309,387 76,458 100,959 24.7 32.6
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 132 101,570 38,271 40,512 37.7 39.9
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 863 641,275 269,379 280,344 42.0 43.7
42 Iowa Total 2,216 1,066,416 181,685 212,806 17.0 20.0
42 Iowa Private 1,798 864,777 125,773 139,449 14.5 16.1
42 Iowa Public 418 201,639 55,912 73,357 27.7 36.4
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 73 37,010 6,720 6,720 18.2 18.2
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 464 223,555 84,259 90,056 37.7 40.3
47 Kansas Total 2,292 1,010,538 128,959 157,311 12.8 15.6
47 Kansas Private 1,906 844,166 95,922 112,249 11.4 13.3
47 Kansas Public 386 166,372 33,037 45,062 19.9 27.1
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 101 44,416 10,628 10,628 23.9 23.9
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 443 197,650 46,786 56,317 23.7 28.5
61 Kentucky Total 2,003 1,330,815 219,179 250,776 16.5 18.8
61 Kentucky Private 1,663 1,108,348 181,497 198,838 16.4 17.9
61 Kentucky Public 340 222,467 37,682 51,939 16.9 23.3
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 78 52,258 8,504 11,912 16.3 22.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 429 281,752 104,603 112,705 37.1 40.0
72 Louisiana Total 2,011 1,541,465 147,949 172,822 9.6 11.2
72 Louisiana Private 1,606 1,236,453 97,412 104,694 7.9 8.5
72 Louisiana Public 405 305,012 50,536 68,128 16.6 22.3
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 147 114,773 12,830 14,433 11.2 12.6
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 243 192,223 41,055 42,688 21.4 22.2
11 Maine Total 1,951 454,044 77,478 90,022 17.1 19.8
11 Maine Private 1,608 375,879 42,217 48,417 11.2 12.9
11 Maine Public 343 78,165 35,261 41,604 45.1 53.2
11 Maine Priv. Construction 95 23,412 2,491 2,788 10.6 11.9
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 485 112,041 29,738 32,011 26.5 28.6
52 Maryland Total 3,151 1,976,818 329,874 412,905 16.7 20.9
52 Maryland Private 2,293 1,439,796 186,689 226,935 13.0 15.8
52 Maryland Public 858 537,022 143,185 185,970 26.7 34.6
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 178 116,875 21,578 22,905 18.5 19.6
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 363 229,276 65,697 72,762 28.7 31.7
14 Massachusetts Total 7,351 2,681,806 495,438 548,414 18.5 20.4
14 Massachusetts Private 6,308 2,298,917 298,573 331,928 13.0 14.4
14 Massachusetts Public 1,043 382,889 196,865 216,487 51.4 56.5
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 294 107,876 26,602 28,816 24.7 26.7
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,918 699,451 141,280 152,555 20.2 21.8
34 Michigan Total 6,892 3,533,006 1,004,466 1,070,995 28.4 30.3
34 Michigan Private 5,862 3,008,267 706,622 758,935 23.5 25.2
34 Michigan Public 1,030 524,739 297,844 312,060 56.8 59.5
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 249 128,760 45,718 48,322 35.5 37.5
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 2,111 1,084,771 458,507 481,350 42.3 44.4
41 Minnesota Total 2,778 1,804,330 407,543 452,666 22.6 25.1
41 Minnesota Private 2,324 1,514,763 252,288 278,066 16.7 18.4
41 Minnesota Public 454 289,567 155,255 174,600 53.6 60.3
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 106 69,717 29,852 29,852 42.8 42.8
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 560 353,570 81,678 89,659 23.1 25.4
64 Mississippi Total 2,093 873,892 81,313 94,546 9.3 10.8
64 Mississippi Private 1,715 716,754 60,071 68,450 8.4 9.6
64 Mississippi Public 378 157,137 21,242 26,096 13.5 16.6
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 95 39,891 4,361 5,130 10.9 12.9
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 524 223,551 33,438 38,805 15.0 17.4
43 Missouri Total 2,898 2,026,305 378,338 418,865 18.7 20.7
43 Missouri Private 2,462 1,715,825 327,200 343,340 19.1 20.0
43 Missouri Public 436 310,480 51,138 75,526 16.5 24.3
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 137 94,440 39,667 41,005 42.0 43.4
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 600 415,515 132,860 141,441 32.0 34.0
81 Montana Total 2,106 295,063 57,270 66,895 19.4 22.7
81 Montana Private 1,580 222,797 33,244 36,433 14.9 16.4
81 Montana Public 526 72,266 24,026 30,462 33.2 42.2
81 Montana Priv. Construction 81 11,871 4,659 4,659 39.2 39.2
