Union Membership, Coverage, Density and Employment by State, 1989 (details in table note)
State
Code State Sector Obs Employment Members Covered %Mem %Cov
63 Alabama Total 2,148 1,604,535 221,476 252,547 13.8 15.7
63 Alabama Private 1,766 1,315,985 151,552 162,881 11.5 12.4
63 Alabama Public 382 288,550 69,924 89,666 24.2 31.1
63 Alabama Priv. Construction 115 86,773 7,656 8,306 8.8 9.6
63 Alabama Priv. Manufacturing 556 414,318 94,190 98,003 22.7 23.7
94 Alaska Total 2,592 187,941 42,927 46,923 22.8 25.0
94 Alaska Private 1,785 128,213 16,847 18,221 13.1 14.2
94 Alaska Public 807 59,728 26,080 28,701 43.7 48.1
94 Alaska Priv. Construction 114 8,191 2,758 2,758 33.7 33.7
94 Alaska Priv. Manufacturing 108 7,588 897 1,165 11.8 15.4
86 Arizona Total 1,853 1,386,947 101,230 121,685 7.3 8.8
86 Arizona Private 1,525 1,137,777 54,849 63,655 4.8 5.6
86 Arizona Public 328 249,171 46,380 58,029 18.6 23.3
86 Arizona Priv. Construction 108 83,476 7,241 7,241 8.7 8.7
86 Arizona Priv. Manufacturing 273 198,556 13,710 14,266 6.9 7.2
71 Arkansas Total 2,101 907,815 88,016 109,601 9.7 12.1
71 Arkansas Private 1,749 757,620 61,603 74,954 8.1 9.9
71 Arkansas Public 352 150,195 26,412 34,647 17.6 23.1
71 Arkansas Priv. Construction 84 36,625 2,750 3,137 7.5 8.6
71 Arkansas Priv. Manufacturing 533 229,977 38,249 45,577 16.6 19.8
93 California Total 10,362 11,825,950 2,238,878 2,584,284 18.9 21.9
93 California Private 8,644 9,913,212 1,319,841 1,479,209 13.3 14.9
93 California Public 1,718 1,912,738 919,038 1,105,075 48.0 57.8
93 California Priv. Construction 591 710,155 183,908 193,178 25.9 27.2
93 California Priv. Manufacturing 1,950 2,238,972 406,812 446,083 18.2 19.9
84 Colorado Total 1,961 1,394,835 129,200 157,834 9.3 11.3
84 Colorado Private 1,611 1,149,325 74,591 85,141 6.5 7.4
84 Colorado Public 350 245,510 54,609 72,694 22.2 29.6
84 Colorado Priv. Construction 78 55,730 7,899 7,899 14.2 14.2
84 Colorado Priv. Manufacturing 285 202,190 11,254 12,017 5.6 5.9
16 Connecticut Total 1,904 1,533,038 284,032 297,050 18.5 19.4
16 Connecticut Private 1,664 1,341,789 162,928 172,831 12.1 12.9
16 Connecticut Public 240 191,248 121,104 124,219 63.3 65.0
16 Connecticut Priv. Construction 108 84,492 19,675 20,969 23.3 24.8
16 Connecticut Priv. Manufacturing 467 371,424 66,185 67,977 17.8 18.3
51 Delaware Total 2,014 321,182 50,678 55,398 15.8 17.2
51 Delaware Private 1,720 274,105 33,260 35,566 12.1 13.0
51 Delaware Public 294 47,078 17,419 19,831 37.0 42.1
51 Delaware Priv. Construction 114 18,242 3,773 3,877 20.7 21.3
51 Delaware Priv. Manufacturing 463 74,301 18,741 19,929 25.2 26.8
53 D.C. Total 1,749 286,816 42,834 54,315 14.9 18.9
53 D.C. Private 1,152 190,323 21,500 26,543 11.3 13.9
53 D.C. Public 597 96,493 21,334 27,771 22.1 28.8
