Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1986 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 1,658 1,501,507 235,561 272,123 15.7 18.1
63 Alabama Private 1,317 1,192,763 157,251 175,814 13.2 14.7
63 Alabama Public 341 308,744 78,310 96,309 25.4 31.2
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 81 76,036 13,991 16,976 18.4 22.3
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 426 382,970 103,149 112,602 26.9 29.4
94 Alaska Total 2,781 198,307 46,082 53,051 23.2 26.8
94 Alaska Private 1,896 131,243 16,933 19,734 12.9 15.0
94 Alaska Public 885 67,064 29,149 33,317 43.5 49.7
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 136 9,146 3,427 3,560 37.5 38.9
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 121 9,259 1,250 1,842 13.5 19.9
86 Arizona Total 1,744 1,295,831 106,323 140,945 8.2 10.9
86 Arizona Private 1,429 1,067,804 58,949 71,074 5.5 6.7
86 Arizona Public 315 228,027 47,374 69,871 20.8 30.6
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 159 121,161 19,392 19,885 16.0 16.4
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 241 180,085 8,877 12,903 4.9 7.2
71 Arkansas Total 2,031 839,306 82,508 103,692 9.8 12.4
71 Arkansas Private 1,658 686,781 64,021 79,695 9.3 11.6
71 Arkansas Public 373 152,526 18,486 23,997 12.1 15.7
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 88 36,636 2,302 2,302 6.3 6.3
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 489 205,232 42,216 52,106 20.6 25.4
93 California Total 13,747 10,889,565 2,177,397 2,515,021 20.0 23.1
93 California Private 11,595 9,163,602 1,390,162 1,540,196 15.2 16.8
93 California Public 2,152 1,725,963 787,236 974,824 45.6 56.5
93 California Priv. Construction 681 581,759 170,070 177,331 29.2 30.5
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,978 2,328,025 440,894 481,669 18.9 20.7
84 Colorado Total 1,955 1,362,999 170,403 201,723 12.5 14.8
84 Colorado Private 1,602 1,120,307 104,763 122,978 9.4 11.0
84 Colorado Public 353 242,691 65,640 78,745 27.0 32.4
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 119 85,692 16,532 16,532 19.3 19.3
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 263 186,145 20,843 27,635 11.2 14.8
16 Connecticut Total 2,356 1,501,340 288,481 310,891 19.2 20.7
16 Connecticut Private 2,075 1,320,507 175,918 189,117 13.3 14.3
16 Connecticut Public 281 180,833 112,563 121,774 62.2 67.3
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 110 70,079 17,590 18,240 25.1 26.0
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 667 429,858 76,901 86,345 17.9 20.1
51 Delaware Total 1,974 285,158 47,768 54,163 16.8 19.0
51 Delaware Private 1,703 245,401 30,220 33,876 12.3 13.8
51 Delaware Public 271 39,758 17,548 20,287 44.1 51.0
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 108 15,158 2,285 2,728 15.1 18.0
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 459 66,941 12,730 14,065 19.0 21.0
53 D.C. Total 1,886 278,722 44,681 57,795 16.0 20.7
53 D.C. Private 1,214 179,231 23,361 29,192 13.0 16.3
53 D.C. Public 672 99,491 21,320 28,603 21.4 28.7
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 59 9,162 3,024 3,024 33.0 33.0
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 70 10,024 1,881 2,449 18.8 24.4
59 Florida Total 7,530 4,612,722 394,913 521,929 8.6 11.3
59 Florida Private 6,321 3,878,489 193,384 234,795 5.0 6.1
59 Florida Public 1,209 734,233 201,529 287,133 27.4 39.1
59 Florida Priv. Construction 566 354,996 28,760 32,783 8.1 9.2
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 900 563,638 53,893 61,174 9.6 10.9
58 Georgia Total 2,235 2,555,297 242,638 297,799 9.5 11.7