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 161 22,465 8,585 8,730 38.2 38.9
46 Nebraska Total 2,169 618,785 78,820 98,992 12.7 16.0
46 Nebraska Private 1,763 504,693 52,099 63,130 10.3 12.5
46 Nebraska Public 406 114,092 26,721 35,862 23.4 31.4
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 93 26,647 5,954 6,526 22.3 24.5
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 332 94,954 21,291 25,921 22.4 27.3
88 Nevada Total 1,806 414,748 89,712 102,139 21.6 24.6
88 Nevada Private 1,517 347,720 67,711 73,971 19.5 21.3
88 Nevada Public 289 67,028 22,002 28,168 32.8 42.0
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 108 24,789 9,522 9,522 38.4 38.4
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 103 23,762 3,249 3,906 13.7 16.4
12 New Hampshire Total 1,769 455,695 48,806 54,754 10.7 12.0
12 New Hampshire Private 1,527 394,138 27,140 29,817 6.9 7.6
12 New Hampshire Public 242 61,557 21,667 24,937 35.2 40.5
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 132 33,815 3,892 4,166 11.5 12.3
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 546 142,169 13,188 14,409 9.3 10.1
22 New Jersey Total 7,370 3,299,772 820,972 937,188 24.9 28.4
22 New Jersey Private 6,182 2,764,440 524,131 596,215 19.0 21.6
22 New Jersey Public 1,188 535,332 296,841 340,973 55.4 63.7
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 321 141,108 52,733 56,313 37.4 39.9
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,726 784,302 223,120 248,104 28.4 31.6
85 New Mexico Total 1,889 491,733 49,381 62,449 10.0 12.7
85 New Mexico Private 1,329 347,716 30,805 33,086 8.9 9.5
85 New Mexico Public 560 144,017 18,576 29,363 12.9 20.4
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 116 31,631 3,601 3,874 11.4 12.2
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 133 36,387 5,529 5,529 15.2 15.2
21 New York Total 12,016 6,960,944 2,102,267 2,298,306 30.2 33.0
21 New York Private 9,660 5,600,562 1,195,264 1,315,988 21.3 23.5
21 New York Public 2,356 1,360,382 907,003 982,319 66.7 72.2
21 New York Priv. Construction 442 256,105 99,326 103,684 38.8 40.5
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 2,261 1,311,252 376,190 406,257 28.7 31.0
56 North Carolina Total 6,517 2,629,597 167,015 209,462 6.4 8.0
56 North Carolina Private 5,534 2,235,233 106,095 126,622 4.7 5.7
56 North Carolina Public 983 394,363 60,920 82,840 15.4 21.0
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 342 135,622 2,781 3,787 2.1 2.8
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 2,111 865,923 60,211 68,801 7.0 7.9
44 North Dakota Total 2,222 243,954 27,867 34,206 11.4 14.0
44 North Dakota Private 1,689 186,643 11,891 14,746 6.4 7.9
44 North Dakota Public 533 57,311 15,975 19,460 27.9 34.0
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 86 9,769 2,205 2,709 22.6 27.7
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 135 14,499 2,529 3,392 17.4 23.4
31 Ohio Total 7,380 4,241,284 998,957 1,090,872 23.6 25.7
31 Ohio Private 6,274 3,606,256 746,986 793,436 20.7 22.0
31 Ohio Public 1,106 635,028 251,972 297,436 39.7 46.8
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 253 144,031 45,415 46,492 31.5 32.3
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 2,068 1,183,604 465,705 489,033 39.3 41.3
73 Oklahoma Total 2,324 1,225,342 128,390 150,992 10.5 12.3
73 Oklahoma Private 1,849 974,788 79,593 91,394 8.2 9.4
73 Oklahoma Public 475 250,554 48,797 59,598 19.5 23.8
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 107 56,863 9,062 9,062 15.9 15.9
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 350 179,431 37,633 41,599 21.0 23.2
92 Oregon Total 1,756 1,020,091 231,576 260,792 22.7 25.6
92 Oregon Private 1,415 825,121 138,051 148,473 16.7 18.0
92 Oregon Public 341 194,970 93,525 112,319 48.0 57.6
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 64 39,344 9,444 10,453 24.0 26.6
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 371 216,195 58,203 61,945 26.9 28.7
23 Pennsylvania Total 7,458 4,624,686 1,055,386 1,174,661 22.8 25.4
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,441 4,000,760 765,635 820,998 19.1 20.5
23 Pennsylvania Public 1,017 623,926 289,751 353,663 46.4 56.7
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 324 202,236 58,960 62,573 29.2 30.9