53 D.C. Priv. Construction 60 11,226 3,861 4,488 34.4 40.0
53 D.C. Priv. Manufacturing 58 9,420 950 1,419 10.1 15.1
59 Florida Total 8,356 5,124,597 369,632 508,922 7.2 9.9
59 Florida Private 7,005 4,308,528 154,504 209,181 3.6 4.9
59 Florida Public 1,351 816,069 215,128 299,741 26.4 36.7
59 Florida Priv. Construction 565 349,312 16,704 18,502 4.8 5.3
59 Florida Priv. Manufacturing 1,012 637,697 35,299 49,032 5.5 7.7
58 Georgia Total 2,211 2,784,456 247,668 286,025 8.9 10.3
58 Georgia Private 1,851 2,332,950 180,337 195,816 7.7 8.4
58 Georgia Public 360 451,507 67,331 90,209 14.9 20.0
58 Georgia Priv. Construction 136 168,199 20,169 21,729 12.0 12.9
58 Georgia Priv. Manufacturing 487 604,494 71,432 72,326 11.8 12.0
95 Hawaii Total 1,851 442,094 132,310 137,631 29.9 31.1
95 Hawaii Private 1,426 338,797 72,274 75,162 21.3 22.2
95 Hawaii Public 425 103,297 60,036 62,470 58.1 60.5
95 Hawaii Priv. Construction 114 27,194 11,760 12,226 43.2 45.0
95 Hawaii Priv. Manufacturing 90 21,691 6,680 6,680 30.8 30.8
82 Idaho Total 2,131 377,053 36,738 42,245 9.7 11.2
82 Idaho Private 1,741 309,557 25,129 28,563 8.1 9.2
82 Idaho Public 390 67,495 11,610 13,682 17.2 20.3
82 Idaho Priv. Construction 86 15,076 645 773 4.3 5.1
82 Idaho Priv. Manufacturing 370 66,746 13,616 13,905 20.4 20.8
33 Illinois Total 7,880 5,015,298 1,045,189 1,144,892 20.8 22.8
33 Illinois Private 6,687 4,262,299 711,526 765,004 16.7 17.9
33 Illinois Public 1,193 752,999 333,663 379,889 44.3 50.5
33 Illinois Priv. Construction 331 214,336 107,212 109,855 50.0 51.3
33 Illinois Priv. Manufacturing 1,714 1,097,490 283,132 298,804 25.8 27.2
32 Indiana Total 2,317 2,475,860 519,659 560,323 21.0 22.6
32 Indiana Private 1,986 2,146,755 441,574 457,666 20.6 21.3
32 Indiana Public 331 329,104 78,085 102,657 23.7 31.2
32 Indiana Priv. Construction 100 107,576 38,372 40,327 35.7 37.5
32 Indiana Priv. Manufacturing 682 700,917 288,662 291,919 41.2 41.6
42 Iowa Total 2,318 1,198,498 181,828 227,852 15.2 19.0
42 Iowa Private 1,865 962,963 114,564 133,490 11.9 13.9
42 Iowa Public 453 235,535 67,264 94,362 28.6 40.1
42 Iowa Priv. Construction 72 37,028 8,385 8,936 22.6 24.1
42 Iowa Priv. Manufacturing 468 244,865 76,817 86,945 31.4 35.5
47 Kansas Total 2,301 1,038,392 127,128 151,136 12.2 14.6
47 Kansas Private 1,865 841,897 87,573 98,910 10.4 11.7
47 Kansas Public 436 196,495 39,555 52,226 20.1 26.6
47 Kansas Priv. Construction 82 39,073 7,117 7,618 18.2 19.5
47 Kansas Priv. Manufacturing 441 198,801 43,872 49,334 22.1 24.8
61 Kentucky Total 1,956 1,423,292 210,231 234,951 14.8 16.5
61 Kentucky Private 1,641 1,195,577 158,751 169,886 13.3 14.2
61 Kentucky Public 315 227,715 51,480 65,065 22.6 28.6
61 Kentucky Priv. Construction 110 80,289 19,107 19,107 23.8 23.8