58 Georgia Private 1,872 2,140,327 186,791 217,759 8.7 10.2
58 Georgia Public 363 414,969 55,847 80,039 13.5 19.3
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 120 140,135 12,904 14,676 9.2 10.5
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 487 551,324 80,803 84,283 14.7 15.3
95 Hawaii Total 1,751 406,202 118,543 129,411 29.2 31.9
95 Hawaii Private 1,305 302,111 65,045 70,453 21.5 23.3
95 Hawaii Public 446 104,091 53,498 58,958 51.4 56.6
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 67 15,526 8,783 8,979 56.6 57.8
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 98 23,222 7,232 7,765 31.1 33.4
82 Idaho Total 2,052 355,662 42,711 51,423 12.0 14.5
82 Idaho Private 1,653 287,697 29,316 33,345 10.2 11.6
82 Idaho Public 399 67,966 13,394 18,078 19.7 26.6
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 94 16,736 1,867 2,039 11.2 12.2
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 300 53,169 13,108 14,408 24.7 27.1
33 Illinois Total 7,446 4,712,001 1,057,574 1,156,846 22.4 24.6
33 Illinois Private 6,361 4,029,949 761,461 807,528 18.9 20.0
33 Illinois Public 1,085 682,052 296,113 349,318 43.4 51.2
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 293 185,814 94,320 96,133 50.8 51.7
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,666 1,061,410 312,262 327,761 29.4 30.9
32 Indiana Total 2,824 2,293,597 477,837 506,793 20.8 22.1
32 Indiana Private 2,432 1,982,262 398,389 413,839 20.1 20.9
32 Indiana Public 392 311,335 79,448 92,954 25.5 29.9
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 123 103,504 34,752 37,778 33.6 36.5
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 806 653,819 264,271 272,693 40.4 41.7
42 Iowa Total 2,183 1,095,414 160,193 199,296 14.6 18.2
42 Iowa Private 1,771 888,957 106,864 122,691 12.0 13.8
42 Iowa Public 412 206,457 53,329 76,605 25.8 37.1
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 81 40,996 7,592 8,192 18.5 20.0
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 445 223,303 63,926 73,827 28.6 33.1
47 Kansas Total 2,202 981,858 121,237 147,788 12.3 15.1
47 Kansas Private 1,816 811,226 87,433 103,681 10.8 12.8
47 Kansas Public 386 170,632 33,804 44,107 19.8 25.8
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 102 46,060 10,210 10,682 22.2 23.2
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 449 201,947 43,355 53,320 21.5 26.4
61 Kentucky Total 1,915 1,329,659 212,539 234,434 16.0 17.6
61 Kentucky Private 1,575 1,096,059 171,144 179,249 15.6 16.4
61 Kentucky Public 340 233,600 41,395 55,184 17.7 23.6
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 74 53,171 12,617 12,617 23.7 23.7
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 410 284,609 105,571 109,578 37.1 38.5
72 Louisiana Total 1,755 1,537,838 150,908 182,700 9.8 11.9
72 Louisiana Private 1,374 1,205,360 90,637 105,051 7.5 8.7
72 Louisiana Public 381 332,478 60,271 77,649 18.1 23.4
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 109 96,917 12,757 14,830 13.2 15.3
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 225 196,490 35,683 35,683 18.2 18.2
11 Maine Total 1,791 454,926 75,842 85,901 16.7 18.9
11 Maine Private 1,495 379,739 41,926 45,806 11.0 12.1
11 Maine Public 296 75,187 33,916 40,095 45.1 53.3
11 Maine Priv. Construction 89 22,873 1,917 1,917 8.4 8.4
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 440 112,671 30,998 33,198 27.5 29.5
52 Maryland Total 2,890 2,032,754 328,066 414,224 16.1 20.4
52 Maryland Private 2,143 1,509,182 197,788 238,125 13.1 15.8
52 Maryland Public 747 523,572 130,278 176,099 24.9 33.6
