Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1987 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,144 1,549,335 215,846 240,643 13.9 15.5
63 Alabama Private 1,753 1,264,954 142,672 148,171 11.3 11.7
63 Alabama Public 391 284,382 73,174 92,472 25.7 32.5
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 107 80,161 5,243 5,915 6.5 7.4
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 545 392,356 101,385 103,588 25.8 26.4
94 Alaska Total 2,504 188,218 41,749 48,106 22.2 25.6
94 Alaska Private 1,704 125,783 14,921 16,792 11.9 13.4
94 Alaska Public 800 62,435 26,828 31,313 43.0 50.2
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 118 8,585 3,015 3,237 35.1 37.7
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 77 5,505 564 637 10.2 11.6
86 Arizona Total 1,742 1,338,180 82,484 110,032 6.2 8.2
86 Arizona Private 1,431 1,103,857 48,594 59,109 4.4 5.4
86 Arizona Public 311 234,323 33,890 50,923 14.5 21.7
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 152 120,084 11,672 11,672 9.7 9.7
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 246 191,855 10,225 14,054 5.3 7.3
71 Arkansas Total 2,104 853,398 94,081 113,447 11.0 13.3
71 Arkansas Private 1,712 696,036 68,388 80,969 9.8 11.6
71 Arkansas Public 392 157,362 25,693 32,478 16.3 20.6
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 91 38,133 1,260 1,260 3.3 3.3
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 526 219,105 45,956 56,147 21.0 25.6
93 California Total 13,719 11,259,919 2,189,639 2,513,722 19.4 22.3
93 California Private 11,540 9,438,279 1,366,396 1,516,526 14.5 16.1
93 California Public 2,179 1,821,640 823,242 997,196 45.2 54.7
93 California Priv. Construction 647 566,690 156,945 166,213 27.7 29.3
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 2,870 2,315,343 407,913 450,526 17.6 19.5
84 Colorado Total 1,954 1,365,696 157,426 188,471 11.5 13.8
84 Colorado Private 1,576 1,100,612 89,132 100,755 8.1 9.2
84 Colorado Public 378 265,084 68,294 87,716 25.8 33.1
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 109 78,682 12,991 12,991 16.5 16.5
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 263 185,608 20,926 24,528 11.3 13.2
16 Connecticut Total 2,109 1,520,880 281,734 304,864 18.5 20.0
16 Connecticut Private 1,856 1,338,728 166,769 185,867 12.5 13.9
16 Connecticut Public 253 182,152 114,965 118,997 63.1 65.3
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 83 61,021 19,173 19,899 31.4 32.6
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 582 416,334 78,203 85,241 18.8 20.5
51 Delaware Total 1,999 295,973 49,685 53,054 16.8 17.9
51 Delaware Private 1,718 253,526 30,541 32,290 12.0 12.7
51 Delaware Public 281 42,447 19,144 20,764 45.1 48.9
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 126 19,078 3,162 3,305 16.6 17.3
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 463 68,184 13,191 13,832 19.3 20.3
53 D.C. Total 1,933 294,440 42,044 58,461 14.3 19.9
53 D.C. Private 1,238 188,411 19,512 26,483 10.4 14.1
53 D.C. Public 695 106,028 22,532 31,978 21.3 30.2
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 72 11,588 2,227 2,699 19.2 23.3
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 59 9,040 1,614 2,140 17.9 23.7
59 Florida Total 7,973 4,829,981 361,485 494,061 7.5 10.2
59 Florida Private 6,795 4,128,363 186,701 226,638 4.5 5.5
59 Florida Public 1,178 701,619 174,784 267,423 24.9 38.1
59 Florida Priv. Construction 576 358,708 21,448 25,300 6.0 7.1
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 998 619,468 48,191 56,295 7.8 9.1
58 Georgia Total 2,235 2,663,950 253,389 288,793 9.5 10.8