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,874 1,166,203 408,924 427,577 35.1 36.7
15 Rhode Island Total 1,822 427,545 90,214 97,705 21.1 22.9
15 Rhode Island Private 1,541 362,579 46,079 49,684 12.7 13.7
15 Rhode Island Public 281 64,965 44,135 48,021 67.9 73.9
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 63 15,125 3,373 3,373 22.3 22.3
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 570 134,722 21,770 22,982 16.2 17.1
57 South Carolina Total 2,213 1,300,651 58,771 72,516 4.5 5.6
57 South Carolina Private 1,800 1,062,490 40,422 46,498 3.8 4.4
57 South Carolina Public 413 238,161 18,349 26,017 7.7 10.9
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 164 98,015 3,682 4,362 3.8 4.5
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 620 360,872 24,279 28,118 6.7 7.8
45 South Dakota Total 2,350 250,068 27,904 34,509 11.2 13.8
45 South Dakota Private 1,813 194,216 14,499 17,421 7.5 9.0
45 South Dakota Public 537 55,852 13,406 17,088 24.0 30.6
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 82 8,812 895 895 10.2 10.2
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 275 29,356 5,660 6,520 19.3 22.2
62 Tennessee Total 2,233 1,811,323 236,844 281,797 13.1 15.6
62 Tennessee Private 1,836 1,491,247 162,565 189,888 10.9 12.7
62 Tennessee Public 397 320,076 74,278 91,909 23.2 28.7
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 117 95,171 15,789 16,545 16.6 17.4
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 606 491,779 93,060 108,652 18.9 22.1
74 Texas Total 8,675 6,444,149 474,755 626,238 7.4 9.7
74 Texas Private 7,279 5,438,056 306,770 389,645 5.6 7.2
74 Texas Public 1,396 1,006,093 167,985 236,593 16.7 23.5
74 Texas Priv. Construction 646 494,185 44,988 50,435 9.1 10.2
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,376 1,047,115 102,495 135,811 9.8 13.0
87 Utah Total 2,142 614,900 69,897 91,903 11.4 14.9
87 Utah Private 1,678 481,118 38,496 48,344 8.0 10.0
87 Utah Public 464 133,782 31,401 43,559 23.5 32.6
87 Utah Priv. Construction 118 33,102 6,337 6,867 19.1 20.7
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 334 96,388 8,243 11,132 8.6 11.5
13 Vermont Total 1,723 222,555 28,462 35,442 12.8 15.9
13 Vermont Private 1,434 185,487 13,113 15,339 7.1 8.3
13 Vermont Public 289 37,067 15,349 20,103 41.4 54.2
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 111 14,610 1,081 1,221 7.4 8.4
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 372 48,091 7,172 8,137 14.9 16.9
54 Virginia Total 2,978 2,434,176 235,976 296,665 9.7 12.2
54 Virginia Private 2,296 1,883,993 161,710 193,771 8.6 10.3
54 Virginia Public 682 550,183 74,266 102,894 13.5 18.7
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 180 151,764 9,460 13,589 6.2 9.0
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 501 411,171 76,933 89,551 18.7 21.8
91 Washington Total 1,907 1,622,897 405,812 469,168 25.0 28.9
91 Washington Private 1,473 1,258,797 233,764 264,816 18.6 21.0
91 Washington Public 434 364,100 172,048 204,351 47.3 56.1
91 Washington Priv. Construction 89 79,943 13,538 16,430 16.9 20.6
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 295 254,612 96,279 107,292 37.8 42.1
55 West Virginia Total 1,739 593,198 134,669 148,326 22.7 25.0
55 West Virginia Private 1,353 463,815 102,936 106,222 22.2 22.9
55 West Virginia Public 386 129,383 31,733 42,104 24.5 32.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 75 25,505 8,088 8,374 31.7 32.8
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 279 95,132 38,367 40,178 40.3 42.2
35 Wisconsin Total 2,662 1,952,705 435,912 463,872 22.3 23.8
35 Wisconsin Private 2,251 1,650,440 293,109 304,138 17.8 18.4
35 Wisconsin Public 411 302,265 142,803 159,735 47.2 52.8
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 96 71,378 22,117 22,117 31.0 31.0
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 696 510,484 186,525 192,467 36.5 37.7
83 Wyoming Total 1,718 194,666 26,769 34,191 13.8 17.6
83 Wyoming Private 1,282 146,259 16,327 19,497 11.2 13.3
83 Wyoming Public 436 48,407 10,443 14,694 21.6 30.4
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 124 14,310 1,212 1,321 8.5 9.2
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 66 7,311 1,097 1,097 15.0 15.0
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1985. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.