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 180 129,689 23,849 27,496 18.4 21.2
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 361 256,762 72,717 80,133 28.3 31.2
14 Massachusetts Total 7,957 2,695,598 473,602 513,167 17.6 19.0
14 Massachusetts Private 6,842 2,314,322 269,288 292,714 11.6 12.6
14 Massachusetts Public 1,115 381,277 204,314 220,453 53.6 57.8
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 344 118,195 25,987 26,738 22.0 22.6
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,928 653,440 112,563 118,319 17.2 18.1
34 Michigan Total 7,237 3,590,520 1,016,678 1,095,487 28.3 30.5
34 Michigan Private 6,122 3,041,043 718,561 767,220 23.6 25.2
34 Michigan Public 1,115 549,478 298,117 328,266 54.3 59.7
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 262 133,886 43,974 44,535 32.8 33.3
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 2,147 1,068,223 453,857 470,619 42.5 44.1
41 Minnesota Total 2,284 1,786,383 385,703 417,975 21.6 23.4
41 Minnesota Private 1,902 1,486,450 224,393 242,507 15.1 16.3
41 Minnesota Public 382 299,933 161,310 175,468 53.8 58.5
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 99 79,099 29,535 30,304 37.3 38.3
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 474 371,768 78,779 84,955 21.2 22.9
64 Mississippi Total 2,140 915,415 84,676 95,007 9.2 10.4
64 Mississippi Private 1,703 730,909 60,622 65,605 8.3 9.0
64 Mississippi Public 437 184,506 24,053 29,402 13.0 15.9
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 101 43,579 2,493 2,493 5.7 5.7
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 522 230,587 35,704 38,835 15.5 16.8
43 Missouri Total 2,695 2,105,463 394,055 431,646 18.7 20.5
43 Missouri Private 2,289 1,795,212 330,229 345,160 18.4 19.2
43 Missouri Public 406 310,252 63,826 86,486 20.6 27.9
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 129 104,039 36,609 36,609 35.2 35.2
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 586 462,381 140,716 145,813 30.4 31.5
81 Montana Total 2,146 289,911 52,148 60,909 18.0 21.0
81 Montana Private 1,569 212,314 28,646 30,912 13.5 14.6
81 Montana Public 577 77,597 23,501 29,996 30.3 38.7
81 Montana Priv. Construction 73 10,093 3,364 3,364 33.3 33.3
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 169 22,795 6,626 6,798 29.1 29.8
46 Nebraska Total 2,231 651,781 72,945 91,054 11.2 14.0
46 Nebraska Private 1,840 538,559 44,792 52,868 8.3 9.8
46 Nebraska Public 391 113,222 28,153 38,186 24.9 33.7
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 84 24,595 4,159 4,955 16.9 20.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 327 95,916 15,870 17,563 16.5 18.3
88 Nevada Total 1,795 443,184 82,877 99,729 18.7 22.5
88 Nevada Private 1,522 377,508 60,992 68,974 16.2 18.3
88 Nevada Public 273 65,675 21,885 30,756 33.3 46.8
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 118 29,275 6,973 6,973 23.8 23.8
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 106 25,585 2,794 3,012 10.9 11.8
12 New Hampshire Total 1,725 485,182 53,438 65,469 11.0 13.5
12 New Hampshire Private 1,489 419,882 29,931 34,051 7.1 8.1
12 New Hampshire Public 236 65,300 23,507 31,418 36.0 48.1
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 125 35,105 2,184 2,490 6.2 7.1
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 517 148,191 14,508 17,155 9.8 11.6
22 New Jersey Total 8,015 3,362,819 783,466 870,909 23.3 25.9
22 New Jersey Private 6,791 2,852,002 501,861 557,352 17.6 19.5
22 New Jersey Public 1,224 510,817 281,605 313,557 55.1 61.4
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 388 164,695 55,765 58,026 33.9 35.2