58 Georgia Private 1,850 2,204,671 169,861 189,611 7.7 8.6
58 Georgia Public 385 459,279 83,528 99,182 18.2 21.6
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 139 169,621 10,624 14,494 6.3 8.5
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 476 571,789 86,521 90,125 15.1 15.8
95 Hawaii Total 1,871 426,629 126,586 138,656 29.7 32.5
95 Hawaii Private 1,443 328,573 70,336 77,801 21.4 23.7
95 Hawaii Public 428 98,056 56,250 60,855 57.4 62.1
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 83 19,386 10,182 10,182 52.5 52.5
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 86 19,430 7,991 8,179 41.1 42.1
82 Idaho Total 1,988 347,236 45,696 54,906 13.2 15.8
82 Idaho Private 1,594 280,194 31,044 34,702 11.1 12.4
82 Idaho Public 394 67,042 14,652 20,205 21.9 30.1
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 68 12,054 2,674 2,674 22.2 22.2
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 344 62,221 17,059 18,319 27.4 29.4
33 Illinois Total 7,491 4,770,679 1,065,649 1,161,935 22.3 24.4
33 Illinois Private 6,345 4,046,460 751,295 803,243 18.6 19.9
33 Illinois Public 1,146 724,220 314,354 358,693 43.4 49.5
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 313 203,181 98,194 101,255 48.3 49.8
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,631 1,042,059 313,534 326,210 30.1 31.3
32 Indiana Total 2,674 2,261,972 481,362 515,839 21.3 22.8
32 Indiana Private 2,270 1,918,597 394,549 410,405 20.6 21.4
32 Indiana Public 404 343,374 86,813 105,434 25.3 30.7
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 120 104,743 30,993 32,669 29.6 31.2
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 743 627,109 271,642 277,986 43.3 44.3
42 Iowa Total 2,187 1,099,744 161,842 194,880 14.7 17.7
42 Iowa Private 1,763 887,264 111,496 123,073 12.6 13.9
42 Iowa Public 424 212,480 50,346 71,807 23.7 33.8
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 69 35,840 7,719 8,847 21.5 24.7
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 433 219,870 67,946 74,506 30.9 33.9
47 Kansas Total 2,248 1,005,113 123,940 154,459 12.3 15.4
47 Kansas Private 1,825 817,993 88,002 104,700 10.8 12.8
47 Kansas Public 423 187,120 35,939 49,759 19.2 26.6
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 91 41,035 10,159 11,401 24.8 27.8
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 449 201,451 44,008 54,282 21.8 26.9
61 Kentucky Total 1,917 1,326,566 214,277 237,306 16.2 17.9
61 Kentucky Private 1,599 1,112,102 175,849 183,729 15.8 16.5
61 Kentucky Public 318 214,464 38,427 53,577 17.9 25.0
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 84 60,967 15,707 17,344 25.8 28.4
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 400 275,654 99,702 100,334 36.2 36.4
72 Louisiana Total 1,670 1,554,291 130,260 153,388 8.4 9.9
72 Louisiana Private 1,303 1,220,799 80,468 87,669 6.6 7.2
72 Louisiana Public 367 333,493 49,792 65,719 14.9 19.7
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 94 87,394 13,722 13,722 15.7 15.7
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 201 190,071 29,704 31,660 15.6 16.7
11 Maine Total 1,898 468,976 89,608 99,217 19.1 21.2
11 Maine Private 1,584 391,045 48,718 52,473 12.5 13.4
11 Maine Public 314 77,930 40,890 46,744 52.5 60.0
11 Maine Priv. Construction 114 28,033 3,377 3,377 12.0 12.0
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 442 109,480 30,975 33,640 28.3 30.7
52 Maryland Total 2,877 2,125,362 332,767 401,920 15.7 18.9
52 Maryland Private 2,132 1,582,985 177,006 206,725 11.2 13.1
52 Maryland Public 745 542,377 155,760 195,195 28.7 36.0
