Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1988 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,121 1,554,867 220,543 249,440 14.2 16.0
63 Alabama Private 1,685 1,234,548 144,065 157,338 11.7 12.7
63 Alabama Public 436 320,318 76,478 92,102 23.9 28.8
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 115 83,578 10,882 10,882 13.0 13.0
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 489 354,019 86,685 92,285 24.5 26.1
94 Alaska Total 2,497 185,979 45,145 49,869 24.3 26.8
94 Alaska Private 1,702 125,096 16,879 19,179 13.5 15.3
94 Alaska Public 795 60,882 28,266 30,690 46.4 50.4
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 103 7,464 2,382 2,717 31.9 36.4
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 77 5,623 924 924 16.4 16.4
86 Arizona Total 1,840 1,363,442 94,288 117,975 6.9 8.7
86 Arizona Private 1,539 1,138,642 55,739 64,245 4.9 5.6
86 Arizona Public 301 224,800 38,549 53,730 17.1 23.9
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 126 95,631 13,056 13,798 13.7 14.4
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 256 191,088 9,396 10,742 4.9 5.6
71 Arkansas Total 2,176 892,417 85,601 104,704 9.6 11.7
71 Arkansas Private 1,787 734,000 59,415 74,600 8.1 10.2
71 Arkansas Public 389 158,417 26,186 30,104 16.5 19.0
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 104 42,207 2,806 2,806 6.6 6.6
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 516 214,683 41,017 52,616 19.1 24.5
93 California Total 9,679 11,642,848 2,150,115 2,510,460 18.5 21.6
93 California Private 8,067 9,770,353 1,257,397 1,397,428 12.9 14.3
93 California Public 1,612 1,872,495 892,718 1,113,032 47.7 59.4
93 California Priv. Construction 515 634,134 165,807 180,801 26.1 28.5
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,855 2,321,150 361,384 395,719 15.6 17.0
84 Colorado Total 1,917 1,390,723 146,191 172,760 10.5 12.4
84 Colorado Private 1,536 1,117,032 80,004 93,153 7.2 8.3
84 Colorado Public 381 273,691 66,187 79,607 24.2 29.1
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 80 57,462 11,336 11,336 19.7 19.7
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 284 201,947 21,491 24,289 10.6 12.0
16 Connecticut Total 1,929 1,543,668 299,499 316,561 19.4 20.5
16 Connecticut Private 1,684 1,348,649 175,722 186,591 13.0 13.8
16 Connecticut Public 245 195,018 123,777 129,971 63.5 66.6
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 114 90,432 22,265 22,265 24.6 24.6
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 499 391,776 73,993 78,605 18.9 20.1
51 Delaware Total 2,065 310,679 48,641 52,080 15.7 16.8
51 Delaware Private 1,758 264,862 28,639 30,451 10.8 11.5
51 Delaware Public 307 45,817 20,002 21,628 43.7 47.2
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 111 17,369 2,501 2,681 14.4 15.4
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 429 64,663 14,211 14,633 22.0 22.6
53 D.C. Total 1,992 296,623 44,178 56,932 14.9 19.2
53 D.C. Private 1,228 182,270 19,162 23,749 10.5 13.0
53 D.C. Public 764 114,353 25,016 33,183 21.9 29.0
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 57 8,627 2,674 2,992 31.0 34.7
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 63 9,311 450 975 4.8 10.5
59 Florida Total 8,196 5,045,206 393,815 539,520 7.8 10.7
59 Florida Private 6,944 4,282,116 190,819 241,239 4.5 5.6
59 Florida Public 1,252 763,090 202,996 298,281 26.6 39.1
59 Florida Priv. Construction 616 390,704 16,825 22,699 4.3 5.8
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 982 604,972 37,468 49,454 6.2 8.2
58 Georgia Total 2,229 2,659,400 280,593 330,627 10.6 12.4