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,787 761,294 198,176 218,090 26.0 28.6
85 New Mexico Total 1,847 514,930 48,866 61,558 9.5 12.0
85 New Mexico Private 1,332 373,339 26,505 29,140 7.1 7.8
85 New Mexico Public 515 141,591 22,361 32,418 15.8 22.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 110 32,016 3,898 4,190 12.2 13.1
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 125 35,716 3,960 4,545 11.1 12.7
21 New York Total 12,299 7,061,448 2,107,307 2,252,941 29.8 31.9
21 New York Private 9,885 5,693,433 1,198,243 1,279,101 21.0 22.5
21 New York Public 2,414 1,368,016 909,064 973,841 66.5 71.2
21 New York Priv. Construction 516 302,445 117,773 120,048 38.9 39.7
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 2,264 1,300,917 358,712 381,993 27.6 29.4
56 North Carolina Total 7,573 2,691,169 151,563 186,498 5.6 6.9
56 North Carolina Private 6,458 2,297,688 101,433 117,234 4.4 5.1
56 North Carolina Public 1,115 393,481 50,129 69,264 12.7 17.6
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 439 157,999 1,285 1,285 0.8 0.8
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 2,470 881,386 60,252 66,235 6.8 7.5
44 North Dakota Total 2,215 243,061 27,794 34,640 11.4 14.3
44 North Dakota Private 1,719 189,703 14,299 17,135 7.5 9.0
44 North Dakota Public 496 53,358 13,495 17,506 25.3 32.8
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 90 9,965 1,289 1,387 12.9 13.9
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 138 15,093 4,110 4,440 27.2 29.4
31 Ohio Total 7,790 4,347,376 975,276 1,073,525 22.4 24.7
31 Ohio Private 6,616 3,693,570 709,847 757,319 19.2 20.5
31 Ohio Public 1,174 653,807 265,429 316,206 40.6 48.4
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 277 155,062 53,452 55,175 34.5 35.6
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 2,102 1,168,224 438,709 454,962 37.6 38.9
73 Oklahoma Total 2,115 1,228,742 144,954 166,511 11.8 13.6
73 Oklahoma Private 1,647 956,546 82,533 88,717 8.6 9.3
73 Oklahoma Public 468 272,195 62,421 77,794 22.9 28.6
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 83 49,815 7,587 8,854 15.2 17.8
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 297 169,661 37,741 39,189 22.2 23.1
92 Oregon Total 1,637 1,039,266 205,337 236,879 19.8 22.8
92 Oregon Private 1,363 866,306 122,881 134,714 14.2 15.6
92 Oregon Public 274 172,961 82,455 102,165 47.7 59.1
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 46 30,598 5,178 6,519 16.9 21.3
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 320 206,197 44,997 48,235 21.8 23.4
23 Pennsylvania Total 7,597 4,676,590 1,026,557 1,141,071 22.0 24.4
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,579 4,052,800 714,140 771,988 17.6 19.0
23 Pennsylvania Public 1,018 623,790 312,417 369,083 50.1 59.2
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 377 233,543 62,074 69,012 26.6 29.6
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,768 1,098,890 366,706 378,681 33.4 34.5
15 Rhode Island Total 1,875 443,427 91,849 97,322 20.7 21.9
15 Rhode Island Private 1,577 373,618 44,598 48,138 11.9 12.9
15 Rhode Island Public 298 69,810 47,250 49,184 67.7 70.5
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 82 19,936 4,349 4,861 21.8 24.4
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 535 127,409 20,064 21,253 15.7 16.7
57 South Carolina Total 2,395 1,365,186 78,995 91,993 5.8 6.7
57 South Carolina Private 2,002 1,145,258 57,908 66,071 5.1 5.8
57 South Carolina Public 393 219,928 21,087 25,923 9.6 11.8
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 134 77,689 3,025 3,968 3.9 5.1