61 Kentucky Priv. Manufacturing 405 295,973 86,893 91,486 29.4 30.9
72 Louisiana Total 1,647 1,523,234 122,946 158,479 8.1 10.4
72 Louisiana Private 1,321 1,218,188 73,522 87,269 6.0 7.2
72 Louisiana Public 326 305,045 49,424 71,209 16.2 23.3
72 Louisiana Priv. Construction 122 117,130 12,328 14,075 10.5 12.0
72 Louisiana Priv. Manufacturing 175 161,937 31,129 33,836 19.2 20.9
11 Maine Total 1,981 506,462 76,786 86,893 15.2 17.2
11 Maine Private 1,641 419,903 35,715 39,583 8.5 9.4
11 Maine Public 340 86,559 41,071 47,310 47.4 54.7
11 Maine Priv. Construction 119 30,998 1,532 1,532 4.9 4.9
11 Maine Priv. Manufacturing 411 105,143 20,689 21,953 19.7 20.9
52 Maryland Total 2,076 2,230,894 357,601 417,142 16.0 18.7
52 Maryland Private 1,556 1,662,608 172,951 191,814 10.4 11.5
52 Maryland Public 520 568,286 184,649 225,328 32.5 39.7
52 Maryland Priv. Construction 144 165,738 28,424 29,259 17.1 17.7
52 Maryland Priv. Manufacturing 234 240,776 46,397 49,771 19.3 20.7
14 Massachusetts Total 7,739 2,725,349 477,662 513,095 17.5 18.8
14 Massachusetts Private 6,641 2,341,224 249,568 270,398 10.7 11.5
14 Massachusetts Public 1,098 384,126 228,094 242,697 59.4 63.2
14 Massachusetts Priv. Construction 329 115,574 28,000 28,383 24.2 24.6
14 Massachusetts Priv. Manufacturing 1,682 594,708 95,114 100,980 16.0 17.0
34 Michigan Total 7,588 3,896,321 1,012,804 1,082,041 26.0 27.8
34 Michigan Private 6,415 3,301,743 667,577 707,436 20.2 21.4
34 Michigan Public 1,173 594,578 345,227 374,605 58.1 63.0
34 Michigan Priv. Construction 276 144,332 41,681 44,301 28.9 30.7
34 Michigan Priv. Manufacturing 2,084 1,079,175 415,529 435,518 38.5 40.4
41 Minnesota Total 2,164 1,943,512 386,138 416,058 19.9 21.4
41 Minnesota Private 1,825 1,645,836 235,680 251,485 14.3 15.3
41 Minnesota Public 339 297,675 150,458 164,573 50.5 55.3
41 Minnesota Priv. Construction 89 81,620 35,909 36,839 44.0 45.1
41 Minnesota Priv. Manufacturing 405 366,808 75,326 78,707 20.5 21.5
64 Mississippi Total 2,138 938,097 73,557 86,621 7.8 9.2
64 Mississippi Private 1,717 759,249 52,823 58,864 7.0 7.8
64 Mississippi Public 421 178,848 20,734 27,757 11.6 15.5
64 Mississippi Priv. Construction 92 40,319 3,654 3,654 9.1 9.1
64 Mississippi Priv. Manufacturing 524 232,679 30,975 34,384 13.3 14.8
43 Missouri Total 2,068 2,188,511 338,486 384,795 15.5 17.6
43 Missouri Private 1,756 1,867,608 261,544 277,154 14.0 14.8
43 Missouri Public 312 320,903 76,942 107,641 24.0 33.5
43 Missouri Priv. Construction 87 95,137 33,802 35,181 35.5 37.0
43 Missouri Priv. Manufacturing 413 433,665 109,230 118,937 25.2 27.4
81 Montana Total 2,142 295,456 52,467 59,832 17.8 20.3
81 Montana Private 1,590 219,279 26,981 29,020 12.3 13.2
81 Montana Public 552 76,176 25,486 30,811 33.5 40.4
81 Montana Priv. Construction 77 10,610 3,596 3,596 33.9 33.9