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 180 136,605 18,675 21,312 13.7 15.6
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 354 263,515 58,546 63,134 22.2 24.0
14 Massachusetts Total 7,847 2,697,875 478,665 511,454 17.7 19.0
14 Massachusetts Private 6,772 2,331,131 264,400 282,763 11.3 12.1
14 Massachusetts Public 1,075 366,744 214,266 228,690 58.4 62.4
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 355 124,892 25,663 27,576 20.5 22.1
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,876 643,462 104,665 108,926 16.3 16.9
34 Michigan Total 7,549 3,753,480 997,403 1,064,904 26.6 28.4
34 Michigan Private 6,434 3,206,451 690,745 739,296 21.5 23.1
34 Michigan Public 1,115 547,029 306,658 325,608 56.1 59.5
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 265 135,108 35,507 38,633 26.3 28.6
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 2,119 1,057,027 430,382 445,898 40.7 42.2
41 Minnesota Total 2,112 1,785,715 411,936 438,272 23.1 24.5
41 Minnesota Private 1,743 1,479,738 237,369 249,870 16.0 16.9
41 Minnesota Public 369 305,977 174,567 188,402 57.1 61.6
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 90 77,950 25,953 26,729 33.3 34.3
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 437 370,559 76,235 81,809 20.6 22.1
64 Mississippi Total 2,146 945,687 83,957 101,245 8.9 10.7
64 Mississippi Private 1,692 747,336 59,175 65,070 7.9 8.7
64 Mississippi Public 454 198,351 24,782 36,174 12.5 18.2
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 102 45,714 3,047 3,047 6.7 6.7
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 524 235,101 34,829 39,098 14.8 16.6
43 Missouri Total 2,602 2,118,293 374,203 409,463 17.7 19.3
43 Missouri Private 2,195 1,790,213 303,933 320,281 17.0 17.9
43 Missouri Public 407 328,080 70,269 89,182 21.4 27.2
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 118 100,444 36,123 36,123 36.0 36.0
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 542 442,831 116,534 124,089 26.3 28.0
81 Montana Total 2,138 287,822 50,953 58,797 17.7 20.4
81 Montana Private 1,591 213,777 24,735 27,745 11.6 13.0
81 Montana Public 547 74,045 26,218 31,052 35.4 41.9
81 Montana Priv. Construction 80 10,972 2,564 2,993 23.4 27.3
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 163 21,901 5,448 5,751 24.9 26.3
46 Nebraska Total 2,268 627,547 70,073 92,734 11.2 14.8
46 Nebraska Private 1,836 510,252 34,954 44,510 6.9 8.7
46 Nebraska Public 432 117,295 35,119 48,224 29.9 41.1
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 90 25,498 2,566 3,171 10.1 12.4
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 376 106,632 15,793 20,177 14.8 18.9
88 Nevada Total 1,822 468,625 85,852 100,066 18.3 21.4
88 Nevada Private 1,537 396,686 61,065 67,154 15.4 16.9
88 Nevada Public 285 71,940 24,788 32,912 34.5 45.7
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 102 26,779 7,287 7,518 27.2 28.1
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 106 27,293 1,946 1,946 7.1 7.1
12 New Hampshire Total 1,854 507,780 50,019 58,723 9.9 11.6
12 New Hampshire Private 1,615 444,229 26,678 29,373 6.0 6.6
12 New Hampshire Public 239 63,552 23,341 29,350 36.7 46.2
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 141 39,110 2,469 2,469 6.3 6.3
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 545 151,429 11,250 12,046 7.4 8.0
22 New Jersey Total 7,914 3,432,438 824,283 903,639 24.0 26.3
22 New Jersey Private 6,682 2,904,197 523,958 571,119 18.0 19.7
22 New Jersey Public 1,232 528,241 300,325 332,520 56.9 62.9
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 375 163,745 62,807 63,849 38.4 39.0