58 Georgia Private 1,865 2,226,061 202,360 221,933 9.1 10.0
58 Georgia Public 364 433,340 78,233 108,694 18.1 25.1
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 127 157,093 17,670 17,670 11.2 11.2
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 489 587,560 84,720 92,707 14.4 15.8
95 Hawaii Total 1,842 441,549 134,465 145,369 30.5 32.9
95 Hawaii Private 1,405 336,573 72,282 80,522 21.5 23.9
95 Hawaii Public 437 104,976 62,183 64,847 59.2 61.8
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 96 22,111 9,830 10,302 44.5 46.6
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 93 22,324 9,384 9,888 42.0 44.3
82 Idaho Total 2,136 374,357 42,321 50,906 11.3 13.6
82 Idaho Private 1,692 299,121 28,638 32,200 9.6 10.8
82 Idaho Public 444 75,235 13,683 18,706 18.2 24.9
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 88 16,074 1,927 1,927 12.0 12.0
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 385 68,430 17,725 18,565 25.9 27.1
33 Illinois Total 7,556 4,840,746 1,031,205 1,120,211 21.3 23.1
33 Illinois Private 6,426 4,129,036 722,392 771,854 17.5 18.7
33 Illinois Public 1,130 711,711 308,813 348,357 43.4 48.9
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 330 211,985 102,588 106,253 48.4 50.1
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,612 1,035,712 274,160 290,069 26.5 28.0
32 Indiana Total 2,366 2,361,316 485,597 529,933 20.6 22.4
32 Indiana Private 2,016 2,021,186 407,557 424,394 20.2 21.0
32 Indiana Public 350 340,129 78,039 105,539 22.9 31.0
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 99 93,950 29,248 31,489 31.1 33.5
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 684 674,876 290,742 298,260 43.1 44.2
42 Iowa Total 2,268 1,157,457 168,441 212,511 14.6 18.4
42 Iowa Private 1,842 941,922 110,684 125,116 11.8 13.3
42 Iowa Public 426 215,535 57,757 87,395 26.8 40.5
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 81 42,238 9,261 10,878 21.9 25.8
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 484 250,167 72,889 77,626 29.1 31.0
47 Kansas Total 2,248 1,043,347 127,029 148,590 12.2 14.2
47 Kansas Private 1,820 845,247 88,876 98,648 10.5 11.7
47 Kansas Public 428 198,100 38,153 49,942 19.3 25.2
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 78 36,370 8,406 8,406 23.1 23.1
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 439 203,629 43,420 49,540 21.3 24.3
61 Kentucky Total 1,926 1,382,978 228,042 251,129 16.5 18.2
61 Kentucky Private 1,615 1,164,070 184,181 192,540 15.8 16.5
61 Kentucky Public 311 218,908 43,861 58,589 20.0 26.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 107 78,160 13,098 13,702 16.8 17.5
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 413 300,546 108,975 113,119 36.3 37.6
72 Louisiana Total 1,666 1,518,785 145,438 167,956 9.6 11.1
72 Louisiana Private 1,346 1,233,058 95,880 103,845 7.8 8.4
72 Louisiana Public 320 285,727 49,557 64,110 17.3 22.4
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 109 105,484 18,422 19,205 17.5 18.2
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 182 167,028 36,187 38,058 21.7 22.8
11 Maine Total 1,934 491,653 81,545 90,973 16.6 18.5
11 Maine Private 1,641 416,572 41,311 46,856 9.9 11.2
11 Maine Public 293 75,081 40,234 44,117 53.6 58.8
11 Maine Priv. Construction 117 30,535 2,734 2,976 9.0 9.7
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 464 116,862 26,990 29,696 23.1 25.4
52 Maryland Total 2,261 2,130,264 330,576 397,967 15.5 18.7
52 Maryland Private 1,693 1,589,386 164,741 194,920 10.4 12.3
52 Maryland Public 568 540,879 165,835 203,047 30.7 37.5