81 Montana Priv. Manufacturing 156 22,014 6,016 6,016 27.3 27.3
46 Nebraska Total 2,250 651,375 77,873 107,216 12.0 16.5
46 Nebraska Private 1,859 537,990 40,494 57,491 7.5 10.7
46 Nebraska Public 391 113,384 37,379 49,725 33.0 43.9
46 Nebraska Priv. Construction 73 21,279 3,455 3,455 16.2 16.2
46 Nebraska Priv. Manufacturing 344 99,755 18,647 25,962 18.7 26.0
88 Nevada Total 2,050 515,954 93,786 107,216 18.2 20.8
88 Nevada Private 1,772 448,212 66,656 74,415 14.9 16.6
88 Nevada Public 278 67,742 27,129 32,801 40.0 48.4
88 Nevada Priv. Construction 147 37,253 8,313 8,313 22.3 22.3
88 Nevada Priv. Manufacturing 139 35,414 2,608 2,798 7.4 7.9
12 New Hampshire Total 1,783 508,894 58,890 67,628 11.6 13.3
12 New Hampshire Private 1,550 444,713 31,996 36,171 7.2 8.1
12 New Hampshire Public 233 64,181 26,895 31,456 41.9 49.0
12 New Hampshire Priv. Construction 101 29,771 3,756 3,756 12.6 12.6
12 New Hampshire Priv. Manufacturing 505 144,168 13,052 14,376 9.1 10.0
22 New Jersey Total 7,719 3,443,473 796,567 860,654 23.1 25.0
22 New Jersey Private 6,482 2,896,781 489,716 520,847 16.9 18.0
22 New Jersey Public 1,237 546,692 306,851 339,807 56.1 62.2
22 New Jersey Priv. Construction 348 156,084 54,537 56,966 34.9 36.5
22 New Jersey Priv. Manufacturing 1,548 698,337 159,134 168,171 22.8 24.1
85 New Mexico Total 1,975 547,982 42,662 51,310 7.8 9.4
85 New Mexico Private 1,467 408,222 29,333 31,643 7.2 7.8
85 New Mexico Public 508 139,760 13,329 19,667 9.5 14.1
85 New Mexico Priv. Construction 89 25,154 2,746 2,746 10.9 10.9
85 New Mexico Priv. Manufacturing 192 53,519 3,050 3,318 5.7 6.2
21 New York Total 9,595 7,322,009 2,041,608 2,185,309 27.9 29.8
21 New York Private 7,735 5,916,731 1,113,136 1,195,520 18.8 20.2
21 New York Public 1,860 1,405,279 928,472 989,788 66.1 70.4
21 New York Priv. Construction 453 357,139 142,213 142,718 39.8 40.0
21 New York Priv. Manufacturing 1,634 1,219,973 311,615 322,055 25.5 26.4
56 North Carolina Total 8,314 2,979,744 164,155 202,327 5.5 6.8
56 North Carolina Private 6,983 2,508,073 94,862 112,828 3.8 4.5
56 North Carolina Public 1,331 471,670 69,293 89,500 14.7 19.0
56 North Carolina Priv. Construction 465 168,301 1,504 1,909 0.9 1.1
56 North Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 2,486 892,576 57,684 67,019 6.5 7.5
44 North Dakota Total 2,337 248,833 27,805 35,868 11.2 14.4
44 North Dakota Private 1,755 187,454 11,662 14,782 6.2 7.9
44 North Dakota Public 582 61,379 16,143 21,086 26.3 34.4
44 North Dakota Priv. Construction 111 12,053 2,470 2,554 20.5 21.2
44 North Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 137 14,456 2,935 3,311 20.3 22.9
31 Ohio Total 8,285 4,641,439 987,117 1,066,268 21.3 23.0
31 Ohio Private 7,048 3,953,006 690,099 723,085 17.5 18.3