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,703 745,307 196,168 208,231 26.3 27.9
85 New Mexico Total 1,847 510,763 43,965 58,540 8.6 11.5
85 New Mexico Private 1,331 369,357 24,037 27,620 6.5 7.5
85 New Mexico Public 516 141,406 19,928 30,920 14.1 21.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 123 34,741 3,904 4,754 11.2 13.7
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 140 39,800 4,475 5,045 11.2 12.7
21 New York Total 12,225 7,212,718 2,124,099 2,262,800 29.4 31.4
21 New York Private 9,854 5,831,457 1,191,504 1,283,069 20.4 22.0
21 New York Public 2,371 1,381,261 932,595 979,730 67.5 70.9
21 New York Priv. Construction 522 309,174 115,347 118,245 37.3 38.2
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 2,126 1,252,542 334,995 353,274 26.7 28.2
56 North Carolina Total 7,873 2,810,884 156,281 194,205 5.6 6.9
56 North Carolina Private 6,731 2,401,830 99,100 117,697 4.1 4.9
56 North Carolina Public 1,142 409,054 57,181 76,508 14.0 18.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 437 158,292 2,564 3,922 1.6 2.5
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 2,475 882,103 52,134 58,183 5.9 6.6
44 North Dakota Total 2,233 237,556 29,317 38,024 12.3 16.0
44 North Dakota Private 1,714 182,684 13,886 16,887 7.6 9.2
44 North Dakota Public 519 54,872 15,431 21,136 28.1 38.5
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 94 9,997 2,124 2,356 21.2 23.6
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 134 14,123 2,690 3,107 19.0 22.0
31 Ohio Total 7,875 4,418,396 1,007,884 1,094,509 22.8 24.8
31 Ohio Private 6,701 3,757,959 731,749 775,654 19.5 20.6
31 Ohio Public 1,174 660,437 276,136 318,855 41.8 48.3
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 314 177,501 63,975 65,186 36.0 36.7
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 2,123 1,189,342 437,856 457,114 36.8 38.4
73 Oklahoma Total 1,958 1,226,451 130,838 140,669 10.7 11.5
73 Oklahoma Private 1,536 972,175 74,311 76,026 7.6 7.8
73 Oklahoma Public 422 254,276 56,527 64,644 22.2 25.4
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 84 52,788 8,468 8,468 16.0 16.0
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 279 175,185 32,402 32,909 18.5 18.8
92 Oregon Total 1,735 1,076,648 211,582 254,114 19.7 23.6
92 Oregon Private 1,434 891,664 124,204 142,708 13.9 16.0
92 Oregon Public 301 184,984 87,378 111,407 47.2 60.2
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 50 31,564 9,555 10,226 30.3 32.4
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 330 205,734 48,184 52,964 23.4 25.7
23 Pennsylvania Total 7,498 4,783,938 1,051,193 1,162,645 22.0 24.3
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,498 4,143,780 735,916 792,773 17.8 19.1
23 Pennsylvania Public 1,000 640,158 315,277 369,872 49.2 57.8
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 397 257,988 74,404 78,180 28.8 30.3
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,654 1,054,287 361,288 376,117 34.3 35.7
15 Rhode Island Total 1,776 450,559 95,606 99,015 21.2 22.0
15 Rhode Island Private 1,500 381,339 49,514 51,565 13.0 13.5
15 Rhode Island Public 276 69,220 46,092 47,450 66.6 68.5
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 89 23,504 7,259 7,506 30.9 31.9
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 506 129,639 20,196 20,833 15.6 16.1
57 South Carolina Total 2,571 1,399,243 69,757 81,800 5.0 5.8
57 South Carolina Private 2,131 1,161,858 51,363 57,176 4.4 4.9
57 South Carolina Public 440 237,384 18,394 24,624 7.7 10.4
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 138 76,880 2,921 2,921 3.8 3.8