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 149 141,333 21,076 21,076 14.9 14.9
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 266 247,140 47,830 53,655 19.4 21.7
14 Massachusetts Total 7,781 2,754,979 508,600 540,224 18.5 19.6
14 Massachusetts Private 6,668 2,366,543 280,413 300,388 11.8 12.7
14 Massachusetts Public 1,113 388,435 228,187 239,836 58.7 61.7
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 363 130,556 31,511 32,663 24.1 25.0
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,773 628,185 105,056 109,842 16.7 17.5
34 Michigan Total 7,523 3,790,660 1,009,184 1,084,478 26.6 28.6
34 Michigan Private 6,378 3,225,535 697,901 742,741 21.6 23.0
34 Michigan Public 1,145 565,124 311,283 341,738 55.1 60.5
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 286 146,438 49,338 52,983 33.7 36.2
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 2,111 1,069,578 432,269 446,067 40.4 41.7
41 Minnesota Total 2,221 1,908,900 392,396 429,816 20.6 22.5
41 Minnesota Private 1,858 1,601,382 233,822 254,493 14.6 15.9
41 Minnesota Public 363 307,518 158,575 175,323 51.6 57.0
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 86 74,968 31,059 31,942 41.4 42.6
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 433 371,445 76,759 85,940 20.7 23.1
64 Mississippi Total 2,142 931,095 70,381 83,501 7.6 9.0
64 Mississippi Private 1,731 756,530 50,617 56,278 6.7 7.4
64 Mississippi Public 411 174,565 19,764 27,222 11.3 15.6
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 110 49,750 4,640 4,640 9.3 9.3
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 522 226,625 29,651 32,565 13.1 14.4
43 Missouri Total 2,234 2,146,850 359,818 404,507 16.8 18.8
43 Missouri Private 1,871 1,808,390 276,767 293,960 15.3 16.3
43 Missouri Public 363 338,460 83,051 110,547 24.5 32.7
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 84 82,312 29,385 29,385 35.7 35.7
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 455 433,496 101,879 108,121 23.5 24.9
81 Montana Total 2,176 292,683 51,859 59,523 17.7 20.3
81 Montana Private 1,597 214,679 24,834 27,028 11.6 12.6
81 Montana Public 579 78,004 27,025 32,495 34.6 41.7
81 Montana Priv. Construction 71 9,975 2,364 2,829 23.7 28.4
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 190 25,981 6,798 6,918 26.2 26.6
46 Nebraska Total 2,302 654,775 76,564 110,900 11.7 16.9
46 Nebraska Private 1,873 532,994 40,469 58,694 7.6 11.0
46 Nebraska Public 429 121,781 36,095 52,206 29.6 42.9
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 93 26,741 1,591 2,731 5.9 10.2
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 342 97,996 17,044 22,788 17.4 23.3
88 Nevada Total 2,038 497,307 90,028 103,945 18.1 20.9
88 Nevada Private 1,751 428,981 66,452 74,308 15.5 17.3
88 Nevada Public 287 68,326 23,576 29,637 34.5 43.4
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 137 34,122 9,919 10,554 29.1 30.9
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 136 32,796 1,971 1,971 6.0 6.0
12 New Hampshire Total 1,779 500,669 51,171 60,774 10.2 12.1
12 New Hampshire Private 1,566 442,277 28,649 32,699 6.5 7.4
12 New Hampshire Public 213 58,392 22,521 28,075 38.6 48.1
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 137 40,741 2,680 3,469 6.6 8.5
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 502 143,240 13,270 15,403 9.3 10.8
22 New Jersey Total 7,641 3,426,028 817,376 893,081 23.9 26.1
22 New Jersey Private 6,427 2,887,584 521,286 564,642 18.1 19.6
22 New Jersey Public 1,214 538,444 296,090 328,438 55.0 61.0
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 365 162,144 55,999 55,999 34.5 34.5