31 Ohio Public 1,237 688,433 297,018 343,184 43.1 49.8
31 Ohio Priv. Construction 329 186,157 55,988 58,323 30.1 31.3
31 Ohio Priv. Manufacturing 2,145 1,204,589 416,777 430,163 34.6 35.7
73 Oklahoma Total 1,997 1,221,100 122,958 148,172 10.1 12.1
73 Oklahoma Private 1,567 965,051 68,916 73,869 7.1 7.7
73 Oklahoma Public 430 256,048 54,042 74,303 21.1 29.0
73 Oklahoma Priv. Construction 65 40,948 3,380 4,117 8.3 10.1
73 Oklahoma Priv. Manufacturing 328 198,226 37,681 39,137 19.0 19.7
92 Oregon Total 1,840 1,150,619 248,028 281,801 21.6 24.5
92 Oregon Private 1,511 946,228 150,086 164,694 15.9 17.4
92 Oregon Public 329 204,391 97,942 117,107 47.9 57.3
92 Oregon Priv. Construction 65 42,110 12,683 13,418 30.1 31.9
92 Oregon Priv. Manufacturing 369 229,370 52,834 55,195 23.0 24.1
23 Pennsylvania Total 7,964 5,085,429 1,062,548 1,188,156 20.9 23.4
23 Pennsylvania Private 6,907 4,408,080 721,522 793,850 16.4 18.0
23 Pennsylvania Public 1,057 677,348 341,026 394,306 50.3 58.2
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Construction 423 273,819 65,924 71,029 24.1 25.9
23 Pennsylvania Priv. Manufacturing 1,816 1,157,798 355,308 375,559 30.7 32.4
15 Rhode Island Total 1,859 457,303 85,317 88,881 18.7 19.4
15 Rhode Island Private 1,603 395,391 43,103 46,437 10.9 11.7
15 Rhode Island Public 256 61,911 42,213 42,445 68.2 68.6
15 Rhode Island Priv. Construction 68 17,023 4,595 5,091 27.0 29.9
15 Rhode Island Priv. Manufacturing 474 117,325 16,169 16,649 13.8 14.2
57 South Carolina Total 2,575 1,446,473 56,359 78,188 3.9 5.4
57 South Carolina Private 2,133 1,198,964 38,410 46,720 3.2 3.9
57 South Carolina Public 442 247,509 17,949 31,468 7.3 12.7
57 South Carolina Priv. Construction 154 88,269 2,267 2,816 2.6 3.2
57 South Carolina Priv. Manufacturing 763 432,146 24,541 29,446 5.7 6.8
45 South Dakota Total 2,469 269,088 21,784 33,864 8.1 12.6
45 South Dakota Private 1,928 209,847 8,051 12,522 3.8 6.0
45 South Dakota Public 541 59,241 13,733 21,343 23.2 36.0
45 South Dakota Priv. Construction 83 9,479 237 237 2.5 2.5
45 South Dakota Priv. Manufacturing 286 31,507 2,600 4,215 8.3 13.4
62 Tennessee Total 2,186 2,019,638 236,090 288,464 11.7 14.3
62 Tennessee Private 1,868 1,727,253 179,803 206,416 10.4 12.0
62 Tennessee Public 318 292,385 56,287 82,048 19.3 28.1
62 Tennessee Priv. Construction 113 105,687 14,364 17,718 13.6 16.8
62 Tennessee Priv. Manufacturing 612 562,273 97,696 111,100 17.4 19.8
74 Texas Total 8,610 6,825,507 468,255 626,816 6.9 9.2
74 Texas Private 7,039 5,611,601 269,978 345,280 4.8 6.2
74 Texas Public 1,571 1,213,906 198,278 281,536 16.3 23.2
74 Texas Priv. Construction 476 382,633 27,929 31,062 7.3 8.1
74 Texas Priv. Manufacturing 1,343 1,092,633 99,893 131,087 9.1 12.0
87 Utah Total 2,115 651,939 70,936 91,502 10.9 14.0