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 726 420,127 33,612 38,727 8.0 9.2
45 South Dakota Total 2,387 253,152 22,669 31,243 9.0 12.3
45 South Dakota Private 1,909 202,822 12,125 15,769 6.0 7.8
45 South Dakota Public 478 50,330 10,545 15,474 21.0 30.7
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 110 12,123 739 850 6.1 7.0
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 283 30,193 4,153 5,401 13.8 17.9
62 Tennessee Total 2,111 1,868,095 256,607 306,049 13.7 16.4
62 Tennessee Private 1,776 1,572,574 168,654 192,158 10.7 12.2
62 Tennessee Public 335 295,520 87,953 113,891 29.8 38.5
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 120 108,420 16,544 20,045 15.3 18.5
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 588 520,674 104,336 115,334 20.0 22.2
74 Texas Total 8,227 6,538,764 499,369 652,072 7.6 10.0
74 Texas Private 6,879 5,502,349 332,481 409,029 6.0 7.4
74 Texas Public 1,348 1,036,416 166,888 243,043 16.1 23.5
74 Texas Priv. Construction 515 422,233 28,301 31,748 6.7 7.5
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,226 998,800 132,344 160,700 13.3 16.1
87 Utah Total 1,973 618,784 65,881 86,192 10.6 13.9
87 Utah Private 1,552 486,993 32,312 42,647 6.6 8.8
87 Utah Public 421 131,791 33,569 43,546 25.5 33.0
87 Utah Priv. Construction 117 37,026 4,196 5,085 11.3 13.7
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 341 106,001 9,624 11,563 9.1 10.9
13 Vermont Total 1,714 231,916 25,625 33,805 11.0 14.6
13 Vermont Private 1,465 198,585 12,369 15,560 6.2 7.8
13 Vermont Public 249 33,331 13,255 18,245 39.8 54.7
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 108 14,743 880 1,175 6.0 8.0
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 363 49,375 7,211 8,542 14.6 17.3
54 Virginia Total 2,833 2,487,845 221,891 276,670 8.9 11.1
54 Virginia Private 2,208 1,939,755 148,160 176,147 7.6 9.1
54 Virginia Public 625 548,090 73,731 100,523 13.5 18.3
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 151 135,921 7,608 10,207 5.6 7.5
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 486 426,251 63,380 73,777 14.9 17.3
91 Washington Total 1,849 1,710,125 455,193 535,218 26.6 31.3
91 Washington Private 1,445 1,340,757 285,883 332,505 21.3 24.8
91 Washington Public 404 369,367 169,311 202,713 45.8 54.9
91 Washington Priv. Construction 90 85,565 21,327 25,931 24.9 30.3
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 305 285,060 115,124 128,172 40.4 45.0
55 West Virginia Total 1,721 590,354 121,154 135,841 20.5 23.0
55 West Virginia Private 1,367 469,696 97,846 101,814 20.8 21.7
55 West Virginia Public 354 120,657 23,307 34,027 19.3 28.2
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 88 31,018 9,571 9,571 30.9 30.9
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 267 91,351 39,852 42,375 43.6 46.4
35 Wisconsin Total 2,525 1,951,036 443,706 470,754 22.7 24.1
35 Wisconsin Private 2,101 1,626,488 288,202 302,016 17.7 18.6
35 Wisconsin Public 424 324,548 155,504 168,738 47.9 52.0
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 98 75,689 31,536 31,536 41.7 41.7
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 680 533,038 170,612 178,101 32.0 33.4
83 Wyoming Total 1,533 194,364 22,797 27,767 11.7 14.3
83 Wyoming Private 1,122 142,575 13,166 15,354 9.2 10.8
83 Wyoming Public 411 51,789 9,631 12,413 18.6 24.0
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 104 13,149 1,254 1,374 9.5 10.4
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 83 10,382 1,704 1,968 16.4 19.0
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1986. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.