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 767 420,364 27,206 30,556 6.5 7.3
45 South Dakota Total 2,478 255,984 20,108 27,840 7.9 10.9
45 South Dakota Private 1,982 205,578 9,971 12,091 4.9 5.9
45 South Dakota Public 496 50,406 10,137 15,749 20.1 31.2
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 78 7,980 0 0 0.0 0.0
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 300 31,567 2,620 3,256 8.3 10.3
62 Tennessee Total 2,199 1,941,044 235,283 288,069 12.1 14.8
62 Tennessee Private 1,832 1,619,146 161,719 186,195 10.0 11.5
62 Tennessee Public 367 321,898 73,564 101,874 22.9 31.6
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 137 122,022 14,691 14,691 12.0 12.0
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 580 511,901 93,895 106,667 18.3 20.8
74 Texas Total 8,086 6,758,220 440,152 569,778 6.5 8.4
74 Texas Private 6,682 5,620,049 291,618 359,535 5.2 6.4
74 Texas Public 1,404 1,138,171 148,534 210,244 13.1 18.5
74 Texas Priv. Construction 467 403,705 18,524 25,103 4.6 6.2
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,164 998,648 120,818 145,166 12.1 14.5
87 Utah Total 1,997 621,339 62,950 87,991 10.1 14.2
87 Utah Private 1,554 484,531 24,223 32,164 5.0 6.6
87 Utah Public 443 136,808 38,727 55,828 28.3 40.8
87 Utah Priv. Construction 89 28,197 2,238 2,548 7.9 9.0
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 310 96,659 6,181 8,599 6.4 8.9
13 Vermont Total 1,786 239,432 26,698 31,544 11.2 13.2
13 Vermont Private 1,525 204,990 11,185 13,428 5.5 6.6
13 Vermont Public 261 34,441 15,512 18,116 45.0 52.6
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 127 17,269 589 847 3.4 4.9
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 370 49,974 5,682 6,058 11.4 12.1
54 Virginia Total 2,998 2,598,656 233,061 280,010 9.0 10.8
54 Virginia Private 2,346 2,033,310 148,064 172,799 7.3 8.5
54 Virginia Public 652 565,346 84,997 107,211 15.0 19.0
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 171 150,861 10,401 11,256 6.9 7.5
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 485 415,424 66,154 77,505 15.9 18.7
91 Washington Total 1,964 1,761,698 414,025 475,802 23.5 27.0
91 Washington Private 1,549 1,394,244 254,045 283,181 18.2 20.3
91 Washington Public 415 367,454 159,980 192,621 43.5 52.4
91 Washington Priv. Construction 86 79,110 22,950 25,936 29.0 32.8
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 336 308,932 102,179 109,621 33.1 35.5
55 West Virginia Total 1,789 604,905 130,908 148,353 21.6 24.5
55 West Virginia Private 1,403 474,112 99,808 105,441 21.1 22.2
55 West Virginia Public 386 130,793 31,101 42,912 23.8 32.8
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 88 30,410 9,234 9,887 30.4 32.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 310 105,078 42,355 43,397 40.3 41.3
35 Wisconsin Total 2,632 2,034,711 434,702 459,883 21.4 22.6
35 Wisconsin Private 2,219 1,717,102 287,862 298,647 16.8 17.4
35 Wisconsin Public 413 317,609 146,840 161,236 46.2 50.8
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 102 79,549 27,256 28,042 34.3 35.3
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 693 536,137 179,214 182,387 33.4 34.0
83 Wyoming Total 1,425 187,801 25,759 29,908 13.7 15.9
83 Wyoming Private 1,048 137,998 13,976 15,684 10.1 11.4
83 Wyoming Public 377 49,803 11,783 14,224 23.7 28.6
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 67 8,760 569 707 6.5 8.1
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 78 10,862 1,466 1,466 13.5 13.5
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1987. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.