87 Utah Private 1,648 509,354 31,644 39,258 6.2 7.7
87 Utah Public 467 142,585 39,292 52,244 27.6 36.6
87 Utah Priv. Construction 68 21,618 3,263 3,263 15.1 15.1
87 Utah Priv. Manufacturing 355 110,692 7,671 9,873 6.9 8.9
13 Vermont Total 1,694 244,585 29,084 37,266 11.9 15.2
13 Vermont Private 1,408 204,396 12,452 16,059 6.1 7.9
13 Vermont Public 286 40,189 16,632 21,207 41.4 52.8
13 Vermont Priv. Construction 124 18,312 531 803 2.9 4.4
13 Vermont Priv. Manufacturing 354 51,571 7,028 7,877 13.6 15.3
54 Virginia Total 2,947 2,719,929 246,988 305,625 9.1 11.2
54 Virginia Private 2,291 2,116,864 147,391 169,489 7.0 8.0
54 Virginia Public 656 603,065 99,597 136,136 16.5 22.6
54 Virginia Priv. Construction 180 165,674 15,633 19,747 9.4 11.9
54 Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 464 427,479 54,847 60,074 12.8 14.1
91 Washington Total 2,131 1,955,418 450,726 518,568 23.1 26.5
91 Washington Private 1,706 1,569,441 278,777 320,254 17.8 20.4
91 Washington Public 425 385,977 171,949 198,315 44.5 51.4
91 Washington Priv. Construction 90 82,726 19,191 21,500 23.2 26.0
91 Washington Priv. Manufacturing 392 362,994 124,157 138,252 34.2 38.1
55 West Virginia Total 1,889 638,359 124,756 135,500 19.5 21.2
55 West Virginia Private 1,547 523,738 96,589 100,111 18.4 19.1
55 West Virginia Public 342 114,622 28,167 35,388 24.6 30.9
55 West Virginia Priv. Construction 105 36,790 4,703 4,703 12.8 12.8
55 West Virginia Priv. Manufacturing 343 114,729 45,209 45,945 39.4 40.0
35 Wisconsin Total 2,786 2,182,721 455,601 484,064 20.9 22.2
35 Wisconsin Private 2,333 1,830,082 289,792 300,890 15.8 16.4
35 Wisconsin Public 453 352,639 165,810 183,174 47.0 51.9
35 Wisconsin Priv. Construction 126 101,068 35,925 37,442 35.5 37.0
35 Wisconsin Priv. Manufacturing 731 578,514 167,438 169,095 28.9 29.2
83 Wyoming Total 1,493 175,383 22,457 28,331 12.8 16.2
83 Wyoming Private 1,087 128,069 12,198 14,784 9.5 11.5
83 Wyoming Public 406 47,314 10,259 13,547 21.7 28.6
83 Wyoming Priv. Construction 70 8,389 1,256 1,369 15.0 16.3
83 Wyoming Priv. Manufacturing 70 8,009 952 1,288 11.9 16.1
                   
Data Sources: Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group (ORG) Earnings Files, 1989. Sample includes
employed wage and salary workers, ages 16 and over. Variable definitions are: State Code=Census state code used
in CPS, Obs=CPS sample size, Employment=wage and salary employment, Members=employed workers who are union
members, Covered=workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement, %Mem=percent of employed workers who
are union members, and %Cov=percent of employed workers who are covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
2002 by Barry T. Hirsch and David A. Macpherson. The use of data requires citation.