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,511 685,490 176,996 189,555 25.8 27.7
85 New Mexico Total 1,880 534,755 44,755 58,344 8.4 10.9
85 New Mexico Private 1,381 393,188 28,610 33,610 7.3 8.5
85 New Mexico Public 499 141,566 16,144 24,734 11.4 17.5
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 101 29,502 2,715 2,715 9.2 9.2
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 163 46,756 4,797 5,106 10.3 10.9
21 New York Total 8,942 7,231,093 2,031,878 2,163,198 28.1 29.9
21 New York Private 7,249 5,886,412 1,122,901 1,206,647 19.1 20.5
21 New York Public 1,693 1,344,681 908,977 956,551 67.6 71.1
21 New York Priv. Construction 437 367,782 131,828 134,320 35.8 36.5
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,543 1,227,767 302,340 317,684 24.6 25.9
56 North Carolina Total 8,026 2,863,366 181,476 218,166 6.3 7.6
56 North Carolina Private 6,834 2,442,187 105,417 126,603 4.3 5.2
56 North Carolina Public 1,192 421,179 76,059 91,562 18.1 21.7
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 479 174,675 4,131 4,131 2.4 2.4
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 2,492 892,383 55,500 66,225 6.2 7.4
44 North Dakota Total 2,305 244,750 27,883 38,288 11.4 15.6
44 North Dakota Private 1,740 184,903 12,528 16,670 6.8 9.0
44 North Dakota Public 565 59,847 15,355 21,618 25.7 36.1
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 98 10,437 2,343 2,457 22.5 23.5
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 139 14,966 2,870 3,553 19.2 23.7
31 Ohio Total 7,928 4,481,421 1,001,849 1,089,609 22.4 24.3
31 Ohio Private 6,735 3,806,133 708,853 750,894 18.6 19.7
31 Ohio Public 1,193 675,288 292,997 338,715 43.4 50.2
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 327 190,028 49,546 52,673 26.1 27.7
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 2,092 1,178,641 416,566 434,481 35.3 36.9
73 Oklahoma Total 1,980 1,205,991 119,016 133,188 9.9 11.0
73 Oklahoma Private 1,558 961,693 72,296 78,229 7.5 8.1
73 Oklahoma Public 422 244,298 46,720 54,958 19.1 22.5
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 67 40,842 4,850 4,850 11.9 11.9
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 308 187,526 34,879 36,634 18.6 19.5
92 Oregon Total 1,699 1,102,634 228,837 264,009 20.8 23.9
92 Oregon Private 1,409 916,549 138,704 150,948 15.1 16.5
92 Oregon Public 290 186,085 90,133 113,062 48.4 60.8
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 55 36,178 8,209 9,020 22.7 24.9
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 356 230,281 55,954 57,260 24.3 24.9
23 Pennsylvania Total 7,669 4,907,112 1,036,111 1,143,820 21.1 23.3
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,633 4,237,885 711,755 771,523 16.8 18.2
23 Pennsylvania Public 1,036 669,227 324,356 372,298 48.5 55.6
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 358 232,821 55,479 57,326 23.8 24.6
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,709 1,088,549 347,430 361,661 31.9 33.2
15 Rhode Island Total 1,797 455,939 90,421 93,528 19.8 20.5
15 Rhode Island Private 1,537 390,671 46,670 49,121 11.9 12.6
15 Rhode Island Public 260 65,268 43,750 44,406 67.0 68.0
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 75 18,447 5,634 5,634 30.5 30.5
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 475 121,622 19,596 20,348 16.1 16.7
57 South Carolina Total 2,560 1,416,577 72,526 93,618 5.1 6.6
57 South Carolina Private 2,101 1,163,813 48,124 58,776 4.1 5.1
57 South Carolina Public 459 252,764 24,403 34,842 9.7 13.8
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 123 70,046 3,429 3,930 4.9 5.6
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 789 437,859 27,419 35,956 6.3 8.2
45 South Dakota Total 2,400 256,628 22,902 28,296 8.9 11.0
45 South Dakota Private 1,901 203,298 10,155 12,039 5.0 5.9
45 South Dakota Public 499 53,330 12,747 16,257 23.9 30.5
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 71 8,191 655 655 8.0 8.0
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 302 32,706 2,985 4,033 9.1 12.3
62 Tennessee Total 2,135 1,952,922 239,556 286,666 12.3 14.7
62 Tennessee Private 1,781 1,632,192 158,712 179,386 9.7 11.0
62 Tennessee Public 354 320,729 80,844 107,279 25.2 33.4
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 134 123,264 9,936 10,816 8.1 8.8
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 563 520,531 89,127 101,221 17.1 19.4
74 Texas Total 8,392 6,836,193 474,655 611,163 6.9 8.9
74 Texas Private 6,847 5,613,976 276,765 345,850 4.9 6.2
74 Texas Public 1,545 1,222,217 197,890 265,313 16.2 21.7
74 Texas Priv. Construction 429 357,479 35,767 38,056 10.0 10.6
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,285 1,079,684 119,056 143,256 11.0 13.3
87 Utah Total 1,992 617,705 75,632 95,700 12.2 15.5
87 Utah Private 1,512 469,614 28,661 33,495 6.1 7.1
87 Utah Public 480 148,091 46,972 62,205 31.7 42.0
87 Utah Priv. Construction 73 22,702 3,132 3,423 13.8 15.1
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 339 106,014 7,652 9,525 7.2 9.0
13 Vermont Total 1,746 243,192 25,894 34,475 10.6 14.2
13 Vermont Private 1,479 206,182 10,795 14,127 5.2 6.9
13 Vermont Public 267 37,010 15,099 20,348 40.8 55.0
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 120 17,105 440 440 2.6 2.6
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 361 50,507 6,581 7,762 13.0 15.4
54 Virginia Total 2,999 2,712,936 248,623 308,798 9.2 11.4
54 Virginia Private 2,358 2,135,015 157,370 189,623 7.4 8.9
54 Virginia Public 641 577,921 91,253 119,175 15.8 20.6
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 177 161,529 10,293 10,293 6.4 6.4
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 469 421,944 56,092 71,544 13.3 17.0
91 Washington Total 2,063 1,884,093 456,909 538,301 24.3 28.6
91 Washington Private 1,635 1,496,002 283,992 329,088 19.0 22.0
91 Washington Public 428 388,091 172,917 209,213 44.6 53.9
91 Washington Priv. Construction 95 85,152 23,217 25,779 27.3 30.3
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 366 335,935 117,304 134,645 34.9 40.1
55 West Virginia Total 1,767 596,999 120,643 136,876 20.2 22.9
55 West Virginia Private 1,384 468,068 94,885 99,307 20.3 21.2
55 West Virginia Public 383 128,931 25,758 37,569 20.0 29.1
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 85 29,084 5,371 5,371 18.5 18.5
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 308 103,222 40,477 42,793 39.2 41.5
35 Wisconsin Total 2,717 2,151,685 467,781 488,690 21.7 22.7
35 Wisconsin Private 2,287 1,815,250 303,683 308,598 16.7 17.0
35 Wisconsin Public 430 336,434 164,098 180,092 48.8 53.5
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 111 87,473 34,685 34,685 39.7 39.7
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 748 596,799 187,380 188,909 31.4 31.7
83 Wyoming Total 1,440 179,209 23,672 29,364 13.2 16.4
83 Wyoming Private 1,037 129,083 13,609 15,680 10.5 12.1
83 Wyoming Public 403 50,126 10,063 13,684 20.1 27.3
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 74 9,880 645 645 6.5 6.5
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 60 7,929 278 557 3.5 7.0
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1988. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.